Hama

What is Hama known for?


title sound

with an elevated treasury. See also Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة


water work

Adam last Lucas year 2006 title Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology publisher Brill Publishers isbn 90-04-14649-0 page 26 Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi's ''Kitab al-Hawi'' in the 10th century described a noria in Iraq that could lift as much as 153,000 litres per hour, or 2550 litres per minute. This is comparable to the output of modern Norias in East Asia which can lift up to 288,000 litres per hour, or 4800 litres per minute. Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة


brilliant military

of Jerusalem marched north with Philip, Raymond III, and Bohemond III to attack Hama, and Saladin took the opportunity to invade the kingdom. Baldwin proved to be an effective and energetic king as well as being a brilliant military commander: he defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard in September 1177 despite being greatly outnumbered and having to rely on a levee-en-masse. Although Baldwin's presence despite his illness was inspirational, direct military decisions were actually


speed service

staying at the Cairo Hotel. She has still not been found.'' Splurge Connect Several internet cafes have sprung up around Hama and the going rate for high-speed service is 50–75 SP an hour. Space Net on Abual-Feda is near the Al-Nouri mosque while Happy Net is just one option near the Cairo and Riad hotels. Both hotels also offers internet access to its guests on a computer in the lobby. The cost is the same as the internet cafes (Riad: 100 SYP per hour or 100 SYP per day for wifi


early member

the mandate era. He studied at the Military Academy of Damascus (which later was relocated to Homs) and became an early member of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) of Antun Saadeh, promoting the concept of a Greater Syria. His brother Salah was also a prominent member of the SSNP. After independence, Shishakli fought in a volunteer Arab army, known as the Army of Deliverance, against the Zionist (Zionism) militias in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. DATE OF BIRTH 1909 PLACE OF BIRTH Hama, Syria DATE OF DEATH September 27, 1964 Amassing of forces Al-Ashraf Khalil assembled the forces of Egypt and Syria, which included a great number of volunteers Abu al-Fida,p.278 vol.13. According to Ibn Taghri most of Khalil's troops were volunteers. Ibn Taghri, p.5 vol. 8 and siege engines from everywhere at Hisn al-Akrad (Krak des Chevaliers). Some of Khalil's catapults were huge and had such names as "Al Mansuri" and "The Furious" in addition to lighter, but potent, mangonels called "Black Bulls". Asili, p. 110. Templar of Tyre, p.105 Al-Mansuri (The victorious; Arabic: المنصورى) might refer to Khalil himself as he was Khalil Al-Mansuri, The Furious (Arabic: Al-Ghadibah الغاضبة), Black Bulls (Arabic: Al-Thiran Al-Sawda'a الثيران السوداء) Four armies from Damascus (led by Lajin), Hama (led by al-Muzaffar Taqai ad-Din), Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon) (led by Bilban) and Al Kark (led by Baibars al-Dewadar) marched to Acre to join the Egyptian army of Khalil. There are no reliable figures for the Muslim army, according to some sources it consisted of 60 000 cavalry and 160 000 infantry. Though the numbers seem exaggerated, the army of the Muslim was probably larger than that of the Crusaders. Asili, p.111 Michaud, ''ibid'', pp. 75–76, gives account of 7 emirs leaving in ''Kalouan's'' (ie Sultan Qalawun) stead as he was ill; he reports that each emir had 4,000 horse and 20,000 foot at his command – giving about 160,000 men. * 1171 - Pont d'Avignon begun. * 1172 - Nur Al-Din Mosque completed in Hama, Syria. * 1172 - Newcastle Castle rebuilt in stone. '''Salamiyah '''( Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة


traditional show

to the Syrian Conflict . PBS. Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة


leading religious

surrounding Hama and Homs. The other two prominent families were the Jarrars from Balqa (Balqa Governorate) and the Touqans from northern Syria. Eventually gaining the role of ''nahiya'' chiefs, they began intermarrying with local merchant and leading religious families. Thus, these new families were integrated into Nablus' population. Under an arrangement in 1723, the Touqans and the Nimrs shared and trade leadership of Nablus, and the Jarrars became the chiefs of the ''nahiya


largest family

to pacify Nablus. In return for their services, the families were granted agricultural lands around the villages of Jabal Nablus. The Ottomans, fearing that the new Arab land holders would establish independent bases of power, dispersed the land plots to separate and distant locations within Jabal Nablus to avoid clusters of clans. The 1657 campaign succeeded and the Syrian Arab families began to have a foothold in Nablus' affairs. The largest family were the Nimrs, who originated from villages surrounding Hama and Homs. The other two prominent families were the Jarrars from Balqa (Balqa Governorate) and the Touqans from northern Syria. Eventually gaining the role of ''nahiya'' chiefs, they began intermarrying with local merchant and leading religious families. Thus, these new families were integrated into Nablus' population. Under an arrangement in 1723, the Touqans and the Nimrs shared and trade leadership of Nablus, and the Jarrars became the chiefs of the ''nahiya'' of Jabal Nablus. thumb Tripoli gold bezant (File:Tripoli gold bezant in Arabic 1270 1300 Tripoli silver gros 1275 1287.jpg) in Arabic (Arabic language) (1270-1300), and Tripoli silver gros (Gros (coinage)) (1275-1287). British Museum. During the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) period, Tripoli became the provincial capital and chief town of an Ottoman pashalik (or eyalet) encompassing the coastal territory from Jubayl to Tarsus (Tarsus (city)) and the inland Syrian towns of Homs and Hama; the two other eyalets were Aleppo Eyalet, and Şam Eyalet. Until 1612, Tripoli was considered as the port of Aleppo. It also depended on Syrian interior trade and tax collection from mountainous hinterland. Tripoli witnessed a strong presence of French (France) merchants during the 17th and 18th centuries and became under intense inter-European competition for trade. Tripoli was reduced to a sanjak centre in Beyrut (Beirut) Province in 19th century and retained her status until 1918, when was captured by British forces. Evagrius Scholasticus was born in Epiphania (Hama), a Syrian town located next to the Orontes River in the heart of the Eastern Roman Empire. Controversy exists as to the date on which Evagrius was born, since historian G. F. Chesnut asserts that he was born in either 536 or 537, yet the researcher Whitby claims that he was born in 535. Chesnut, p. 215 His first written work addressed the plague outbreak which infected a vast segment of the population. Evagrius himself was infected by the outbreak yet miraculously managed to survive this disaster during his youth. According to his own account, close members of his family died from the outbreak, including his wife at the time. Ecclesiastical History Preface, pgs. vii-viii Michael Whitby reasons that Evagrius was born into a wealthy aristocratic family with close ties to the political elite. *Metropolis (Metropolis (religious jurisdiction)) of Emesa (Homs): George Abu Zaham (1999–present) *Metropolis (Metropolis (religious jurisdiction)) of Epiphania (Hama) (Hama) and Exarchate of North Syria: Elias Saliba (1984–present) *Metropolis (Metropolis (religious jurisdiction)) of Laodicea (Latakia) and Exarchate of Theodorias (Theodorias (province)): John Mansur (1979–present) The main contemporary sources relating to Krak des Chevaliers were written by Muslims. They tend to emphasise Muslim success and overlook setbacks against the Crusaders, but they suggest that the Knights Hospitaller forced the settlements of Hama and Homs to pay tribute to the order. This situation lasted as long as Saladin's successors warred between themselves. The proximity of Krak des Chevaliers to Muslim territories allowed it to take on an offensive role, acting as a base from which neighbouring areas could be attacked. By 1203 the garrison were making raids on Montferrand (which was under Muslim control) and Hama, and in 1207 and 1208 the castle's soldiers took part in an attack on Homs. Krak des Chevaliers acted as a base for expeditions to Hama in 1230 and 1233 after the amir (emir) refused to pay tribute. The former was unsuccessful, but the 1233 expedition was a show of force that demonstrated the importance of Krak des Chevaliers. Syria Traditionally Alawis have lived in the Alawite Mountains along the Mediterranean coast of Syria. Latakia and Tartous are the region's principal cities. Today Alawis are also concentrated in the plains around Hama and Homs. Alawis also live in all major cities of Syria. They have been estimated to constitute about 11-12% of Syria's population http: www.chinapost.com.tw commentary afp 2012 02 20 332152 Turbulent-history.htmhttp: www.reuters.com article 2012 02 02 us-syria-alawites-sect-idUSTRE8110Q720120202 http: www.independent.co.uk news world middle-east syrians-flee-their-homes-amid-fears-of-ethnic-cleansing-7079802.html - 2.1 million people. http: www.minorityrights.org 5266 syria syria-overview.html As a child, Usama was raised by his nurse, Lu'lu'a, who had also raised his father and would later raise Usama's own children. Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', p. 17. He was encouraged by his father to memorize the Qur'an (Hafiz (Qur'an)), and was also tutored by scholars such as Ibn Munira of Kafartab and Abu Abdullah al-Tulaytuli of Toledo (Toledo, Spain). He spent much of his youth hunting (medieval hunting) with his family, partly as recreation and certainly as warrior (faris) training for battle as part of furusiyya. He also had much direct experience of battle, against the neighbouring crusader County of Tripoli and Principality of Antioch, hostile Muslim neighbours in Hama, Homs, and elsewhere, and Hashshashin who had established a base near Shaizar. Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', pp. 5-14. Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة


dark years

of Jund Qinnasrin during Abbasid rule. le Strange, 1890, p.39. Although the city's history is obscure at this time period, it is known that Hama was a walled market town with a ring of outlying cities. It came under the control of the Hamdanid rulers of Aleppo in the 10th century and was consequently drawn into the orbit of that city where it remained until the 12th century. These were considered the "dark years" of Hama as the local rulers of northern and southern Syria struggled for dominance in the region. The Byzantines under emperor Nicephorus Phocas (Nikephoros II Phokas) raided the town in 968 and burned the Great Mosque. By the 11th century, the Fatimids gained suzerainty over northern Syria and during this period, the Mirdasids sacked Hama. Persian (Persian people) geographer Nasir Khusraw noted in 1047 that Hama was "well populated" and stood on the banks of the Orontes River. le Strange, 1890, p.357. Tancred, Prince of Galilee, took it in 1108, but in 1114 the Crusaders lost it definitively to the Seljuk (Great Seljuq Empire)s. In 1157 an earthquake (1157 Hama earthquake) shattered the city. Robinson 1908:9. For the next sixty years, Hama was battled for by competing rulers. Nur al-Din (Nur ad-Din Zangi), the Zengid sultan, erected a mosque (Nur al-Din Mosque) with a tall, square minaret in the city in 1172. Nur al-Din Mosque. Archnet Digital Library. In 1175, Hama was taken from the Zengids by Saladin. He granted the city to his nephew, al-Muzaffar Umar, four years later, putting it under the rule of his Ayyubid family. This ushered in an era of stability and prosperity in Hama as the Ayyubids ruled it almost continuously until 1342. Geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi, who was born in Hama, described it in 1225 as a large town surrounded by a strongly built wall. le Strange, 1890, p.359. Hama was sacked by the Mongols (Mongol invasion of Syria) in 1260, as were most other Syrian cities, but the Mongols were defeated that same year and then again in 1303 by the Mamluks who succeeded the Ayyubids as rulers of the region. Ring, 1996, p.317. Hama briefly passed to Mamluk control in 1299 after the death of governor al-Mansur Mahmoud II. However, unlike other former Ayyubid cities, the Mamluks reinstated Ayyubid rule in Hama by making Abu al-Fida, the historian and geographer, governor of the city and he reigned from 1310 to 1332. He described his city as "very ancient... mentioned in the book of the Israelites. It is one of the pleasantest places in Syria." After his death, he was succeeded by his son al-Afdal Muhammad who eventually lost Mamluk favor and was deposed. Thus, Hama came under direct Mamluk control. Hama grew prosperous during the Ayyubid period, as well as the Mamluk period. It gradually expanded to both banks of the Orontes River, with the suburb on the right bank being connected to the town proper by a newly built bridge. The town on the left bank was divided into upper and lower parts, each of which was surrounded by a wall. The city was filled with palaces, markets, mosques, ''madrasas'', and a hospital, and over thirty different sized norias (water-wheels). In addition, there stood a massive citadel in Hama. Moreover, a special aqueduct brought drinking water to Hama from the neighboring town of Salamiyah. Ibn Battuta visited Hama in 1335 and remarked that the Orontes River made the city "pleasant to live in, with its many gardens full of trees and fruits." He also speaks of a large suburb called al-Mansuriyyah (named after an Ayyubid emir) that contained "a fine market, a mosque, and bathes." le Strange, 1890, p.360. In 1400, Timurlane conquered Hama, along with nearby Homs and Baalbek. le Strange, 1890, p.xxiii. Ottoman rule thumb right The Azm Palace (Hama) Azem Palace (File:AlAzamPalace at Hama1.JPG) in Hama was built in 1742 The prosperous period of Mamluk rule came to an end in 1516, when the Ottoman Turks (Ottoman Empire) conquered Syria from the Mamluks after defeating them at the Battle of Marj Dabiq near Aleppo. Hama, and the rest of Syria, came under Ottoman rule from Constantinople. Ring, 1996, p.318. Under the Ottomans, Hama gradually became more important in the administrative structure of the region. It was first made capital of one of the ''liwa (Liwa (Arabic))s'' ("districts") of the ''vilayet'' ("province") of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon). Hama once again became an important center for trade routes running east from the Mediterranean coast into Asia. A number of ''khans'' ("caravansaries"s) were built in the city, like Khan Rustum Pasha which dates from 1556. Syria was later divided into three governorships and Hama was ruled by the governorship based at Aleppo. Then in the 18th century, it became a part of the holdings of the governor of Damascus. The governors of Damascus at this time were the Azems, who also ruled other parts of Syria, for the Ottomans. They erected sumptuous residences in Hama, including the Azem Palace (Azm Palace (Hama)) and Khan As'ad Pasha which were built by As'ad Pasha al-Azem (As'ad Pasha al-Azm), who governed Hama for a number of years until 1742. By then, there were 14 caravansaries in the city, mostly used for the storage and distribution of seeds, cotton, wool, and other commodities. Reilly, 2002, p.72. After the passing of the Vilayet Law in 1864, Hama became the capital of the Sanjak of Hama (gaining the city more administrative powers), part of the larger vilayet of Sham. Colonial rule and independence Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة


role acting

by Muslims. They tend to emphasise Muslim success and overlook setbacks against the Crusaders, but they suggest that the Knights Hospitaller forced the settlements of Hama and Homs to pay tribute to the order. This situation lasted as long as Saladin's successors warred between themselves. The proximity of Krak des Chevaliers to Muslim territories allowed it to take on an offensive role, acting as a base from which neighbouring areas could be attacked. By 1203 the garrison were making raids on Montferrand (which was under Muslim control) and Hama, and in 1207 and 1208 the castle's soldiers took part in an attack on Homs. Krak des Chevaliers acted as a base for expeditions to Hama in 1230 and 1233 after the amir (emir) refused to pay tribute. The former was unsuccessful, but the 1233 expedition was a show of force that demonstrated the importance of Krak des Chevaliers. Syria Traditionally Alawis have lived in the Alawite Mountains along the Mediterranean coast of Syria. Latakia and Tartous are the region's principal cities. Today Alawis are also concentrated in the plains around Hama and Homs. Alawis also live in all major cities of Syria. They have been estimated to constitute about 11-12% of Syria's population http: www.chinapost.com.tw commentary afp 2012 02 20 332152 Turbulent-history.htmhttp: www.reuters.com article 2012 02 02 us-syria-alawites-sect-idUSTRE8110Q720120202 http: www.independent.co.uk news world middle-east syrians-flee-their-homes-amid-fears-of-ethnic-cleansing-7079802.html - 2.1 million people. http: www.minorityrights.org 5266 syria syria-overview.html As a child, Usama was raised by his nurse, Lu'lu'a, who had also raised his father and would later raise Usama's own children. Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', p. 17. He was encouraged by his father to memorize the Qur'an (Hafiz (Qur'an)), and was also tutored by scholars such as Ibn Munira of Kafartab and Abu Abdullah al-Tulaytuli of Toledo (Toledo, Spain). He spent much of his youth hunting (medieval hunting) with his family, partly as recreation and certainly as warrior (faris) training for battle as part of furusiyya. He also had much direct experience of battle, against the neighbouring crusader County of Tripoli and Principality of Antioch, hostile Muslim neighbours in Hama, Homs, and elsewhere, and Hashshashin who had established a base near Shaizar. Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', pp. 5-14. Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة

Hama

'''Hama''' (

The city is renowned for its seventeen noria (Norias of Hama)s used for watering the gardens, which are locally claimed to date back to 1100 BC. Though historically used for purpose of irrigation, the norias exist today as an almost entirely aesthetic traditional show.

In the last decades, the city of Hama has become known as a center of the anti-Ba'ath opposition in Syria, most notably the Muslim Brotherhood. The city was raided by the Syrian Army, beginning with the 1964 Islamist uprising (1964 Hama riot), and becoming the scene of carnage during the Islamist uprising in Syria in April 1981 (April 1981 Hama massacre) and especially in 1982, when nearly 25,000 people were killed in what became known as Hama massacre. The city was once again the site of conflict (Siege of Hama (2011)) between the Syrian military and opposition forces, as one of the main arenas of the Syrian civil war in 2011 and 2012.

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