What is Gurjara-Pratihara known for?

numerous quot

the army of the Pratiharas as it stood in 851 CE, "The ruler of Gurjars maintains numerous forces and no other Indian prince has so fine a cavalry. He is unfriendly to the Arabs, still he acknowledges that the king of the Arabs is the greatest of rulers. Among the princes of India there is no greater foe of the Islamic faith than he. He has got riches, and his camels and horses are numerous."

local resistance

and broke up into two warring states of Mansura (Mansura (Brahmanabad))h and Multan, both of which paid tribute to the Gurjar-Pratiharas. The local resistance in Sindh, which had not yet died out and was inspired by the victories of Pratiharas manifested itself when the foreign rulers were overthrown and Sindh came under its own half-converted Hindu dynasties like the Sumras (Soomra Dynasty) and Sammas (Samma Dynasty). Legacy Pointing out the importance

title ancient

339px thumb Kanauj triangle (File:Indian Kanauj triangle map.svg) Junaid, the successor of Qasim (Muhammad bin Qasim), finally subdued the Hindu resistance within Sindh. Taking advantage of the conditions in Western India, which at that time was covered with several small states, Junaid led a large army into the region in early 738 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat. Indian inscriptions confirm this invasion but record the Arab success only against the smaller states in Gujarat. They also record the defeat of the Arabs at two places. The southern army moving south into Gujarat was repulsed at Navsari by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakutas. The army that went east, after sacking several places, reached Avanti (Ujjain) whose ruler Nagabhata (Gurjara-Pratihara) trounced the invaders and forced them to flee. After his victory Nagabhata took advantage of the disturbed conditions to acquire control over the numerous small states up to the border of Sindh. Junaid probably died from the wounds inflicted in the battle with the Gurjara-Pratihara. His successor Tamin organized a fresh army and attempted to avenge Junaid’s defeat towards the close of the year 738 CE. But this time Nagabhata , with his Chauhan and Guhilot feudatories, met the Muslim army before it could leave the borders of Sindh. The battle resulted in the complete rout of the Arabs who fled broken into Sindh with the Gurjara-Pratihara close behind them. In the words of the Arab chronicler, ''a place of refuge to which the Muslims might flee was not to be found.'' The Arabs crossed over to the other side of the Indus River, abandoning all their lands to the victorious Hindus. The local chieftains took advantage of these conditions to re-establish their independence. Subsequently the Arabs constructed the city of Mansura (Mansura (Brahmanabad))h on the other side of the wide and deep Indus, which was safe from attack. This became their new capital in Sindh. Thus began the reign of the imperial Gurjara-Pratiharas. In the Gwalior inscription, it is recorded that Gurjara-Pratihara emperor Nagabhata "crushed the large army of the powerful Mlechcha king." This large army consisted of cavalry, infantry, siege artillery, and probably a force of camels. Since Tamin was a new governor he had a force of Syrian cavalry from Damascus, local Arab contingents, converted Hindus of Sindh, and foreign mercenaries like the Turkics (Turkic peoples). All together the invading army may have had anywhere between 10–15,000 cavalry, 5000 infantry, and 2000 camels. The Arab chronicler Sulaiman describes the army of the Pratiharas as it stood in 851 CE, "The ruler of Gurjars maintains numerous forces and no other Indian prince has so fine a cavalry. He is unfriendly to the Arabs, still he acknowledges that the king of the Arabs is the greatest of rulers. Among the princes of India there is no greater foe of the Islamic faith than he. He has got riches, and his camels and horses are numerous."


book first Sailendra Nath last Sen title Ancient Indian History and Civilization url http: books?id Wk4_ICH_g1EC&pg PA266 year 1999 publisher New Age International isbn 978-81-224-1198-0 page 266 Several scholars, including Baij Nath Puri, often prepend ''Gurjara'' when referring to the Pratiharas.

year 1986 origyear 1957 pages 1–3 Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava notes that some people believe that a Gurjara chief served the Rashtrakuta ruler as a pratihara (door-keeper) at a sacrifice at Ujjain about the middle of the eighth century CE.

publisher Shiva Lal Agarwala Origin According to a legend given in later manuscripts of ''Prithviraj Raso'', the Pratiharas were one of the Agnikula (Agnivansha) clans of Rajputs, deriving their origin from a sacrificial fire-pit (agnikunda) at Mount Abu.

original version

2Tnh2QjGhMQC&pg PA221 page 221 This mythical story of Agnikula does not appear in the original version of ''Prithviraj Raso''..

that the story of agnikula is mot mentioned at all in the original version of the Raso preserved in the Fort Library at Bikaner. The Pratihara dynasty is referred to as ''Gurjara Pratiharanvayah'', i.e., ''Pratihara clan of the Gurjaras'', in line 4 of the Rajor inscription (Alwar).

publications year

, Abhaneri and Kotah. The female figure named as ''Sursundari'' exhibited in Gwalior Museum is one of the most charming sculptures of the Gurjara-Pratihara art. The image of standing ''Laksmi Narayana'' (Plate 42) from Agroha

commercial activities

Category:History of Rajasthan Category:Empires and kingdoms of India Category:History of Malwa Category:Rajput rulers Category:36 royal races Category:Agnivansha The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by their commercial activities. There is a clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC. There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire (Gurjara-Pratihara) as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and then the Solankis. The 11th century history of Gujarat saw the emergence of the Muslims in the political arena of the state. The first Muslim conqueror was Mahmud of Ghazni whose conquest of Somnath effectively ended the rule of the Solankis. Throughout its history, the region of Uttar Pradesh was sometimes divided between smaller kingdoms and at other times formed an important part of larger empires that arose on its east or west, including the Magadha (Magadha Empire), Nanda (Nanda Empire), Mauryan (Maurya Empire), Sunga (Sunga Empire), Kushan (Kushan Empire), Gupta (Gupta Empire), Gurjara (Gurjara-Pratihara), Rashtrakuta (Rashtrakuta Empire), Pala (Pala Empire) and Mughal (Mughal Empire) empires. Most of the empire building invasions of North India, from the east as well as the west, passed through the vast swathe of Gangetic plains of what today is Uttar Pradesh. Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Mauryan (Maurya Empire) (320–200 BCE), Kushan (Kushan Empire) (100–250 CE) and Gupta (Gupta Empire) (350–600 CE) Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036 CE) empires. left thumb 250px Mathura, Uttar Pradesh Mathura (File:Kushanmap.jpg) in Uttar Pradesh served as the capital of the Kushan Empire. Following the Hun invasions that broke Guptas' empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647 CE), the Kannauj empire was at its zenith; spanning from Punjab (Punjab region) and Gujarat to Bengal and Orissa – and parts of central India, north of the Narmada River – it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. A patron of Buddhism and the University at Nalanda, Harsha organised theological debates and also patronised art and literature. A noted author on his own merit, he wrote three Sanskrit plays. Many communities in various parts of India boast of being descendants of migrants from Kannauj, reflecting its glory in the past.


of their power, c. 836–910. Decline Bhoj II (910–912) was overthrown by Mahipala I (912–914). Several feudatories of the empire took advantage

giving time

against the continuous threat of Muslim invasion. Doing so successfully until being overwhelmed by Turks (Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent), these people protected the more southerly regions, giving time and space for other ruling groups, such as the Chola dynasty, to operate both in those areas and abroad.


Routledge origyear 1986 year 2004 edition 4th page 114 Vatsraja successfully challenged and defeated the Pala ruler Dharmapala and Dantidurga, the Rashtrakuta king, for control of Kannauj. Around 786, the Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruva (c. 780–793) crossed the Narmada River into Malwa, and from there tried to capture Kannauj. Vatsraja was defeated by the Dhruva Dharavarsha of the Rashtrakuta dynasty around 800. Vatsraja was succeeded by Nagabhata II (805–833

) and Paramaras (Parmars)(Rahevar)(Rever) Agnikula kshatriya Historian such as Vincent Arthur Smith, K. M. munshi, D.B. Bhandarkar states that Agnikula Kshatriyas namely Gurjara-Pratihara were from Gurjara stock .

From his capital in Mayurkhandi in Bidar district, Govinda III conducted his northern campaign in 800 C.E.. He successfully obtained the submission of Gurjara-Pratihara Nagabhata II, Dharmapala (Dharmapala of Bengal) of Pala Empire and the incumbent puppet ruler of Kannauj, Chakrayudha. It is said Nagabhata II ran away from the battle field. The Sanjan plates of Govinda III mentions that the horse of Govinda III drank the icy liquid bubbling in the Himalayan stream


The '''Gurjara-Pratihara''', also known as the '''Pratihara Empire''', was an imperial dynasty (empire) that ruled much of Northern India (Hindustan) from the mid-7th to the 11th century. Its territories were greater in extent than those of the Gupta empire when at its peak and it began to decline in the early 10th century when it faced several invasions by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty.

Kannauj became the capital of the imperial Gurjara-Pratiharas, who in the tenth century were titled as ''Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta'' (''"Great King over Kings of the abode of the Aryans"''. i.e. ''Lords of Northern India'').

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