Gorizia and Gradisca

What is Gorizia and Gradisca known for?


prominent

of Gorizia emerged as one of the most prestigious educational centers in the Slovene Lands: several prominent figures in Slovenian arts, sciences and politics in the early 20th century received their education in this institution. In 1913, the Gymnasium was divided into three parts, with German, Italian and Slovenian as the language of teaching. The Slovenian section of the Gymnasium of Gorizia thus became the first public high school with Slovene as the primary language of teaching

. Among the prominent figures of Slovene culture (Culture of Slovenia) from the County of Gorizia and Gradisca were: the poets Simon Gregorčič, Alojz Gradnik, and Joža Lovrenčič, writer Julius Kugy, theologian Anton Mahnič, composer Stanko Premrl, historian Simon Rutar, painters Jožef Tominc and Saša Šantel, architect Max Fabiani, philologist Karel Štrekelj, and literary historian Avgust Žigon. Other prominent Slovenes from Gorizia-Gradisca included

politicians Karel Lavrič and Anton Gregorčič, admiral Anton Haus, Roman Catholic bishop Frančišek Borgia Sedej, economist Milko Brezigar and the pioneer pilot Edvard Rusjan. Prominent Slovenes who settled in the province from other regions included politician and author Henrik Tuma, historian Franc Kos, linguist Stanislav Škrabec, and jurist, historian and politician Bogumil Vošnjak. Friulian culture During


cultural influence

. The emergence of the Slovene National Awakening in the second half of the 19th century meant a significant setback for the Italian culture in the region. Most families that would previously educate their children in an Italian cultural environment, switched to Slovenian. Another reason for the decrease of Italian cultural influence was the unification of Lombardy-Venetia with the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)) in 1866, which radically reduced the influence of Italian


special ties

different goals were prominent among the Southern Slavs of Austria-Hungary. A strong alternative to Pan-Slavism was Austroslavism, especially among the Slovenes. Because the Serbs were distributed among several provinces, and the fact that they had special ties to the independent nation state (Nation-state) of Serbia, they were among the strongest supporters of independence of South-Slavs from Austria. File:Renški trg med prvo svetovno vojno.jpg thumb 250px right The village


important contribution

, Italy Grado , Aquileia, Duino, Nabrežina and Most na Soči became important tourist centers in the Austrian Riviera. Many prominent figures, belonging to the German cultural milieu, frequented these places, making an important contribution to the survival of the local German culture. These include the ethnographer and linguist Karl von Czoernig, poet Rainer Maria Rilke who wrote his famous ''Duino Elegies'' while visiting the region, and the renowned chemist Ludwig


quot political

65.3% 73,000 32.9% 3,000 1.4% ---- 1910 260,721 154,564 59.3% 90,119 34.6% 4,486 1.7% ---- Subdivisions The County was divided into five administrative or "political" districts (''Kreise''), which were in turn subdivided into judicial districts. The town of Gorizia had a status of an administrative district. Administrative districts *Gorizia City ( ) *Gorizia Countryside


important religious

) was established as a crown land (''Kronland'') of the Austrian Empire in 1849. In 1861 it was divided into the three crown lands of the Imperial Free City of Trieste and its suburbs, the Margraviate of Istria (March of Istria), and the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (Gorizia and Gradisca), which each had separate administrations and Landtag assemblies, but were all subject to a ''k.k. (Imperial and Royal)'' statholder (Steward (office)) at Trieste. Following the Vienna Rebellion that forced Ferdinand I (Ferdinand I of Austria) to abolish feudalism and adopt a constitution, many nations of the Austrian Empire saw a chance for strengthening their ideas. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, for the first time in centuries, all Slovenes were under the rule of one emperor. They were, however, divided between different political subdivisions, namely the provinces of Carniola, Styria (Styria (duchy)), Carinthia (Carinthia (duchy)), Gorizia and Gradisca, Istria, Trieste, Lombardy and Venetia (Kingdom of Lombardy and Venetia) (the Venetian Slovenia) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Prekmurje). In such a fragmentation, a self-government on national basis was impossible. *Gilbert and Ellice Islands: Gilbert Islands and Ellice Islands *Gorizia and Gradisca: Gorizia and Gradisca *Kalinga-Apayao: Kalinga and Apayao era Modern history status Crown land of the Austrian Empire comprising the Duchy of Carniola, the Duchy of Carinthia, the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, the City of Trieste, and the Margraviate of Istria empire Austrian Empire The Kingdom of Illyria was officially established in 1816. In the first years, it comprised territory both in the Slovene Lands and of the Kingdom of Croatia (Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)). Already in the early 1820s, however, the pre-Napoleonic Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia was again established, in which also the territories forming part of the Kingdom of Illyria were included. Thus from the 1820s on, the Kingdom of Illyria only included the following traditional provinces: the Duchy of Carinthia, the Duchy of Carniola, as well as the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, the City of Trieste and the March of Istria. thumb left Map of the enlarged Kingdom of Illyria, entitled "The Map of the Slovene Land and Provinces" (File:Zemljovid Slovenske dezele in pokrajin.jpg) Life He was born as Maximilian Fabiani in a family of Furlan (Friulians) origin Andrej Hrausky and Janez Koželj, ''Maks Fabiani : Dunaj, Ljubljana, Trst'' (Ljubljana: Cankarjeva založba, 2010) in the village of Kobdilj near Štanjel on the Kras plateau, in what was then the Austro-Hungarian province of Gorizia and Gradisca (now in Slovenia). His father was a farmer and his mother was of an aristocratic family of Tyrolean (County of Tyrol) origin from Trieste. His was a wealthy family which could afford to provide a good education for the children. He grew up in a cosmopolitan trilingual environment: besides Italian (Italian language), the language of his family, and Slovene (Slovene language), the language of his social environment, he learned German (German language) at a very young age. Marco Pozzetto, ''Max Fabiani'', MGS PRESS S.a.s., Trieste (1998) p. 15. In the second half of the century, the city of Gorizia was generally more vivacious than that of Udine; there was a different feeling of "Friulanity," and the environment was mitteleuropean (Mitteleuropa), since the city (part of the county of Gorizia and Gradisca) was under the rule of Austro-Hungarian empire, while Udine was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy (Italy) in 1866. In Gorizia, many tried to use the Friulian language in different fields, such as the applied sciences, with good results; one example from the period is the almanac ''Il me paîs. Strenna popolâr pal 1855'' by Federico de Comelli of Gradisca (Gradisca d'Isonzo) (1826-1892). Carlo Favetti from Gorizia also published several books of poetry and plays in the local Friulian dialect.


century long

Slavic ) immigrants that were called several times to Friuli to repopulate lands devastated by Hungarian (Hungarian people) invasions in the 10th century (i.e. ''cjast'', barn; ''zigâ'', to shout). Furthermore, many Slavic words have entered Friulan through the century-long neighbourhood between Friulans and Slovenes, especially in north-eastern Friuli (Slavia Friulana) and in the Gorizia and Gradisca area. Words such as ''colaç'' (cake), ''cudiç'' (devil) and ''cos'' (basket


cultural association

the 19th century Gorizia was an important and lively center for the Friulian language. Throughout the century, many old books were republished, new works were composed, and several political and cultural association promoting Friulian culture were founded in the region. This was also thanks to the fact that even the nobility would normally use the language, while for example in Udine and in other towns of central Friulian (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) higher classes rather used the Venetian


association promoting

the 19th century Gorizia was an important and lively center for the Friulian language. Throughout the century, many old books were republished, new works were composed, and several political and cultural association promoting Friulian culture were founded in the region. This was also thanks to the fact that even the nobility would normally use the language, while for example in Udine and in other towns of central Friulian (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) higher classes rather used the Venetian


good education

family of Tyrolean (County of Tyrol) origin from Trieste. His was a wealthy family which could afford to provide a good education for the children. He grew up in a cosmopolitan trilingual environment: besides Italian (Italian language), the language of his family, and Slovene (Slovene language), the language of his social environment, he learned German (German language) at a very young age. Marco

Gorizia and Gradisca

The '''Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca''' ( ) was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty (House of Habsburg) within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia. It was named for its two major urban centers, Gorizia and Gradisca d'Isonzo.

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