Golan Heights

What is Golan Heights known for?


quot ties

is best but feel alienated from the autocratic regime in Damascus. According to the Associated Press, "many young Druse have been quietly relieved at the failure of previous Syrian-Israeli peace talks to go forward." Ties to Syria are on the wane, and many have come to appreciate aspects of Israel's liberal democratic (Liberal democracy) society, although few risk saying so publicly for fear of Syrian retribution. On the other hand, expressing pro


impressive set

of the dead. Morbid theory in mystery of Israel's answer to Stone Henge A 3D model of the site exists in the Museum of Golan Antiquities in Katzrin. Um el Kanatir Um el Kanatir is another impressive set of standing ruins of a Jewish village of the Byzantine era. The site includes a very large synagogue and two arches next to a natural spring


water work

journals global_environmental_politics v008 8.1fischhendler.html title When Ambiguity in Treaty Design Becomes Destructive: A Study of Transboundary Water work Global Environmental Politics year 2008 accessdate 2008-11-28 This project and Israel's attempt to block these efforts in 1965 were factors which played into regional tensions culminating in the 1967 Six-Day War. During the war, Israel captured the Golan Heights, which contain some of the sources of water


242

SC497.pdf UN Security Council Resolution 497 which said that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." Israel asserts it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 242), which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats

background , Nova Publishers, 2002. pg. 34. ISBN 1-59033-325-X. The area is administered as part of Israel's North District (North District (Israel)). Israel's action was not recognised internationally "Golan Heights" ''A Dictionary of Contemporary World History''. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. and United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 which declared the Golan

Heights Israeli-occupied territory continues to apply. Israel maintains that it may retain the area as the text of Resolution 242 calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". During the negotiations regarding the text of United Nations Security Council resolution 242, U.S. Secretary of State Rusk (Dean Rusk) explained that U.S. support for secure permanent frontiers did not mean the US supported territorial


world fact

) above sea level, is the highest point in Syria. On the top there is “Hermon Hotel”, in the buffer zone (UNDOF) between Syria and Israeli-occupied territory, the highest permanent manned UN position in the world. ref name "Dwayne Lovegrove"


unconventional theories

their Prisoners. (AP Wire) Plot synopsis The film is an extended character study of its subject. It follows Amin closely in a series of formal and informal settings, combined with several short interviews in which Amin expounds his unconventional theories of politics, economics, and international relations. Amin is seen supervising the Ugandan paratrooper school, boating through a wildlife park, playing the accordion


hit open

by both sides have drifted into the Israeli-administered part of the Golan, they hit open grounds next to the border. So for safety's sake, consider keeping a safe distance of a few miles from the border as a precaution. The golden rule is: Take as many words of advice as possible regarding safety from any local guidebook or people. If in doubt, keep safe! Go next *Discover the Sea of Galilee and the holy city of Tiberias. *The Israeli North Coast with the Mediterranean Sea and beautiful cities are also worth visiting. WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights


food record

name Guinness Largest bowl of tabbouleh Previous holders of the Guinness World Record (Guinness World Records) for the largest tabbouleh include Lebanon (October 2009), Natacha Yazbeck, Agence France-Presse (October 25, 2009). "Salad days in Lebanon as it sets third Guinness food record". Retrieved


association based

was established and work began on farm buildings in Djillin. The Jews also built a road stretching from Lake Hula to Muzayrib. M. R. Fishbach, ''Jewish property claims against Arab countries'', Columbia University Press (2008), p.161 A village called Tiferet Binyamin was established on lands purchased from Saham al-Jawlan by the Shavei Zion Association based in New York


world community

, a Hezbollah leader announces that the group would be willing to discuss potential disarmament after Israel withdraws from the Shebaa Farms. Lebanon and Syria maintain that the Shebaa Farms are Lebanese territory, while the rest of the world community insists that the farms are part of the Golan Heights, thus part of Syrian territory occupied by Israel. (Financial Times) (Haaretz) (Link dead as of 22:29, 14 January 2007 (UTC)) * Presidential elections begin in Djibouti. Incumbent president Ismail Omar Guelleh is the only candidate. (BBC) * UN (United Nations) Secretary General Kofi Annan accuses the United States and Britain (United Kingdom) of not accepting enough responsibility for the Oil for Food Scandal (Oil-for-Food Programme). (BBC) (Canberra) * A Palestinian (Palestinian people) Fatah gunman infiltrates the Golan Heights from Syria and attacks an IDF (Israel Defense Forces) outpost near the border. The outpost commander manages to disarm the gunman and arrest him. The IDF will investigate how the 21 year old man, draped in a Palestinian flag, managed to penetrate so deep without being detected earlier. (''Haaretz'') (Link dead as of 02:40, 15 January 2007 (UTC)), (BBC) * A Human Rights Watch report states that the United States, Britain, the Netherlands and Canada rely on "flimsy" diplomacy in attempts to send foreign terror suspects back to countries that routinely use torture against their Prisoners. (AP Wire) Plot synopsis The film is an extended character study of its subject. It follows Amin closely in a series of formal and informal settings, combined with several short interviews in which Amin expounds his unconventional theories of politics, economics, and international relations. Amin is seen supervising the Ugandan paratrooper school, boating through a wildlife park, playing the accordion in a jazz band at a formal dinner, and staging a mock assault on a small hill representing the Golan Heights. He discusses his plans for an attack on Israel, and his letter to Kurt Waldheim, then Secretary General of the United Nations sent in response to the 1972 Munich massacre, which commended Hitler, is touched upon. On TV, it is announced Amin is in possession of a 'manual' which details Israel's plans: ''The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'', Utilization of water resources in the area, including the Hasbani, has been a source of conflict and was one of the factors leading to the 1967 Six-Day War. MERIP Heightened Israeli-Lebanese Tensions Over Jordan's Headwaters Judith Palmer (2005) ''Hezbollah: The Changing Face of Terrorism'' I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1845110242 p 159 The Hasbani was included in the Jordan Valley Unified Water Plan , proposed in 1955 by special US envoy Eric Johnston. Cronin, Patrick M. (2008) ''The Evolution of Strategic Thought'' Routledge, ISBN 0415459613 p 189 Under the plan, Lebanon was allocated usage of 35 million mcm annually from it. The plan was rejected by the Arab League. Instead, at the 2nd Arab summit conference in Cairo of January 1964 the League decided that Syria, Lebanon and Jordan would begin a water diversion project. Syria started the construction of canal to divert the flow of the Banias river away from Israel and along the slopes of the Golan (Golan Heights) toward the Yarmouk River. Lebanon was to construct a canal from the Hasbani River to Banias and complete the scheme Shlaim, Avi (200) ibid pp 229–230 In January 1964 an Arab League summit meeting convened in Cairo. The main item on the agenda was the threat posed by Israel's diversion of water from the north to irrigate the south and the expected reduction in the water supplies available to Syria and Jordan. The reaction of the summit to this threat was deadly serious. The preamble to its decision stated, :'''The establishment of Israel is the basic threat that the Arab nation in its entirety has agreed to forestall. And Since the existence of Israel is a danger that threatens the Arab nation, the diversion of the Jordan waters by it multiplies the dangers to Arab existence. Accordingly, the Arab states have to prepare the plans necessary for dealing with the political, economic and social aspects, so that if necessary results are not achieved, collective Arab military preparations, when they are not completed, will constitute the ultimate practical means for the final liquidation of Israel.''' The project was to divert 20 to 30 million cubic metres of water from the river Jordan tributaries to Syria and Jordan for the development of Syria and Jordan. Political Thought and Political History: Studies in Memory of Elie Kedourie By Elie Kedourie, M. Gammer, Joseph Kostiner, Moshe Shemesh, Routledge, (2003) ISBN 0714652962 p 165 This led to military intervention from Israel, first with tank fire and then, as the Syrians shifted the works further eastward, with airstrikes. Livingstone was born in Hamilton (Hamilton, Ontario). He is a 22-year veteran of the Canadian Army and has served overseas in Germany and the Golan Heights, where he saw two tours of duty with the United Nations Disengagement Observer force. He was fifty-two years old at the time of the election, and was operations director for a local branch of the Canadian Corps of Commissionaires. Before joining the Green Party, he volunteered for the Liberal Party of Canada Liberals (''Hamilton Spectator'', 13 January 2006). He received 2,022 votes (4.23%), finishing fourth against New Democratic Party incumbent David Christopherson. The '''Yom Kippur War''' was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to October 26, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Egypt and Syria. The War began with a surprise joint attack by Egypt and Syria into the Sinai and Golan Heights, respectively, which had been captured by Israel six years earlier during the Six-Day War. The Egyptians and Syrians advanced during the first 24–48 hours, after which momentum began to swing in Israel's favor. By the second week of the war, the Syrians had been pushed entirely out of the Golan Heights. In the Sinai to the south, the Israelis had struck at the "hinge" between two invading Egyptian armies (Egyptian Army), crossed the Suez Canal (where the old cease-fire line had been), and cut off an entire Egyptian army just as a United Nations cease-fire came into effect. The war had far-reaching implications for many nations. The Arab world, which had been humiliated by the lopsided defeat of the Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian alliance during the Six-Day War, felt psychologically vindicated by its string of victories early in the conflict. This vindication paved the way for the peace process that followed, as well as liberalizations such as Egypt's infitah policy. The Camp David Accords which came soon after led to normalized relations between Egypt and Israel—the first time any Arab country had recognized the Israeli state. Egypt, which had already been drifting away from the Soviet Union, then left the Soviet sphere of influence almost entirely. ('''continued... (Yom Kippur War)''') During the 1970s the role of the Army Reserve shifted again. Unification of the Forces and years of budgetary reductions had resulted in Forces wide personnel shortages. The focus for the Reserves shifted to providing individual soldiers to augment Regular Force units overseas. Camerons increasingly began to deploy as augmentees to Regular Force units on United Nations Peacekeeping duties in places such as Egypt, the Golan Heights and Cyprus and to participate on flyovers to Germany to serve with Canadian units operating with NATO in North-West Europe. subdivision_type Country subdivision_name Golan Heights, (''Internationally recognized as Syrian territory occupied by Israel (Israeli-occupied territories)'') subdivision_type1 Israeli District (Districts of Israel) '''Majdal Shams''' ( WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights

Golan Heights

The '''Golan Heights''' ( is a region in the Levant. The exact region defined as the Golan Heights is different in different disciplines:

*As a geological and biogeographical region, the Golan Heights is a basaltic plateau bordered by the Yarmouk River in the south, the Sea of Galilee and Hula Valley in the west, Mount Hermon in the north, and the Raqqad Wadi (Ruqqad) in the east. The western two-thirds of this region are currently occupied by Israel, whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria.

*As a geopolitical region, the Golan Heights is the area captured from Syria and occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War, territory which Israel effectively annexed in 1981. This region includes the western two-thirds of the geological Golan Heights, as well as the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon.

The earliest evidence of human habitation dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. Tina Shepardson. Stones and Stories: Reconstructing the Christianization of the Golan, Biblisches Forum, 1999. According to the Bible, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og (Og). In the 16th century, the Golan was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and was part of the Vilayet of Damascus until it was transferred to French control (French Mandate of Syria) in 1918. When the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Arab Republic (Syria).

Internationally recognized as Syrian territory, the Golan Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel since 1967. It was captured during the 1967 Six-Day War, establishing the Purple Line (Purple Line (ceasefire line)).

On 19 June 1967, the Israeli cabinet voted to return the Golan to Syria in exchange for a peace agreement. Such overtures were dismissed by the Arab world with the Khartoum Resolution on September 1, 1967. Herzog, Chaim, The Arab Israeli Wars, New York: Random House (1982) p.190-191 In the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel agreed to return about 5% of the territory to Syrian civilian control. This part was incorporated into a demilitarised zone that runs along the ceasefire line and extends eastward. This strip is under the military control of UN peace keeping forces (UNDOF).

Construction of Israeli settlements began in the remainder of the territory held by Israel, which was under military administration until Israel passed the Golan Heights Law extending Israeli law and administration throughout the territory in 1981. Golan Heights Law, MFA. This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council in UN Resolution 497 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 497), UN Security Council Resolution 497 which said that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." Israel asserts it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 242), which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". Y.Z Blum "Secure Boundaries and Middle East Peace in the Light of International Law and Practice" (1971) pages 24–46 However, the international community rejects Israeli claims to title to the territory and regards it as sovereign Syrian territory.

* "The international community maintains that the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan is null and void and without international legal effect." * "...occupied Syrian Golan Heights..." (The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002, ''www.al-bab.com''. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. (General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, December 5, 2008.) *"the Syrian Golan Heights territory, which Israel has occupied since 1967". Also, "the Golan Heights, a 450-square mile portion of southwestern Syria that Israel occupied during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war." (CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, Congressional Research Service. 19 January 2006) Occupied territory:

* "Israeli-occupied Golan Heights" (Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2009. pg. 339. ISBN 1-60239-727-9.) * "...the United States considers the Golan Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Congressional Research Service, April 5, 2002. pg. 5. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "Occupied Golan Heights" (Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "In the ICRC's view, the Golan is an occupied territory." (ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007, International Committee of the Red Cross, April 24, 2008.) Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0-19-828007-6. "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights is recognized by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Charter, on a self-defence basis. Israel, on this view, would be entitled to exact as a condition of withdrawal from the territory the imposition of security measures of an indefinite character--such as perpetual demilitarization, or the emplacement of a United Nations force--which would ensure, or tend to ensure, that the territory would not be used against it for aggression on future occasions. But the notion that Israel is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down in the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community--no less by the United States than by any other state."

Israeli Prime Ministers Yitzhak Rabin, Ehud Barak, and Ehud Olmert each stated that they were willing to exchange the Golan for peace with Syria. However, in 2010, Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman told Syria to abandon its dreams of recovering the Golan Heights. Approximately 10% of Syrian Golan Druze have accepted Israeli citizenship. At a Glance: The Golan Heights World News Australia, 6 June 2011 According to the CIA World Factbook, as of 2010, "there are 41 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights."

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