the Yarmouk River. Lebanon was to construct a canal from the Hasbani River to Banias and complete the scheme Shlaim, Avi (200) ibid pp 229-230 The project was to divert 20 to 30 million cubic metres of water from the river Jordan tributaries to Syria and Jordan for the development of Syria and Jordan. Political Thought and Political History: Studies in Memory of Elie Kedourie By Elie Kedourie, M. Gammer
with the political, economic and social aspects, so that if necessary results are not achieved, collective Arab military preparations, when they are not completed, will constitute the ultimate practical means for the final liquidation of Israel.''' The project was to divert 20 to 30 million cubic metres of water from the river Jordan tributaries to Syria and Jordan for the development of Syria and Jordan. Political Thought and Political History
: Studies in Memory of Elie Kedourie By Elie Kedourie, M. Gammer, Joseph Kostiner, Moshe Shemesh, Routledge, (2003) ISBN 0714652962 p 165 This led to military intervention from Israel, first with tank fire and then, as the Syrians shifted the works further eastward, with airstrikes. Livingstone was born in Hamilton (Hamilton, Ontario). He is a 22-year veteran of the Canadian Army and has served overseas in Germany and the Golan Heights, where he saw two tours of duty
. The Intel Haifa Israel team had previously been working on the memory controller for Timna (Intel Timna), which was based on earlier P6 memory controller designs giving them detailed knowledge of P6 architecture which they used when Intel gave them a crash project to create a backup mobile CPU. Given the product code 80535, it initially had no model number suffix, but was later identified as the Pentium M 705. It was manufactured on a 130 nm process, was released
Hop." Much of her music focuses on the Palestinian cause. thumb right 250px alt map detailing the battle field of Yarmouk Map detailing the location of the area where the battle took place. (File:Mohammad-adil-rais-battlefield of yamouk.PNG) The battlefield lies about south-east of the Golan Heights, an upland region currently on the frontier between Israel, Jordan and Syria, east of the Sea of Galilee. The battle was fought on the plain of Yarmouk, which
Located in "Kesem Hagolan", the Golan Visitors Center, close to the Golan Heights Winery. Established in 2006, brewing German Style Beer by a German brewmaster. They offer 4 to 5 types of beer, including an genuine Bavarian "Weizen". Open every day. Stay safe thumb 240px Mine warning sign (Image:Golan Minefield.JPG) The Golan is mostly a rural area, and as such it is pretty much crime free. However, the Golan is also one of the world's largest military barriers, and while it offers many hiking options, several basic safety rules should always be followed: * A large part of the Golan Heights area is either '''heavily mined''', or is suspected as being mined - this is because old mines may drift during heavy rains, which are frequent in winter. You should '''never''' walk or drive in open fields, off main roads or dirt roads (unless there are very clear signs which indicate that this area is safe- such as trail signs). While most mine fields are designated by warning signs (as the one shown in the picture), do not go into off-road barb-wired fields, even if they are not marked with signs (in short- you should '''never cross any fence'''- unless there are clear signs and or suitable gateways in the fence). Never touch unidentified metal or plastic debris in the open even if it looks harmless. * Some areas of the Golan are used by the Israeli military as training grounds. There are usually recognised by the "Firing Zone" signs in the entrance. While marked trails are pretty much safe, when going off-road you should check the local maps to make sure you are not going into a fire ground. If in doubt, check with local police or military authorities. Most training grounds are accessible during weekends (Fridays - Saturdays) and public holidays, and can also be accessed after coordination with military authorities. *Beware that due to the civil war in Syria, you may hear heavy bombing sounds. Although a few bombs that have been shot by both sides have drifted into the Israeli-administered part of the Golan, they hit open grounds next to the border. So for safety's sake, consider keeping a safe distance of a few miles from the border as a precaution. The golden rule is: Take as many words of advice as possible regarding safety from any local guidebook or people. If in doubt, keep safe! Go next *Discover the Sea of Galilee and the holy city of Tiberias. *The Israeli North Coast with the Mediterranean Sea and beautiful cities are also worth visiting. WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights
, a few kilometers from Rosh Pinna. * "Nimrod Lookout", a green spot with water views as seen from the viewpoint flowing through, facing the landscapes of the Hula Valley, the Golan Heights and Mount Hermon, will be built in the Pioneers National Restoration Site in old Rosh Pina. Notable residents The '''Israeli-occupied territories''' are the territories which have been designated as occupied territory by the United Nations and other
background , Nova Publishers, 2002. pg. 34. ISBN 1-59033-325-X. The area is administered as part of Israel's North District (North District (Israel)). Israel's action was not recognised internationally "Golan Heights" ''A Dictionary of Contemporary World History''. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. and United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 which declared the Golan
the end of the Six Day War. Kissinger pressured the Israelis to cede some of the newly captured land back to its Arab neighbours, contributing to the first phases of Israeli-Egyptian non-aggression. The move saw a warming in US–Egyptian relations (Foreign relations of Egypt#United States), bitter since the 1950s, as the country moved away from its former independent stance and into a close partnership with the United States. The peace was finalized in 1978 when U.S. President Jimmy Carter mediated the Camp David Accords (Camp David Accords (1978)), during which Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for an Egyptian agreement to recognize the state of Israel. Following military threats by Egypt and Syria, including Egyptian president Nasser's demand of the UN to remove its peace-keeping troops from the Egyptian-Israeli border, in June 1967 Israeli forces went to action against Egypt and Syria, and, after failing to persuade it to stay out of the conflict, Jordan, in what has come to be known as the Six-Day War. As a result of that war, the Israel Defense Forces conquered the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula bringing them under military rule (Military law). Israel also pushed Arab forces back from East Jerusalem, which Jews had not been permitted to visit during the prior Jordanian rule. East Jerusalem was allegedly Ian Lustick, Has Israel Annexed East Jerusalem? annexed by Israel as part of its capital, though this action has not been recognized internationally. The United Nation's Security Council passed Resolution 242, promoting the "land for peace" formula, which called for Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in 1967, in return for the end of all states of belligerency by the aforementioned Arab League nations. Since that time, Israel continued to build settlements (Human settlement) over Palestinian land, demolishing homes and expelling families by force. Palestinians started to make their armed groups similar to the Haganah forces to attack these settlements. They continued longstanding demands for the destruction of Israel or made a new demand for self-determination in a separate independent Arab state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip similar to but smaller than the original Partition area which Palestinians and the Arab League had rejected for statehood in 1947. In the course of 1973 Yom Kippur War, military forces of Egypt have crossed the Suez canal and Syria to regain the Golan heights. The attacking military forces of Syria were pushed back. President Sadat Anwar Sadat after cease fire started a peace talks with the US and Israel. Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt as part of the 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel in hopes of establishing a genuine peace. Israel gained control of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and the formerly Jordanian-controlled West Bank of the Jordan River. East Jerusalem was immediately arguably Ian Lustick, Has Israel Annexed East Jerusalem? annexed by Israel and its population granted Israeli citizenship. Other areas occupied remained under military rule (Israeli civil law did not apply to them) pending a final settlement. The Golan was also annexed in 1981. On 30 June 1981, the Israeli air force Operation Opera destroyed the Osirak nuclear reactor that France was building for Iraq. Three weeks later, Begin won yet again, in the 1981 elections (Israeli legislative election, 1981) (48 seats Likud, 47 Labour). Ariel Sharon was made defence minister. The new government annexed the Golan Heights and banned El Al from flying on the Sabbath. The south of Israel is dominated by the Negev desert covering some WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights
SC497.pdf UN Security Council Resolution 497 which said that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." Israel asserts it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 242), which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats
in the occupied Syrian Golan is null and void and without international legal effect."
been deployed to the Manitoba floods, BC forest fires, Ontario ice storms and the 2002 G8 summit (28th G8 summit) in Kananaskis Country. Majdal Shams Golan Heights, North District (North District (Israel)) 1,120 is a four-week, Israel-only trip which consists of three weeks touring around Israel and one week spent in paramilitary army (Israel Defense Forces) training called Gadna (Gadna (Israel)). Israel
a population of 6,400. There another 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim. In 1989, the settler population was 10,000.original+population+of+the+golan&hl en&ei bzJYTJjjKMX-Obbp4JEJ&sa X&oi book_result&ct book-preview-link&resnum 9&ved 0CFQQuwUwCA#v onepage&q&f false Report of the Director-General, Volume 2, International Labour Conference, 1991.pg. 34. ISBN 92-2-107533-8. In 2010 the Jewish settlers had expanded to 20,000 Regions and territories: The Golan Heights ''BBC'' living in 32 settlements. Oudat, Basel.Shouting in the hills, ''Al-Ahram Weekly'', 12–18 June 2008. Issue No. 901. WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights
The '''Golan Heights''' ( is a region in the Levant. The exact region defined as the Golan Heights is different in different disciplines:
*As a geological and biogeographical region, the Golan Heights is a basaltic plateau bordered by the Yarmouk River in the south, the Sea of Galilee and Hula Valley in the west, Mount Hermon in the north, and the Raqqad Wadi (Ruqqad) in the east. The western two-thirds of this region are currently occupied by Israel, whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria.
*As a geopolitical region, the Golan Heights is the area captured from Syria and occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War, territory which Israel effectively annexed in 1981. This region includes the western two-thirds of the geological Golan Heights, as well as the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon.
The earliest evidence of human habitation dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. Tina Shepardson. Stones and Stories: Reconstructing the Christianization of the Golan, Biblisches Forum, 1999. According to the Bible, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og (Og). In the 16th century, the Golan was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and was part of the Vilayet of Damascus until it was transferred to French control (French Mandate of Syria) in 1918. When the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Arab Republic (Syria).
Internationally recognized as Syrian territory, the Golan Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel since 1967. It was captured during the 1967 Six-Day War, establishing the Purple Line (Purple Line (ceasefire line)).
On 19 June 1967, the Israeli cabinet voted to return the Golan to Syria in exchange for a peace agreement. Such overtures were dismissed by the Arab world with the Khartoum Resolution on September 1, 1967. Herzog, Chaim, The Arab Israeli Wars, New York: Random House (1982) p.190-191 In the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel agreed to return about 5% of the territory to Syrian civilian control. This part was incorporated into a demilitarised zone that runs along the ceasefire line and extends eastward. This strip is under the military control of UN peace keeping forces (UNDOF).
Construction of Israeli settlements began in the remainder of the territory held by Israel, which was under military administration until Israel passed the Golan Heights Law extending Israeli law and administration throughout the territory in 1981. Golan Heights Law, MFA. This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council in UN Resolution 497 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 497), UN Security Council Resolution 497 which said that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." Israel asserts it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 242), which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". Y.Z Blum "Secure Boundaries and Middle East Peace in the Light of International Law and Practice" (1971) pages 24–46 However, the international community rejects Israeli claims to title to the territory and regards it as sovereign Syrian territory.
* "The international community maintains that the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan is null and void and without international legal effect." * "...occupied Syrian Golan Heights..." (The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002, ''www.al-bab.com''. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. (General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, December 5, 2008.) *"the Syrian Golan Heights territory, which Israel has occupied since 1967". Also, "the Golan Heights, a 450-square mile portion of southwestern Syria that Israel occupied during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war." (CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, Congressional Research Service. 19 January 2006) Occupied territory:
* "Israeli-occupied Golan Heights" (Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2009. pg. 339. ISBN 1-60239-727-9.) * "...the United States considers the Golan Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Congressional Research Service, April 5, 2002. pg. 5. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "Occupied Golan Heights" (Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "In the ICRC's view, the Golan is an occupied territory." (ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007, International Committee of the Red Cross, April 24, 2008.) Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0-19-828007-6. "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights is recognized by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Charter, on a self-defence basis. Israel, on this view, would be entitled to exact as a condition of withdrawal from the territory the imposition of security measures of an indefinite character--such as perpetual demilitarization, or the emplacement of a United Nations force--which would ensure, or tend to ensure, that the territory would not be used against it for aggression on future occasions. But the notion that Israel is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down in the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community--no less by the United States than by any other state."
Israeli Prime Ministers Yitzhak Rabin, Ehud Barak, and Ehud Olmert each stated that they were willing to exchange the Golan for peace with Syria. However, in 2010, Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman told Syria to abandon its dreams of recovering the Golan Heights. Approximately 10% of Syrian Golan Druze have accepted Israeli citizenship. At a Glance: The Golan Heights World News Australia, 6 June 2011 According to the CIA World Factbook, as of 2010, "there are 41 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights."