Gestapo

What is Gestapo known for?


work political

-like. Lee said that although Skousen was an anti-communist, he "ran the police department in exactly the same manner as the Communists in Russia


film number

instruction film number 6) by Katia Forbert Petersen, produced by Anette Mari Olsen. DK&UK historical consultants Henrik Dahlman, Derek Carter. Archive films from BBC Motion Gallery, Imperial War Museum (London). Broadcast in Danish on the public service channel DR2 January 9th 2011. Film covers 2 3 of the school tragedy and 1 3 ? . First Wikipedia staff '''from the UK''' that phones +46 418 301 114, and proves to have basic knowledge of WW2 I will send a DVD copy – it includes RAF file 6 as mentioned, interview with sir Basil Embry and the coded telegram from Ole Lippmann to Sir Basil Embry. (in English) "Operation Carthage" by Kjeld Mahler Sasbye * Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" in the historic underground vaults of the Cathedral * EL-DE Haus, the former local headquarters of the Gestapo houses a museum documenting Nazi rule in Cologne with a special focus on the persecution of political dissenters and minorities. * German Sports and Olympic Museum, with exhibitions about sports from antiquity until the present. Finland had a small (approx. 2,300) Jewish population. They had full civil rights and fought with other Finns in the ranks of the Finnish Army. The Germans had mentioned the Finnish Jews at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, wishing to transport them to Majdanek in General Gouvernment. SS leader Heinrich Himmler mentioned the Finnish Jews during his visit in Finland in the summer of 1942. Finnish Prime Minister Jukka Rangell replied that Finland had no ''Jewish question''. Vehviläinen 2002 (#OlliVehvilainen2002), p. 102 However, there were differences for Jewish refugees in Finland. In November 1942, the Finns handed eight Jewish refugees over to the Gestapo. This raised protests among the Finnish Social Democrat ministers, and after this no more refugees were handed over. Vehviläinen 2002 (#OlliVehvilainen2002), p. 103 Over 500 Jewish refugees were granted asylum (right of asylum). Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


quot vast

Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


campaign fighting

location Drammen first Per Otto last Borgen page 180–181 language Norwegian isbn 82-91649-10-3 Nazi Germany's invasion of Norway (Operation Weserübung) on 9 April 1940, during World War II, instead precipitated the use of the site for detention by the Nazi regime. At first, the Nazis used the prison to detain Norwegian officers captured during the Norwegian Campaign fighting. This use was discontinued in June 1940, when Norway capitulated.


military series

Butler page 369 pages chapter History of the Second World War; United Kingdom military series 5 chapterurl publisher H. M. Stationery Off location isbn url accessdate The other unit ''Waffen-Sturm-Brigade RONA'' (made up of ethnic German (Volga Germans) volunteers from the occupied regions of the Soviet Union) was tasked with clearing the Ochota district in Warsaw that was defended by members of the Polish Underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa). Their attack

" Born in Sternenfels in 1900, he was trained


show including

, who despises Hochstetter just as Klink does, is not. In "War Takes a Holiday", Hogan tricks Hochstetter into lending his car to several underground leaders (presented by Hogan as potential captains of industry), who use it to escape just as Hochstetter's superiors arrive. Howard Caine played several other German officers in the show including Gestapo Kriminaldirektor (Colonel) Feldkamp before becoming Major Hochstetter. Throughout the series, the rank insignia on Hochstetter's collar


major novels

as problematically left-wing. Like many members of the Bauhaus, he fled Germany for America. He arrived in 1938 to work for Mies van der Rohe in Chicago while heading the department of urban planning at IIT College of Architecture. Hilberseimer also became director of Chicago's city planning office. Other major novels by Kirst set during the Third Reich and World War II include ''Officer Factory,'' about the investigation into the death of a training officer in an Officer School near


active membership

secret police force of Nazi Germany, is established. *1937 – Spanish Civil War: Guernica (Bombing of Guernica) (or Gernika in Basque (Basque Country (autonomous community))), Spain is bombed (Bombing of Guernica) by German (Germany) Luftwaffe. Postwar Bloch was shot by the Gestapo during the German occupation of France in World War II for his active membership of the French Resistance, and Febvre carried on the ''Annales'' approach in the 1940s and 1950s. It was during this time that he mentored Fernand Braudel, who would become one of the best-known exponents of this school. Braudel's work came to define a "second" era of ''Annales'' historiography and was very influential throughout the 1960s and 1970s, especially for his work on the Mediterranean region in the era of Philip II of Spain. Braudel developed the idea, often associated with Annalistes, of different modes of historical time: ''l'histoire quasi immobile'' (motionless history) of historical geography, the history of social, political and economic structures (''la longue durée''), and the history of men and events, in the context of their structures. The ''Gestapo'' also maintained a large office at Auschwitz, staffed by uniformed Gestapo officers and personnel. Auschwitz also maintained a medical corps, led by Eduard Wirths, whose doctors and medical personnel were from various backgrounds in the SS. The infamous Joseph Mengele, for example, was a combat field doctor in the Waffen-SS before transferring to Auschwitz after being wounded in combat. *1936 – Prime Minister of Greece (List of Prime Ministers of Greece) Ioannis Metaxas suspends parliament (Hellenic Parliament) and the Constitution (Constitution of Greece) and establishes the 4th of August Regime. *1944 – The Holocaust: a tip from a Dutch (Netherlands) informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse where they find and arrest Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and four others. *1946 – An earthquake of magnitude 8.0 (1946 Dominican Republic earthquake) hits northern Dominican Republic. 100 are killed and 20,000 are left homeless. In late October 1938, when he was living in a rented room in the home of a Jewish family in Frankfurt, he was arrested by the Gestapo and deported to Poland. He spent ten months lecturing on Jewish philosophy and Torah at Warsaw's Institute for Jewish Studies. Six weeks before the German invasion of Poland, Heschel left Warsaw for London with the help of Julian Morgenstern, president of Hebrew Union College, who had been working to obtain visas for Jewish scholars in Europe. Little is left of the Wall at its original site, which was destroyed almost everywhere. Three long sections are still standing: an 80-metre (263 ft) piece of the first (westernmost) wall at the Topography of Terror, site of the former Gestapo headquarters, half way between Checkpoint Charlie and Potsdamer Platz; a longer section of the second (easternmost) wall along the Spree River near the Oberbaumbrücke, nicknamed East Side Gallery; and a third section that is partly reconstructed, in the north at Bernauer Straße, which was turned into a memorial in 1999. Some other isolated fragments and a few watchtowers also remain in various parts of the city. Ole Lippman, the leader of the Danish resistance movement (SOE) (Special Operations Executive), asked for RAF assistance in attacking Nazi headquarters in Copenhagen. Accordingly, vice Air Marshall Sir Basil Embry (Basil Embry) drew the plans for a spectacular precision attack on the SD (Sicherheitsdienst) and Gestapo building, the former office of the Shell Oil Company. Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building. The attack came on 22 March 1945, coming in three small waves. All six planes (carrying one bomb each) in the first wave hit their target, but unfortunately one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg girls school. Due to this crash four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the target, and aim their bombs at the school. Several teachers and some 15 students were killed, but 18 (of 20 total) political prisoners managed to escape, the Gestapo archives were completely destroyed, and Hitler became so insecure of the situation that he withdrew only half of the roughly 200,000 soldiers in Denmark to reinforce German forces on the Rhine. RAF instruction film for precision bombing number 6 SFINX film TV documentary "Sangbogen og de røde sko" (containing parts of the RAF precision bombing instruction film number 6) by Katia Forbert Petersen, produced by Anette Mari Olsen. DK&UK historical consultants Henrik Dahlman, Derek Carter. Archive films from BBC Motion Gallery, Imperial War Museum (London). Broadcast in Danish on the public service channel DR2 January 9th 2011. Film covers 2 3 of the school tragedy and 1 3 ? . First Wikipedia staff '''from the UK''' that phones +46 418 301 114, and proves to have basic knowledge of WW2 I will send a DVD copy – it includes RAF file 6 as mentioned, interview with sir Basil Embry and the coded telegram from Ole Lippmann to Sir Basil Embry. (in English) "Operation Carthage" by Kjeld Mahler Sasbye * Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" in the historic underground vaults of the Cathedral * EL-DE Haus, the former local headquarters of the Gestapo houses a museum documenting Nazi rule in Cologne with a special focus on the persecution of political dissenters and minorities. * German Sports and Olympic Museum, with exhibitions about sports from antiquity until the present. Finland had a small (approx. 2,300) Jewish population. They had full civil rights and fought with other Finns in the ranks of the Finnish Army. The Germans had mentioned the Finnish Jews at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, wishing to transport them to Majdanek in General Gouvernment. SS leader Heinrich Himmler mentioned the Finnish Jews during his visit in Finland in the summer of 1942. Finnish Prime Minister Jukka Rangell replied that Finland had no ''Jewish question''. Vehviläinen 2002 (#OlliVehvilainen2002), p. 102 However, there were differences for Jewish refugees in Finland. In November 1942, the Finns handed eight Jewish refugees over to the Gestapo. This raised protests among the Finnish Social Democrat ministers, and after this no more refugees were handed over. Vehviläinen 2002 (#OlliVehvilainen2002), p. 103 Over 500 Jewish refugees were granted asylum (right of asylum). Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


light summer

to be the triumph of evil and the destruction of all that he loved. Goerdeler's friend, the historian Gerhard Ritter saw Goerdeler in prison in January 1945 and reported: "I was...astonished at his undiminished intellectual power, but at the same time I was shocked by his outward appearance. It was a man grown old who stood before me, shackled hand and foot, in the same light summer clothes as had on when captured, shabby and collarless, face thin and drawn, strangely different. But it was his eyes that shocked me the most. They were once bright grey eyes and had flashed beneath the heavy eyebrows; that had always been the most impressive thing about him. Now there was no light in them; they were like the eyes of a blind man, yet like nothing I had seen before. His intellectual power was as it had always been; his spiritual strength was not. His natural cheerfulness had gone; his look seemed turned inward. What I beheld was a man with the weariness of death in his soul". Manvell, Roger & Frankel, Heinrich ''The Men Who Tried to Kill Hitler'', Skyhouse: New York 2008 page 214. Youth Son of Georges Dumas, a civil servant in Limoges's region and Socialist resistant (Resistance (France)) to the German Occupation during the Second World War, shot at by the Gestapo, he conveyed weapons for the Resistance (Resistance (France)). He was arrested after the boycott of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra by French students. After the war, he completed his law and political science studies in the ''Ecole libre des sciences politiques (Institut d'études politiques de Paris)'' and the London School of Economics. In 1964, a New Year's Eve benefit event was held for the Council on Religion and the Homosexual. Police stood outside with large floodlights, and in an effort to intimidate took photographs of anyone entering the building. Later, several officers demanded that they be allowed inside. Three lawyers explained to them that under California law, the event was a private party and they could not enter unless they bought tickets. The lawyers were then arrested. Several ministers who were in attendance held a press conference the next morning, likening the SFPD to the Gestapo. Even the Catholic archbishop strongly condemned the actions of the police. In an attempt to reduce such harassment two officers were tasked with improving the police department's relationship with the gay community. *Jan Wujastyk, murdered in the Katyn massacre *Czesław Jóźwiak, murdered by the Gestapo in 1940 in Dresden prison *Jozefat Sikorski, murdered by the Gestapo in the Berlin-Plotzensee prison in 1942 The invasion of Poland by German troops in 1939 made Peradze's position precarious. For him being in solidarity with Jews in peril went without saying; and he helped wherever he could. Nor did he hesitate to visit the imprisoned Polish Metropolitan Dionysios. These activities were viewed with growing suspicion by the Nazi occupiers and Peradze's fruitful ecclesiastic and scientific activities were brought to an end in 1942 when, on May 4, he was arrested by the German Gestapo. Lukas Vischer: A Georgian Saint: Grigol Peradze (1899-1942) On December 6, 1942, Grigol Peradze was killed in the Nazi (Nazism) concentration camp of Auschwitz (Auschwitz concentration camp) (Oświęcim) when he entered a gas-chamber instead of a Jewish prisoner who had a large family. In 1935, the Nazis broadened the law so that the courts could pursue any "lewd act" whatsoever, even one involving no physical contact, such as masturbating (masturbation) next to each other. Convictions multiplied by a factor of ten to about 8,000 per year. Furthermore, the Gestapo could transport suspected offenders to concentration camps without any legal justification at all (even if they had been acquitted or already served their sentence in jail). Thus, between 5,000 and 15,000 homosexual men were forced into concentration camps, where they were identified by the pink triangle. The majority of them died there. thumb A Gestapo (File:Gestapo anti-gay telex.jpg) telex (Teleprinter) about arranging preventive detention of an "incorrigible homosexual" This aggravation of the severity of Paragraph 175 in 1935 increased the number of convictions tenfold, to 8,000 annually. Only about half of the prosecutions resulted from police work; about 40 percent resulted from private accusations (''Strafanzeige'') by non-participating observers, and about 10 percent were denouncements by employers and institutions. So, for example, in 1938 the Gestapo received the following anonymous letter: Capture and death In August 1943, Nazi spies tracked down the resistance group. Musa Cälil and most Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


career fighting

J. Daley , lip-readers (lip reading) throughout America claimed to have observed him shouting, "Fuck you, you Jew son of a bitch." Defenders of the mayor would later claim that he was calling Ribicoff a faker. Ribicoff spent the remaining years of his Senate career fighting for such liberal issues as school integration, welfare and tax reform, and consumer protection. Without warning, Streckenbach received a top secret order to proceed immediately to the police barracks at Pretzsch on the Elbe. He was met there by hand-picked members of the SD (Sicherheitsdienst), the Gestapo and the Orpo police. * Reichsführer-SS — Reich Leader of the SS, an office held by Heinrich Himmler. * Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) — "Reich Main Security Office or Reich Security Head Office"; created by Himmler in September 1939 to combine all German security and plainclothes police departments, including the Gestapo, Kripo and SD (Sicherheitsdienst) (''Sicherheitsdienst der SS'') into one umbrella organization with seven departments. * Reichswehr — name for the German Armed Forces under the Weimar Republic, from 1919 to 1935. * Sicherheitsdienst (SD) — "security service"; the SS and Nazi Party security service. Later, the main intelligence-gathering, and counter-espionage sections of the RSHA; originally headed by Reinhard Heydrich. * Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) — "security police", the combined forces of the Gestapo and KriPo, made up of the Reich's criminal investigators and secret state police. * "sichern und laden" — "lock and load". On September 1, Koch became ''Reichskommissar'' of Reichskommissariat Ukraine with control of the Gestapo and the police (Ordnungspolizei). His domain now extended from the Baltic (Baltic Sea) to the Black Sea; Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).

Gestapo

The '''Gestapo''' (

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