German Empire

What is German Empire known for?


attacking international

by attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram that was sent to Mexico. US Declaration of War The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and Great Britain, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements". Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264 Although the Ottoman Empire severed relations with the United States, it did not declare war. Tucker&Roberts p. 1559 thumb right 250px German 1905 map showing the extent of the Polish-speaking majority in Greater Poland (File:Posen 1905.png) Following the Partitions of Poland in late 18th century, a large part of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (namely the regions of Greater Poland, Upper Silesia and Royal (Royal Prussia), the later West Prussia) was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, the predecessor of the German Empire, which was formed in 1871. Primarily inhabited by Poles, Greater Poland initially was formed into a semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen, granted with a certain level of self-governance. However, under Otto von Bismarck's government, the ethnic and cultural tensions in the region began to rise. This was paired by growing tendencies of nationalism, imperialism, and chauvinism within the German society. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


title stories

became the Free City of Danzig. The Polish paper Wprost used both "Drang nach Osten" and "Drang nach Westen" in August 2002 to title stories about German RWE company taking over Polish STOEN and Polish migration into eastern Germany, respectively. Paul Reuber, Anke Strüver, Günter Wolkersdorfer, ''Politische Geographien Europas - Annäherungen an ein umstrittenes Konstrukt: Annäherungen an ein umstrittenes Konstrukt'', 2005, ISBN 3825865231


modern quick

Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien (Horace Smith-Dorrien). Unlike the Battle of Mons, where the majority of casualties inflicted by the British were from rifle fire, Le Cateau was an artilleryman's battle, demonstrating the devastating results which modern quick-firing artillery using airbursting shrapnel shells could have on infantry advancing in the open. Holding their ground tenaciously against superior odds despite taking heavy casualties, by mid-afternoon, the right, then left flanks


prominent coverage

policy, as the treaty arrangements made during his tenure in office show. As a latecomer to colonization, Germany repeatedly came into conflict with the established colonial powers and also with the United States, which opposed German attempts at colonial expansion in both the Caribbean and the Pacific. Native insurrections in German territories received prominent coverage in other countries, especially in Britain; the established powers had dealt with such uprisings decades earlier, often brutally


painting+created

of the German Empire in the Americas, Colonel Zeitel is, in fact, traveling on board the ''Titanic'' to secretly trade a valuable copy of the ''Rubáiyát'' with a Serbian revolutionary in exchange for a stolen painting created by the then unknown Adolf Hitler (valuable to Germany at the time, not because of the artist, but because of secret war plans hidden inside it). Later, he also acts to prevent the Russians from obtaining a notebook containing the names of important Communist (Communism) revolutionaries, whom Germany supports in the hopes of weakening Russia. Zeitel is last seen standing on deck at the very stern of the ship moments before it sinks, and dies in the freezing waters of the Atlantic. Depending on the type of ending, however, Zeitel manages to leave the ship by obtaining a lifeboat pass from the player. '''Ludwig Freiherr von Falkenhausen''' (13 September 1844 – 4 May 1936) was a German (German Empire) general most notable for his activities during World War I. A few days before the assassination of Franz Ferdinand (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria) in Sarajevo, which resulted in World War I, Tisza supported a strong stand against Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia). However, after the assassination he was against going to war against Serbia, the only one opposing this in Austria-Hungary. He knew the army's strength, and he was afraid that with the increase of more Slavic (Slavic peoples) territories the equilibrium inside the monarchy would be upset. Moreover, he was afraid that the Little Entente would attack Transylvania. Köpeczy-Makkai-Mócsy-Szász: History of Transylvania The loss of the alliance with the German Empire would have meant the end of Austria-Hungary as a Great Power, so he gave in and supported the war. He then became a relentless supporter of the war until its end. The Japanese raised her after the surrender of Port Arthur in January 1905 and repaired her. She was commissioned in the Imperial Japanese Navy as Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


intense+national

and Belgium espoused annexationist plans towards the Grand Duchy and thus had a vested interest in further discrediting Marie-Adélaïde. Under intense national and international pressure, and after consulting with the Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Luxembourg), the 25-year-old Grand Duchess decided to abdicate, doing so on 14 January 1919. She was succeeded by her younger sister, Charlotte (Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg).


excellent defensive

). The Russian provisional government, led by Alexander Kerensky, pledged to continue fighting the Germans on the Eastern Front (Eastern Front (World War I)). In return, the U.S. began providing economic and technical support to the Russian provisional government so they could carry out their military pledge. Prelude The terrain south of Ioannina provided excellent defensive ground. Moreover, the Ottoman forces further reinforced their positions with permanent fortifications


prominent military

Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


world

of Germany Unification date_start 18 January event_end Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) abdicates (Abdication) Statement of Abdication of Wilhelm II (s:Statement of Abdication) date_end 28 November event1 Constitution adopted (Constitution of the German Empire) date_event1 16 April 1871 event2 First World War (World War I) date_event2 28 July 1914 event3 German Revolution of 1918–19 German Revolution

- Reichsadler 1889.svg symbol_type Coat of arms (1889–1918) symbol Coat of arms of Germany#German Empire image_map German Empire 1914.svg image_map_caption Territory of the German Empire in 1914, before World War I national_motto ''Gott mit uns'' "God with us" national_anthem


quick victory

border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan, a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium (Rape of Belgium) and Luxembourg, sweeping down towards Paris and encircling and crushing the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory. After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required the violation of Belgium's and Luxembourg's official neutrality, which Britain (British Empire) had guaranteed by treaty. However

German Empire

capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) government_type Federal monarchy title_leader Emperor (German Emperor) leader1 Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) year_leader1 1871–1888 leader2 Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888 leader3 Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) year_leader3 1888–1918 title_deputy Chancellor (List of Chancellors of Germany) deputy1 Otto von Bismarck (first) year_deputy1 1871–1890 deputy2 Friedrich Ebert (last) year_deputy2 1918 legislature Reichstag (Reichstag (German Empire)) house1 Bundesrat (Bundesrat (Germany)) type_house1 Federal Council stat_year1 1871 religion Protestant (Protestant Church) ≈ 63% Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) ≈ 35.8% Jewish (Judaism) ≈ 1.2% stat_pop1 40050790 stat_year2 1890 stat_pop2 49428470 stat_year4 1910 stat_pop4 64925993 stat_area4 540857.54 currency Vereinsthaler, South German Gulden, Bremen Thaler, Hamburg Mark, French Franc, (until 1873, together) German Goldmark, (1873–1914) German Papiermark (1914–1918) footnotes Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: ---- today

The '''German Empire''' ( that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic (Weimar Republic).

The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories, with most of them being ruled by royal families (royal family). While the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the population and most of the territory of the empire, the Prussian leaders were supplanted by leaders from all over Germany, and Prussia itself played a lesser role. As Dwyer (2005) points out, Prussia's "political and cultural influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. Philip G. Dwyer, ''Modern Prussian History, 1830–1947'' (2005) p 2 The German Empire's three largest neighbours were all rivals: Imperial Russia (Russian Empire) to the east, France (French Third Republic) to the west, and Austria-Hungary, a rival but also an ally, to the south-east.

After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871, when the new German Empire was created, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the united Germany became predominantly urban. J. H. Clapham, ''The Economic Development of France and Germany 1815–1914'' (1936) During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than Britain, France, Russia, and the United States combined.

Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the world's strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. Paul Kennedy, ''The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000'' (1987) In less than a decade, its navy (Imperial German Navy) went from being a negligible force to one which was second only to the Royal Navy. After the removal of the powerful Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany) Otto von Bismarck in 1890 (following the deaths of two Emperors, Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) and Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor), in 1888), the young Emperor Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) engaged in increasingly reckless foreign policies that left the Empire isolated. When the great crisis of 1914 (July Crisis) arrived, the German Empire had only two allies (Central Powers), being Austria-Hungary, a great power at the time, and the Ottoman Empire. They were later joined by Bulgaria.

In the First World War (World War I), German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, and the war on the Western Front (Western Front (World War I)), against the forces of the British Empire and France, became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade made for increasing shortages of food, and Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; as a result of the Communists' determination to end Russian involvement in the war, it carved out large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British; it failed, because of the use of a trans-Atlantic convoy system. But the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war, with its large reserves of money, food, armaments, and soldiers. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution. The high command (Oberste Heeresleitung) under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, as they gambled on one last offensive in spring 1918 (Spring Offensive) before the Americans could arrive in force, using large numbers of troops and guns withdrawn from the Eastern Front. This failed, and by October the armies had been in retreat since August, the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary) and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, and the German people had lost faith in their political system. The Empire collapsed overnight in the November 1918 Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–1919), as the Emperor and all the ruling kings and dukes abdicated, and a republic (Weimar Republic) took over.

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