Gao

What is Gao known for?


sweet water

Dmitrov, Russia Expansion continued, sometimes by force, sometimes by peaceful proselytising (Dawah). The first stage in the conquest of India (Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent) began just before the year 1000. By some 200 (from 1193 — 1209) years later, the area up to the Ganges river had fallen. In sub-Saharan West Africa, Islam was established just after the year 1000. Muslim rulers were in Kanem (Kanem Region) starting from sometime between 1081 to 1097, with reports of a Muslim prince at the head of Gao as early as 1009. The Islamic kingdoms associated with Mali (Mali Empire) reached prominence in the 13th century. thumb right 250px The Songhai Empire, c. 1500 (Image:SONGHAI empire map.PNG) The Songhai people are descended from fishermen on the Middle Niger River (Niger River). They established their capital at Kukiya in the 9th century CE and at Gao in 12th century. The Songhai speak a Nilo-Saharan language (Nilo-Saharan languages). Collins and Burns (2007), p. 87. This effect is not limited to Hausa alone, but other northern dialects of neighbouring languages; such as the difference within Songhay language (between the northernmost Koyra Chiini and Koyraboro Senni dialects of Timbuktu and Gao, and the Zarma (Zarma language) dialect, spoken from western Niger to northern Ghana), and within the Soninke language (between the northernmost dialects of Imraguen (Imraguen language) and Nemadi spoken in east-central Mauritania, and the southern dialects of Senegal, Mali and the sahel). From there, Ibn Battuta travelled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile (it was actually the river Niger


traditional influence

is the tindé drum which is played by women at festive occasions. Another important traditional influence is the lute known as the teherdent, which is played by the griots of the Gao and Timbuktu regions. In the late 1970s, when the founding members of Tinariwen started playing acoustic guitars, they played a traditional repertoire adapted to the western guitar.


century translations

was published in 1550. The origin


active fighting

close to active fighting to be safe for visitors. Travel should not be considered to Gao at the moment for any reason. More info can be found in the warning at the top of the Mali page. (''Updated Jan 2013'') '''Gao''' is a small city of 65.000 inhabitants located in the Gao region (Gao (region)) of Mali. Understand The city was founded in the 7th century as a trading post, but it was during the 15th and 16th that the city flourished and its height was the center of the Songhai Empire. Get in By plane Gao has an international airport, and Point Afrique offers flights to Paris and Marseille as well as other cities along the Niger. By boat A ferry service links Gao to other cities on the Niger, such as Timbuktu. By road Gao is connected to Bamako by a paved highway and can be reached in a private car or by bus. Buses also travel to Niamey several times per week, but the road to the border is still unfinished. Get around See thumbnail Tomb of Askia (File:Askia.jpg) *


period gold

African savanna emerged from the trans-Saharan trade. Some of the more prominent were Kumbi Saleh, Timbuktu, Djenné and Gao. Arabic scholars like Ibn Khaldun have been a very important source of historical accounts from this area and period. Gold mining, iron technology, pottery making and textile production were the important technologies. In the commercial and capital center of Ghana (not present Ghana) Kumbi Saleh an elaborate economic system including


large year

 mm but there are large year to year variations. May is the hottest month with an average maximum temperature of 43 °C. December and January are the coolest months with minimum temperatures of 15 °C. From October to March during the dry period the north-easterly Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara. When it blows strongly the dust-laden wind reduces visibility and creates a persistent haze. With the low rainfall the vegetation away from the river is sparse

Fields V 1.0: Ansongo url http: www.compositerunoff.sr.unh.edu html Polygons P1134900.html publisher University of New Hampshire Global Runoff Data Center accessdate 30 January 2011 . There is a large year to year variation in the extent of the flooding. The existing and proposed dams upstream of Gao reduce the overall flow of the river and could potentially have a large effect on the local agriculture.


important traditional

is the tindé drum which is played by women at festive occasions. Another important traditional influence is the lute known as the teherdent, which is played by the griots of the Gao and Timbuktu regions. In the late 1970s, when the founding members of Tinariwen started playing acoustic guitars, they played a traditional repertoire adapted to the western guitar.


early ancient

Periods Little is known about the original inhabitants of Côte d'Ivoire. Historians believe that they were all either displaced or absorbed by the ancestors of the present inhabitants. The first recorded history is found in the chronicles of North African traders, who, from early Roman (Ancient Rome) times, conducted a caravan (Camel train) trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves, gold, and other items. The southern terminals of the trans-Saharan trade routes were located


legendary founder

A similar list of rulers is given in the ''Tarikh al-fattash''.


powerful military

on the edge of the desert, and from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest. The more important terminals—Djenné, Gao, and Timbuctu—grew into major commercial centers around which the great Sudanic (Sudan (region)) empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able to dominate neighboring states. The Sudanic empires also became centers of Islamic learning. Islam had been introduced into the western Sudan by Arab traders from North Africa and spread rapidly after the conversion of many important rulers. From the eleventh century, by which time the rulers of the Sudanic empires had embraced Islam, it spread south into the northern areas of contemporary Côte d'Ivoire.

Gao

'''Gao''' east-southeast of Timbuktu on the left bank at the junction with the Tilemsi valley.

For much of its history Gao was an important commercial centre involved in the trans-Saharan trade. In the 9th century external Arabic writers described Gao as an important regional power and by the end of the 10th century the local ruler was said to be a Muslim. Towards the end of the 13th century Gao became part of the Mali Empire, but in first half of the 15th century the town regained its independence and with the conquests of Sonni Ali (ruled 1464–1492) it became the capital of the Songhai Empire. The Empire collapsed after the Moroccan (Morocco) invasion in 1591 and the invaders chose to make Timbuktu their capital. By the time of Heinrich Barth's visit in 1854, Gao had declined to become an impoverished village with 300 huts constructed from matting. In 2009, the urban commune had a population of 86,633.

On 31 March 2012, Gao was captured (2012 insurgency in northern Mali) from Malian government forces by National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) and Ansar Dine rebels. After the additional captures of Kidal and Timbuktu, on 6 April, the MNLA declared the region independent of Mali as the nation of Azawad .

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