French colonial empire

What is French colonial empire known for?


main criticism

Press. p. 464. ISBN 0195334027 Critics of French colonialism gained an international audience in the 1920s, and often used documentary reportage and access to agencies such as the League of Nations and the International Labor Organisation to make their protests heard. The main criticism was the high level of violence and suffering among the natives. Major critics included Albert Londres, Félicien Challaye, and Paul Monet, whose books and articles were widely read. J.P. Daughton, "Behind the Imperial Curtain: International Humanitarian Efforts and the Critique of French Colonialism in the Interwar Years," ''French Historical Studies,'' (2011) 34#3 pp 503–528 While the first stages of a takeover often involved the destruction of historic buildings in order to use the site for French headquarters, archaeologists and art historians soon engaged in systematic effort to identify, map and preserve historic sites, especially temples such as Angkor Wat, Champa ruins and the temples of Luang Prabang. Robert Aldrich, "France and the Patrimoine of the Empire: Heritage Policy under Colonial Rule," ''French History and Civilisation'' (2011), Vol. 4, pp 200–209 Many French museums have collections of colonial materials. Since the 1980s the French government has opened new museums of colonial artifacts including the Musée du Quai Branly and the Cité Nationale de l’Histoire de l’Immigration, in Paris; the Centre Culturel Tjibaou in New Caledonia; and the Maison des Civilisations et de l’Unité Réunionnaise in Réunion. Caroline Ford, "Museums after Empire in Metropolitan and Overseas France," ''Journal of Modern History,'' (Sept 2010), 82#3 pp 625–661, Decolonization (20th century) The French colonial empire began to fall during the Second World War, when various parts were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the United States and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany and Italy in Tunisia). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle. The French Union, included in the Constitution of 1946 (French Constitution of 1946), replaced the former colonial Empire. France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonisation movement. Paul Ramadier's (SFIO (French Section of the Workers' International)) cabinet repressed the Malagasy Uprising in 1947. In Asia, Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh declared Vietnam's independence, starting the First Indochina War. In Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed. When the Indochina War ended with defeat and withdrawal in 1954, France became almost immediately involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in Algeria, the oldest major colony. Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalised after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried out by the French army. The Algerian War (Algerian War of Independence) started in 1954. Algeria was particularly problematic, due to the large number of European settlers (or ''pieds-noirs'') who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule (French rule in Algeria). Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to the independence of Algeria with the 1962 Evian Accords. The Suez crisis in 1956 also displayed the limitations of French power, as its attempt to retake the canal along with the British was stymied when the United States did not back the plan. The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution of 1958 (French Constitution of 1958) by the French Community. Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part in the new colonial organisation. However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midst of the Algerian War; almost all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the status of overseas ''départements'' (territories) (French overseas departments and territories). Critics of neocolonialism claimed that the ''Françafrique'' had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties with the help of Jacques Foccart, his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Nigerian Civil War during the late 1960s. The Indian Ocean island of Mayotte voted in referendum in 1974 to retain its link with France and forgo independence. "Mayotte votes to become France's 101st département". ''The Daily Telegraph''. March 29, 2009. Demographics Population between 1919 and 1940 class "wikitable" style "margin: 1em auto 1em auto;" + style "font-weight: bold; font-size: 1.1em; margin-bottom: 0.5em" 520px (File:French Empire 1919-1939.png) Population of the French Empire between 1919 and 1939 ! !!  1921  !!  1926  !!  1931  !!  1936  - align center Metropolitan France align center 39,140,000 align center 40,710,000 align center 41,550,000 align center 41,500,000 - align center Colonies, protectorates, and mandates align center 55,556,000 align center 59,474,000 align center 64,293,000 align center 69,131,000 - align center '''Total''' align center '''94,696,000''' align center '''100,184,000''' align center '''105,843,000''' align center '''110,631,000''' - align center Percentage of the world population align center 5.02% align center 5.01% align center 5.11% align center 5.15% - colspan 5 align center Sources: INSEE, Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


political historical

that the "positive consequences" of colonization must be taught to students, created a wide uproar, including among many university teachers outraged by what they have called a mark of "historical revisionism (Historical revisionism (political))", and an infringement on the legal principle of academic freedom. '''Sagallo''' or '''Sagallou''' (Russian (Russian language): Сагалло) was a short-lived Russian colony on the Gulf of Tadjoura in present-day


time influential

;Ferguson 2004 (#refFergusonEmpire2004), p. 7. At the same time, influential writers such as Richard Hakluyt and John Dee (who was the first to use the term "British Empire") Canny (#refOHBEv1), p. 62. were beginning to press for the establishment of England's own empire. By this time, Spain was entrenched in the Americas, Portugal had established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France (French colonial empire) had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River, later to become New France. Lloyd (British Empire#refLloyd1996), pp. 4–8. Just as modern Khmer was emerging from the transitional period represented by Middle Khmer, Cambodia fell under the influence (French protectorate of Cambodia) of French (France) colonialism (French colonial empire). In 1887 Cambodia was fully integrated into French Indochina which brought in a French (French language)-speaking aristocracy. This led to French becoming the language of higher education and the intellectual class. Many native scholars in the early 20th century, led by a monk named Chuon Nath, resisted the French influence on their language and championed Khmerization, using Khmer roots (and Pali and Sanskrit) to coin new words for modern ideas, instead of French. Nath cultivated modern Khmer-language identity and culture, overseeing the translation of the entire Pali Buddhist canon into Khmer and creating the modern Khmer language dictionary that is still in use today, thereby ensuring that Khmer would survive, and indeed flourish, during the French colonial period. thumb left Map of the Ohio Country between 1775–1794 depicting locations of battles and massacres surrounding the area which would eventually become the location of the city. (File:Ohio Country en.png) The region where modern-day Columbus is found was once called the Ohio Country, "The testing grounds of modern empire: the making of colonial racial order in the American Ohio country and the South African Eastern Cape, 1770s–1850s", Christoph Strobel. Peter Lang, 2008. ISBN 1-4331-0123-8, 9781433101236. p. 22 under the control of the French Empire (French colonial empire) through the Vice-royauté of New France. European traders flocked to the area, in the interests of the fur trade. "Chapter One: The Anglo-French Contest for the Ohio Country", Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved 10 September 2010. The 17th century saw the creation of the French colonial empire and the Dutch Empire, as well as the English colonial empire (Colonial empire of the Kingdom of England), which later became the British Empire. It also saw the establishment of some Swedish overseas colonies and a Danish colonial empire. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


recurring religious

and the Protestant Reformation, as well as recurring religious conflicts and wars with other powers. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire) was established from the 16th century. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, which forever changed French and world history. The country was governed for a period as a Republic (French First Republic), until the French Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. Following Napoleon's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy (Bourbon Restoration), then briefly as a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then as a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting Third French Republic was established in 1870. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, and their allies (Allies of World War I) against the Central Powers. It was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but was conquered by Nazi Germany within two months. The Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by the Axis Powers, while the south was controlled by the collaborationist (Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II) Vichy government (Vichy France). Following liberation (liberation of France), a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established; this was succeeded in 1958 by the French Fifth Republic, the country's current government. After the war decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while other parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments and collectivities (overseas collectivities). Since World War II France has been a leading member in the UN, the European Union and NATO, and remains a strong economic, cultural, military and political influence in the 21st century. Age of Imperialism The Age of Imperialism was a time period beginning around 1870 when modern, relatively developed nations were taking over less developed areas, colonizing them, or influencing them in order to expand their own power. Although imperialist practices have existed for thousands of years, the term "Age of Imperialism" generally refers to the activities of nations such as the United Kingdom (British Empire), France (French colonial empire), Germany (German Empire), Italy (Italian Empire), Japan (Empire of Japan) and the United States (American imperialism) in the early 18th through the middle 20th centuries, e.g., the "The Great Game" in Persian lands, the "Scramble for Africa" and the "Open Door Policy" in China. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


story track'

of the United States, the so-called ''Zoreilles'' and ''Petits-blancs'' of various Indian Ocean islands (List of islands in the Indian Ocean), as well as populations of the former French colonial empire in Africa. There are currently an estimated 400,000 French people in the United Kingdom, most of them in London.


construction business

but without renouncing his Islamic principles. Histoire des Comores; Ali Soilih A man of integrity with a prodigious work ethic and a keen business sense, within a few years Redpath was running his own sizeable construction business. He was involved in major projects such as the construction of the Lachine Canal and locks that proved key to future commercial development of the city of Montreal. Beginning in 1689, attempts were made by the French Colonial government (French colonial empire) and several others to build a canal that would allow ships to bypass the treacherous Lachine Rapids. After more than 130 years of failure, with funding from the recently formed Bank of Montreal, the consortium, of which Redpath was a major part, was successful in its construction and the new canal officially opened in 1825. Indeed, throughout the rest of the 1750s, Hsinbyushin was a key top commander in Alaungpaya's campaigns which by 1759 had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), and driven out the French (French colonial empire) and the British (British empire) who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy. Hsinbyshin was second-in-command of the Burmese forces in Alaungpaya's invasion of Siam (Burmese-Siamese War (1759–1760)) (1759–1760), which overran the Siamese defenses and reached the gates of Ayutthaya (Ayutthaya (city)) in April 1760. But the Burmese forces had to retreat hastily as Alaungpaya suddenly fell ill from scrofula. Hsinbyushin retreated back alongside his father's litter (litter (vehicle)), and was by the his father's bedside when the king died near a small village in Martaban (Mottama). The dynasty was founded by a village-chief Alaungpaya in 1752 to challenge the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom which had just toppled the Toungoo dynasty. By 1759, Alaungpaya's forces had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), and driven out the French (French colonial empire) and the British who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy. Phayre 1883: 153 In 1760, Burma began a series of wars with Siam (Ayutthaya Kingdom) that would last well into the middle of 19th century. By 1770, Alaungpaya's heirs had temporarily defeated Siam (1767), subdued much of Laos (1765) and defeated four invasions (Sino–Burmese War (1765–1769)) by Qing China (1765–1769). Lieberman 2003: 184–187 With the Burmese preoccupied for another two decades by another impending invasion by the Chinese, Dai 2004: 145–189 the Siamese recovered their territories by 1770, and went on to capture Lan Na by 1776. Wyatt 2003: 125 Burma and Siam went to war until 1855 but after decades of war, the two countries exchanged Tenasserim (to Burma) and Lan Na (to Siam). Facing a greater threat however from powerful Western nations, the Konbaung Dynasty tried to modernize the kingdom. European (European ethnic groups)s began to set up trading posts in the Irrawaddy delta region during this period. Konbaung tried to maintain its independence by balancing between the French (French colonial empire) and the British (British Empire). In the end it failed, the British severed diplomatic relations in 1811, and the dynasty fought and lost three wars against the British Empire, culminating in total annexation of Burma by the British. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


growing music

known as ''Camfranglais'' or ''Frananglais''. Many educational authorities disapprove of Frananglais in Cameroon and have banned it in their schools. Nevertheless, the language has gained in popularity and has a growing music scene. BBC NEWS World Africa New language for divided Cameroon Between 1791 and 1804, the leaders Toussaint L'Ouverture François Dominique Toussaint


rich religious

, the Kanuri were divided under the rule of the British (British Empire), French (French colonial empire) and German (German Empire) African empires. thumb Karaikal Ammayar Temple (File:Karaikal_main_road.JPG) Located 132 km south of the city of Pondicherry, 300 km south of Chennai and 150 km east of Thiruchi. Karaikal is known for its rich religious heritage, and is a destination for those seeking leisure and serenity. The town enjoys a harmonious society made up of Hindus, Muslims, Christians and people of other religious persuasions. Tamil (Tamil language) is the predominant native language of the people. As the area was formerly a French possession (French colonial empire), the French language is also found, especially among the elder generation. Born in Egmont Bay, Prince County, Prince Edward Island, Arsenault's family settled on the island in 1729 when it was a French (French colonial empire) possession called ''Ile-Saint-Jean''. His father, Joseph-Octave Arsenault, was a provincial politician and the first Acadian from PEI to be named to the Canadian Senate. Arsenault was educated at St. Dunstan's College, Charlottetown, and St. Joseph University, New Brunswick. He studied law with McLeod, Morson and McQuarrie in Charlottetown and with Charles Russell, Baron Russell of Killowen in London. He was admitted to the Bar in 1898. Arsenault married Bertha, the daughter of Francis Gallant. Seventy years later, Samuel de Champlain found no evidence of the villages or people of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, or any human habitation. He unsuccessfully tried to create a fur trading post but the Mohawk (Mohawk nation) of the Iroquois defended what they had been using as their hunting grounds. A mission (Mission (Christian)) named Ville Marie was built in 1642 as part of a project to create a French colonial empire. Ville Marie became a centre for the fur trade and French expansion into New France until 1760, when it was surrendered to the British army, following the French defeat of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. British immigration expanded the city. The city's golden era of fur trading began with the advent of the locally owned North West Company. Champlain decided to establish a fur trading post at Place Royal on the Island of Montreal, but the Mohawk (Mohawk nation), based mostly in present-day New York, successfully defended what had by then become their hunting grounds and paths for their war parties. It was not until 1639 that the French created a permanent settlement on the Island of Montreal, started by tax collector Jérôme le Royer de la Dauversière. Under the authority of the Roman Catholic ''Société Notre-Dame de Montréal'', missionaries (missionary) Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, Jeanne Mance and a few French colonists set up a mission named Ville Marie on May 17, 1642 as part of a project to create a colony (French colonial empire) dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Blessed Virgin Mary). In 1644, Jeanne Mance founded the Hôtel-Dieu (Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal), the first hospital in North America, north of Mexico. Google books accessed December 23, 2007 At the beginning of the Second World War the Army deployed 2,240,000 combatants grouped into 94 divisions (division (military)) (of which 20 were active and 74 were reservists) from the Swiss border to the North Sea. These numbers were limited to 12% of the ''Wehrmacht'' forces, however, the Army of the Alps facing Italy and 600,000 men dispersed through the French colonial empire are not included in this figure. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


original play

''in absentia'' and sentenced him to life imprisonment on August 2, 1940, so a letter signed by him would have been of no benefit. A classic MacGuffin, the letters were invented by Joan Allison for the original play and never questioned. Even in the film, Rick suggests to Renault that the letters would not have allowed Ilsa to escape, let alone Laszlo: "People have been held in Casablanca in spite


natural population

thumb right upright The deportation order is read to a group of Acadians (File:Deportation of Acadians order, painting by Jefferys.jpg) in 1755. Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots in British or Dutch colonies. France generally had close to the slowest natural population growth in Europe, and emigration pressures were therefore quite small. A small but significant emigration, numbering only in the tens of thousands, of mainly Roman Catholic French populations led to the settlement of the provinces of Acadia, Canada and Louisiana, both (at the time) French possessions, as well as colonies in the West Indies, Mascarene islands and Africa. In New France, Huguenots were banned from settling in the territory, and Quebec was one of the most staunchly Catholic areas in the world until the Quiet Revolution. The current French Canadian (French Canadians) population, which numbers in the millions, is descended almost entirely from New France's small settler population. On 31 December 1687 a community of French Huguenots (Huguenots in South Africa) settled in South Africa. Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but have since been quickly absorbed into the Afrikaner population. After Champlain's founding of Quebec City in 1608, it became the capital of New France. Encouraging settlement was difficult, and while some immigration did occur, by 1763 New France only had a population of some 65,000. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.

French colonial empire

The '''French colonial empire''' constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First colonial empire", that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, and the "Second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830 and came for the most part to an end with the granting of independence to Algeria in 1962 (the last territory to reach independence was Vanuatu in 1980).

In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire, extending over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. miles) between the two world wars, that is nearly 1 10th of the Earth's land area, with a population of 110 million people on the eve of World War II (5% of the world's population at the time).

Competing with Spain (Spanish Empire), Portugal (Portuguese Empire), the United Provinces (Dutch Empire), and later England (English overseas possessions), France began to establish colonies in North America (New France), the Caribbean, and India (French India) in the 17th century. A series of wars with Great Britain during the 18th century and early 19th century resulted in both countries losing most of their colonial empires: France lost New France and most of French India, while Great Britain lost its Thirteen American colonies (Thirteen Colonies) which became the United States.

France took control of Algeria in 1830 but began in earnest to rebuild its worldwide empire after 1850, concentrating chiefly in North and West Africa, as well as South-East Asia, with other conquests in Central and East Africa, as well as the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language, and the Catholic religion. It also provided manpower in the World Wars.

It became a moral mission to lift the world up to French standards by bringing Christianity and French culture. In 1884 the leading exponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races (Civilizing mission)." Full citizenship rights – ''assimilation'' – were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding and the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens." Julian Jackson, ''The Other Empire'', Radio 3 France sent small numbers of settlers to its empire, contrary to Great Britain, and previously Spain and Portugal, with the only notable exception of Algeria, where the French settlers nonetheless always remained a small minority.

In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. However after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. France fought and lost bitter wars in Vietnam and Algeria in the 1950s and 60s. Its settlers and many local supporters relocated to France. Nearly all of France's colonies gained independence by 1960, but France retained great financial and diplomatic influence. The remnants of the colonial empire (mostly smaller islands) were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories (Overseas departments and territories of France). These now total altogether 119,394 km² (46,098 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2013. Their locations in all oceans of the world, however, give France the second-largest (Exclusive economic zone#Rankings by area) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the world after that of the United States.

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017