Free Territory

What is Free Territory known for?


knowledge

around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable

conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921. To date, the best-known examples of an anarchist communist society (ie, established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally

. Yekelchyk 2007, p 80.


red

of Southern Russia formed, but, by 1920, Denikin's forces had been driven out of the area by the Red Army in cooperation with Makhno's forces, whose units were conducting guerrilla warfare behind Denikin's lines. As the Free Territory was organized along anarchist lines, references to "control" and "government" are highly contentious. For example, the Makhnovists, often cited as a form of government (with Nestor Makhno being their leader), played a purely military

. The Makhnovists said they supported "free worker-peasant soviets" Declaration Of The Revolutionary Insurgent Army Of The Ukraine (Makhnovist). Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement (1918-1921), 1923. Black & Red, 1974 and opposed the central government. Makhno called the Bolsheviks dictators and opposed the "Cheka secret

; ref Declaration Of The Revolutionary Insurgent Army Of The Ukraine (Makhnovist). Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement (1918-1921), 1923. Black & Red, 1974 Historian Heather-Noël Schwartz comments that "Makhno would not countenance organizations that sought to impose political authority, and he accordingly dissolved the Bolshevik revolutionary committees". ref name "avrich1988">


306')

), was an anarchist organization that came to prominence in Ukraine during the years 1918 to 1920. The area where it held the most influence is sometimes referred to as the Free Territory, though Nabat had branches in all of the major cities in southern Ukraine. Volin was a prolific Russian writer

during the years 1918 to 1920. The area where it held the most influence is sometimes referred to as the Free Territory, though Nabat had branches in all of the major cities in southern Ukraine. Nikiforova was put on the trial twice by the Bolsheviks on charges of insubordination and pillaging


work program

To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society (ie, established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution (1917)). Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being crushed by the combined forces of the regime that won the war (Francoism), Hitler (Adolf Hitler), Mussolini, Spanish Communist Party repression (backed by the USSR) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself. Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' During the Russian Revolution, anarchists such as Nestor Makhno worked to create and defend—through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine—anarchist communism in the Free Territory of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921. After a failed attempt to dislodge Black Army forces, Denikin shifted his campaign from the north to the south. The White Army's best cavalry troops, commanded by General Konstantin Mamontov and General Shkuro, were transferred from the northern front to the Gulyai-Polye region of Russia. Denikin's new strategy succeeded in driving out Makhno's forces from part of Ukraine, but at the cost of denuding forces opposing the Red Army. During October and November 1919, Denikin's troops were defeated in a series of battles by Red Army forces. His Caucasus regiments suffered the greatest losses, especially the Chechen cavalry and others, who died by the thousands. Toward the end of November, some of these troops mutinied, returning to their homes in the Caucasus. This in turn began a slow disintegration of Denikin's White Army. Some historians note that if the anarchist forces had not won a decisive victory at Peregonovka, blockading Denikin's lines of supply and denying the White Army supplies of food, ammunition, and artillery reinforcements, the White Army would probably have entered Moscow in December 1919. All through February, 1920 the Free Territory - Makhnovist region - was inundated with Red troops, including the 42nd Rifle Division and the Latvian (Latvian Riflemen) & Estonian Red Division (Estonian Red Riflemen) – in total at least 20,000 soldiers. V. N. Litvinov, An Unsolved Mystery - The "Diary of Makhno's Wife". After the souring and dissolution of Nestor Makhno's Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine with Bolsheviks the captured Red commanders and commissars were similarly summarily executed. However, Makhno usually preferred to release the disarmed enlisted men that were captured, as "proletarian brothers", with a choice of joining his army or returning home, after all commanding officers were executed. This happened to an Estonian Red Army unit that surrendered to Makhno in 1920. Nestor Makhno Biography. Viktor Belash noted that even in the worst time for the revolutionary army, namely at the beginning of 1920, "In the majority of cases rank-and-file Red Army soldiers were set free". Of course Belash, as a colleague of Makhno's, was likely to idealize the punishment policies of the Batko. However, the facts bear witness that Makhno really did release "in all four directions" captured Red Army soldiers. This is what happened at the beginning of February 1920, when the insurgents disarmed the 10,000-strong Estonian Division in Huliajpole (Huliaipole). A. Buysky, "The Red Army on the Internal Front", Gosizdat (1927), p. 52. To this it must be added that the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine included a choir of Estonian musicians. How Is Makhno’s Troop Organised? The problem was further compounded by the alienation of the Estonians by Anton Denikin's inflexible Russian chauvinism and their refusal to fight with Nikolai Yudenich. Why did the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War? Peter Anderson (historian) Peter Anderson compares the tactics and resources of the two sides.


important part

expropriation. People's War (Ukrainian pravda, photos) (Ukrainian) * Free Territory (Nestor Makhno) * Otaman Grigoriev Synthesis anarchism Volin was a prolific writer and anarchist intellectual who played an important part in the organization and leadership of Nabat. The Nabat Confederation of Anarchist Organizations (Nabat), better known simply as Nabat (Набат), was an anarchist organization that came to prominence in Ukraine during the years 1918 to 1920. The area where it held the most influence is sometimes referred to as the Free Territory, though Nabat had branches in all of the major cities in southern Ukraine. To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society (ie, established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution (1917)). Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being crushed by the combined forces of the regime that won the war (Francoism), Hitler (Adolf Hitler), Mussolini, Spanish Communist Party repression (backed by the USSR) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself. Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' During the Russian Revolution, anarchists such as Nestor Makhno worked to create and defend—through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine—anarchist communism in the Free Territory of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921. After a failed attempt to dislodge Black Army forces, Denikin shifted his campaign from the north to the south. The White Army's best cavalry troops, commanded by General Konstantin Mamontov and General Shkuro, were transferred from the northern front to the Gulyai-Polye region of Russia. Denikin's new strategy succeeded in driving out Makhno's forces from part of Ukraine, but at the cost of denuding forces opposing the Red Army. During October and November 1919, Denikin's troops were defeated in a series of battles by Red Army forces. His Caucasus regiments suffered the greatest losses, especially the Chechen cavalry and others, who died by the thousands. Toward the end of November, some of these troops mutinied, returning to their homes in the Caucasus. This in turn began a slow disintegration of Denikin's White Army. Some historians note that if the anarchist forces had not won a decisive victory at Peregonovka, blockading Denikin's lines of supply and denying the White Army supplies of food, ammunition, and artillery reinforcements, the White Army would probably have entered Moscow in December 1919. All through February, 1920 the Free Territory - Makhnovist region - was inundated with Red troops, including the 42nd Rifle Division and the Latvian (Latvian Riflemen) & Estonian Red Division (Estonian Red Riflemen) – in total at least 20,000 soldiers. V. N. Litvinov, An Unsolved Mystery - The "Diary of Makhno's Wife". After the souring and dissolution of Nestor Makhno's Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine with Bolsheviks the captured Red commanders and commissars were similarly summarily executed. However, Makhno usually preferred to release the disarmed enlisted men that were captured, as "proletarian brothers", with a choice of joining his army or returning home, after all commanding officers were executed. This happened to an Estonian Red Army unit that surrendered to Makhno in 1920. Nestor Makhno Biography. Viktor Belash noted that even in the worst time for the revolutionary army, namely at the beginning of 1920, "In the majority of cases rank-and-file Red Army soldiers were set free". Of course Belash, as a colleague of Makhno's, was likely to idealize the punishment policies of the Batko. However, the facts bear witness that Makhno really did release "in all four directions" captured Red Army soldiers. This is what happened at the beginning of February 1920, when the insurgents disarmed the 10,000-strong Estonian Division in Huliajpole (Huliaipole). A. Buysky, "The Red Army on the Internal Front", Gosizdat (1927), p. 52. To this it must be added that the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine included a choir of Estonian musicians. How Is Makhno’s Troop Organised? The problem was further compounded by the alienation of the Estonians by Anton Denikin's inflexible Russian chauvinism and their refusal to fight with Nikolai Yudenich. Why did the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War? Peter Anderson (historian) Peter Anderson compares the tactics and resources of the two sides.


influence

experiment. But the Bolsheviks increasingly saw the Makhnovists as a threat to their power, both as an example and as a site of anarchist influence Skirda, Alexandre, ''Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack''. AK Press, 2004, p. 236 and restarted a propaganda campaign declaring the Free Territory to be a warlord regime, and eventually broke with it by launching surprise attacks on Makhnovist militias Skirda, Alexandre, ''Nestor

around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable

, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution (1917)). Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during


free quot

Division – in total at least 20,000 soldiers. V. N. Litvinov, An Unsolved Mystery - The "Diary of Makhno's Wife". Viktor Belash noted that even in the worst time for the revolutionary army, namely at the beginning of 1920, "In the majority of cases rank-and-file Red Army soldiers were set free". Of course Belash, as a colleague of Makhno's, was likely to idealize the punishment policies of the Batko. However, the facts bear witness

. This happened to an Estonian Red Army unit that surrendered to Makhno in 1920. Nestor Makhno Biography. Viktor Belash noted that even in the worst time for the revolutionary army, namely at the beginning of 1920, "In the majority of cases rank-and-file Red Army soldiers were set free". Of course Belash, as a colleague of Makhno's, was likely to idealize the punishment policies of the Batko. However, the facts bear


black amp

. The Makhnovists said they supported "free worker-peasant soviets" Declaration Of The Revolutionary Insurgent Army Of The Ukraine (Makhnovist). Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement (1918-1921), 1923. Black & Red, 1974 and opposed the central government. Makhno called the Bolsheviks dictators and opposed the "Cheka secret

; ref Declaration Of The Revolutionary Insurgent Army Of The Ukraine (Makhnovist). Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement (1918-1921), 1923. Black & Red, 1974 Historian Heather-Noël Schwartz comments that "Makhno would not countenance organizations that sought to impose political authority, and he accordingly dissolved the Bolshevik revolutionary committees". ref name "avrich1988">


free

of the Free Territory in present-day Ukraine. capital Huliaipole latd 44 latm 45 latNS N longd 33 longm 51 longEW E common_languages Ukrainian (Ukrainian language) Russian (Russian language) government_type None (Anarchist-communism) title_leader Political leader year_leader1 1918–1921 legislature era Russian Civil War year_start 1918 year_end 1921 stat_year1

stat_area1 stat_pop1 7 million currency footnote_a today ''Makhnovshchyna'') was an attempt to form a stateless (Stateless society) anarchist Noel-Schwartz, Heather.


period quot

To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society (ie, established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution (1917)). Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being crushed by the combined forces of the regime that won the war (Francoism), Hitler (Adolf Hitler), Mussolini, Spanish Communist Party repression (backed by the USSR) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself. Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' During the Russian Revolution, anarchists such as Nestor Makhno worked to create and defend—through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine—anarchist communism in the Free Territory of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921. When World War I and series of revolutions across the Europe including the October Revolution in Russia shattered many existing empires such as the Austrian Empire Austrian

Free Territory

The '''Free Territory''' ( ''Makhnovshchyna'') was an attempt to form a stateless (Stateless society) anarchist Noel-Schwartz, Heather.The Makhnovists & The Russian Revolution - Organization, Peasantry and Anarchism. Archived on Internet Archive. Accessed October 2010. society during the Ukrainian Revolution (Ukrainian War of Independence). It existed from 1918 to 1921, during which time "free soviet (Soviet (council))s" and libertarian (Libertarian socialism) communes Skirda, Alexandre, ''Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack''. AK Press, 2004, p. 86 operated under the protection of Nestor Makhno's Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army. The population of the area was around seven million. Peter Marshall, ''Demanding the Impossible'', PM Press (2010), p. 473.

The territory was occupied by White (White movement) Russian forces under Anton Denikin and a temporary government of Southern Russia (South Russian Government) formed, but, by 1920, Denikin's forces had been driven out of the area by the Red Army in cooperation with Makhno's forces, whose units were conducting guerrilla warfare behind Denikin's lines.

As the Free Territory was organized along anarchist lines, references to "control" and "government" are highly contentious. For example, the Makhnovists, often cited as a form of government (with Nestor Makhno being their leader), played a purely military role, with Makhno himself being little more than a military strategist and advisor. Skirda, Alexandre, ''Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack''. AK Press, 2004, p. 34

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