Free City of Lübeck

What is Free City of Lübeck known for?


red+commercial

in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. although there was also a need to compensate Prussia for its losses to Hamburg. Besides Lübeck, which was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein Province), Hamburg had to cede its possessions of Geesthacht, which went to Schleswig-Holstein as well, and Ritzebüttel (which included Cuxhaven), which went to the Province of Hanover. From the possessions Prussia gave up to Hamburg, Altona (Altona, Hamburg) and Wandsbek had belonged to Schleswig-Holstein, while Harburg-Wilhelmsburg (Harburg, Hamburg) had been a part of Hanover. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation ('''''Norddeutscher Bund''''') was transformed into the German Empire ('''''Deutsches Kaiserreich'''''). This empire was a federal state (Federation); the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony), the grand dukes of Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden), Mecklenburg, Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse), as well as other principalities, duchies and of the free cities (free city) of Hamburg (Free City of Hamburg), Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Bremen (Bremen (state))). The (second) '''Battle of Bornhöved''' took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein. Count Adolf IV (Adolf IV of Holstein) of Schauenburg and Holstein (Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein) — leading an army consisting of troops from the cities of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Hamburg, about 1000 Dithmarsians (Dithmarschen) and combined troops of Holstein next to various north German nobles — defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark. Saxe-Lauenburg ceded Bleckede - with toll and castle - to Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-Stendal (Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal), who quickly sold his new acquisition in 1308 to the Welf duke Otto the Strict, ruling the branch Principality of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg-Celle). Two years later the duke granted Bleckede town privileges, comprising the obligation to fortify the town. In 1379 Duke Albert of Lunenburg-Celle (Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duke of Lüneburg) pawned Bleckede castle to his creditors Hamburg, Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), Hanover and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg). The latter managed to hold Bleckede by way of pawn until 1600. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. 1934 Formed from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Free City of Lübeck and territory belonging to the Free State of Oldenburg -


quick actions

of, but they refused to give him any more land. Once Eric XIV of Sweden became king he took quick actions to get involved in the war. He negotiated a continued peace with Muscovy and spoke to the burghers (Burgess (title)) of Reval (Tallinn) city. He offered them goods to submit to him as well as threatening them. By June 6, 1561 they submitted to him contrary to the persuasions of Kettler to the burghers. The King's brother Johan married the Polish princess Catherine Jagellon

(Principality of Estonia). Then along with Archbishop Wilhelm von Brandenburg of The Archbishopric of Riga and his Coadjutor Christoph von Mecklenburg (Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg-Gadebusch), Kettler gave to Magnus the portions of The Kingdom of Livonia, which he had taken possession of, but they refused to give him any more land. Once Eric XIV of Sweden became king he took quick actions to get involved in the war. He negotiated a continued peace with Muscovy

Mecklenburg , Kettler gave to Magnus the portions of The Kingdom of Livonia, which he had taken possession of, but they refused to give him any more land. Once Eric XIV of Sweden became king he took quick actions to get involved in the war. He negotiated a continued peace with Muscovy and spoke to the burgher (bourgeoisie)s of Reval city. He offered them goods to submit to him as well as threatening them. By June 6, 1561 they submitted to him contrary to the persuasions


century based

details, p. 124. ISBN 3-520-37105-7. Ditmarsians had established trade with Livonia and neighbouring Baltic (Baltic Sea) destinations since the 15th century, based on the Hanseatic obligations and privileges since the pact with Lübeck. Both parties renewed their alliance several times and it thus lasted until Dithmarschen's final defeat and Dano-Holsatian annexation in 1559. The success of the settlement challenged the powerful Free City of Lübeck, which burnt Stralsund down in 1249. Afterwards the town was rebuilt with a massive town wall having 11 town gates and 30 watchtowers. The ''Neustadt'', a town-like suburb, was merged to Stralsund by 1361. ''Schadegard'', a twin town to Stralsund also founded by Wizlaw I nearby, but was not granted German law, served as the principal stronghold and enclosed a fort. It was given up and torn down by 1269 under the pressure of the Stralsund ''Bürger (bourgeoisie)''. Within the transalpine part of the Holy Roman Empire the Free Imperial Cities (Free imperial city) enjoyed a considerable autonomy, buttressed legally by the Lübeck law which was emulated by many other cities. Some cities — though also members of different confederacies (confederation) at that time — officially became sovereign city-states in the 19th century — such as the Canton of Basel City (Basel-Stadt) (1833–48), the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Bremen (state)) (1806–11 and again 1813–71), the Free City of Frankfurt upon Main (Free City of Frankfurt) (1815–66), the Canton of Geneva (1813–48), the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Hamburg) (1806–11 and again 1814–71) and the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) (1806–11 and again 1813–71). Another city-state, though lacking sovereignty, was West Berlin (1948–90), being a state legally not belonging to any other state, but ruled by the Western Allies. They allowed — notwithstanding their overlordship as occupant powers — its internal organisation as one state simultaneously being a city, officially called Berlin (West). Though West Berlin held close ties to the West German Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), it was legally never part of it. A number of the aforementioned city-states — though partly with altered borders — continue to exist as city-states within today's Federal Republic of Germany (Germany) and today's Swiss Confederation (Switzerland#Federal state) (see below: 'Cities that are component states of federations'). birth_date 1630s birth_place Free City of Lübeck, Holy Roman Empire death_date July 24, 1663 DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH Free City of Lübeck, Holy Roman Empire DATE OF DEATH July 24, 1663 From this time onward Haakon’s reign was marked by internal peace and more prosperity than Norway had known for many years. This was the start of what has traditionally been known as the ''golden age'' of the Norwegian medieval kingdom. In 1240, a group of Bjarmians told Haakon that they were refugees from the Mongols. He gave them land in Malangen. although there was also a need to compensate Prussia for its losses to Hamburg. Besides Lübeck, which was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein Province), Hamburg had to cede its possessions of Geesthacht, which went to Schleswig-Holstein as well, and Ritzebüttel (which included Cuxhaven), which went to the Province of Hanover. From the possessions Prussia gave up to Hamburg, Altona (Altona, Hamburg) and Wandsbek had belonged to Schleswig-Holstein, while Harburg-Wilhelmsburg (Harburg, Hamburg) had been a part of Hanover. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation ('''''Norddeutscher Bund''''') was transformed into the German Empire ('''''Deutsches Kaiserreich'''''). This empire was a federal state (Federation); the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony), the grand dukes of Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden), Mecklenburg, Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse), as well as other principalities, duchies and of the free cities (free city) of Hamburg (Free City of Hamburg), Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Bremen (Bremen (state))). The (second) '''Battle of Bornhöved''' took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein. Count Adolf IV (Adolf IV of Holstein) of Schauenburg and Holstein (Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein) — leading an army consisting of troops from the cities of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Hamburg, about 1000 Dithmarsians (Dithmarschen) and combined troops of Holstein next to various north German nobles — defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark. Saxe-Lauenburg ceded Bleckede - with toll and castle - to Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-Stendal (Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal), who quickly sold his new acquisition in 1308 to the Welf duke Otto the Strict, ruling the branch Principality of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg-Celle). Two years later the duke granted Bleckede town privileges, comprising the obligation to fortify the town. In 1379 Duke Albert of Lunenburg-Celle (Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duke of Lüneburg) pawned Bleckede castle to his creditors Hamburg, Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), Hanover and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg). The latter managed to hold Bleckede by way of pawn until 1600. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. 1934 Formed from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Free City of Lübeck and territory belonging to the Free State of Oldenburg -


free

of Holstein image_p1 20px alt (File:Holstein Arms.svg) s1 Schleswig-Holstein Province flag_s1 Flag of Prussia 1933.svg image_flag Flag of the Free City of Lübeck.svg image_coat Wappen Lübeck (Alt).svg image_map German Empire - Lubeck (1871).svg image_map_caption Location of the Free City of Lübeck within the German Empire capital Lübeck latd 53 latm 52

latNS N longd 10 longm 41 longEW E official_languages German (German language) stat_pop1 36464 stat_year1 1834 stat_pop2 52158 stat_year2 1871 stat_pop3 96775 stat_year3 1900 stat_area4 297.7 stat_year4 1905 stat_pop5 136413 stat_year5 1933 thumb right 300px Territory of the Free City of Lübeck, 1815–1937 (File:Lübeck.png) The '''Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck''' was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the Germany German


attitude

was ready for peace. On December 15, 1570, the Treaty of Stettin (Treaty of Stettin (1570)) was concluded. It is, however, more difficult to estimate the scope and magnitude (wikt:magnitude) of the support Magnus received in Livonian cities. Compared to the Harrien-Wierland gentry, the Reval city council, and hence probably the majority of citizens, demonstrated a much more reserved attitude towards Denmark and King Magnus of Livonia. Nevertheless, there is no reason to speak about any

received in Livonian cities. Compared to the Harrien-Wierland gentry, the Reval city council, and hence probably the majority of citizens, demonstrated a much more reserved attitude towards Denmark and King Magnus of Livonia. Nevertheless, there is no reason to speak about any strong pro-Swedish sentiments among the residents of Reval. The citizens who had fled to The Bishopric of Dorpat or had been deported to Muscovy hailed Magnus as their saviour until 1571. The analysis indicates

ally, King Sigismund II Augustus of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, know that he was ready for peace. On December 15, 1570, the Treaty of Stettin (Treaty of Stettin (1570)) was concluded. It is, however, more difficult to estimate the scope and magnitude of the support Magnus received in Livonian cities. Compared to the Harrien-Wierland gentry, the Reval city council, and hence probably the majority of citizens, demonstrated a much more reserved attitude towards Denmark and King Magnus


painting historical

Rembrandt in Amsterdam. He then traveled with his brother John Zacharias Kneller, who was an ornamental painter, to Rome and Venice in the early 1670s, painting historical subjects and portraits in the studio of Carlo Maratti, and later moved to Hamburg. They came to England in 1674, at the invitation of the Duke of Monmouth. He was introduced to, and painted a portrait of, Charles II (Charles II of England). In England, Kneller concentrated almost entirely on portraiture. He founded a studio which churned out portraits on an almost industrial scale, relying on a brief sketch of the face with details added to a formulaic model, aided by the fashion for gentlemen to wear full wigs (Wig (hair)). His portraits set a pattern that was followed until William Hogarth and Joshua Reynolds. * the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the State of Hamburg (Hamburg)'' ( although there was also a need to compensate Prussia for its losses to Hamburg. Besides Lübeck, which was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein Province), Hamburg had to cede its possessions of Geesthacht, which went to Schleswig-Holstein as well, and Ritzebüttel (which included Cuxhaven), which went to the Province of Hanover. From the possessions Prussia gave up to Hamburg, Altona (Altona, Hamburg) and Wandsbek had belonged to Schleswig-Holstein, while Harburg-Wilhelmsburg (Harburg, Hamburg) had been a part of Hanover. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation ('''''Norddeutscher Bund''''') was transformed into the German Empire ('''''Deutsches Kaiserreich'''''). This empire was a federal state (Federation); the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony), the grand dukes of Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden), Mecklenburg, Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse), as well as other principalities, duchies and of the free cities (free city) of Hamburg (Free City of Hamburg), Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Bremen (Bremen (state))). The (second) '''Battle of Bornhöved''' took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein. Count Adolf IV (Adolf IV of Holstein) of Schauenburg and Holstein (Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein) — leading an army consisting of troops from the cities of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Hamburg, about 1000 Dithmarsians (Dithmarschen) and combined troops of Holstein next to various north German nobles — defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark. Saxe-Lauenburg ceded Bleckede - with toll and castle - to Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-Stendal (Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal), who quickly sold his new acquisition in 1308 to the Welf duke Otto the Strict, ruling the branch Principality of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg-Celle). Two years later the duke granted Bleckede town privileges, comprising the obligation to fortify the town. In 1379 Duke Albert of Lunenburg-Celle (Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duke of Lüneburg) pawned Bleckede castle to his creditors Hamburg, Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), Hanover and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg). The latter managed to hold Bleckede by way of pawn until 1600. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. 1934 Formed from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Free City of Lübeck and territory belonging to the Free State of Oldenburg -


active lead

of Malmö signed on September 1, 1524 Sweden seceded (secession) from the Kalmar Union. After he had outlined his reform ideas in a letter to the Hamburg community, Bugenhagen was the most important figure in the Protestant Reformation in Northern Germany and Scandinavia. He took an active lead in creating new ''church regularities'' (Kirchenordnungen) for Hildesheim (1544), Hamburg (1528 29), ref name Kaufmann58


successful taking

the atrocities of war and avoid the division of Livonia. That is why Magnus, who represented Denmark and later struck a deal with Ivan the Terrible, proved a suitable figurehead for this faction. The armies of Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV of Russia) were initially successful, taking Polotsk (1563) and Parnawa (Pärnu) (1575) and overrunning much of Grand Duchy of Lithuania up to Vilnius. Eventually, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland formed Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

of Russia Ivan the Terrible were initially successful, taking Polock (1563) and Parnawa (1575) and overrunning much of Grand Duchy of Lithuania up to Vilnius. Eventually, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland formed Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569 under the Union of Lublin. Eric XIV of Sweden did not like this and The Northern Seven Years' War between Free City of Lübeck, Denmark, Poland, and Sweden broke out. While only losing land and trade


portraits

. birth_name Gottfried Kniller birth_place Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), Holy Roman Empire birth_date thumb Sir John Vanbrugh (Image:John Vanbrugh.jpg) in Kneller's Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Kneller's finest portraits. Kneller was born '''Gottfried Kniller''' in the Free City of Lübeck, the son of Zacharias Kniller. Kneller studied in Leiden, but became a pupil of Ferdinand Bol and Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn

Rembrandt in Amsterdam. He then traveled with his brother John Zacharias Kneller, who was an ornamental painter, to Rome and Venice in the early 1670s, painting historical subjects and portraits in the studio of Carlo Maratti, and later moved to Hamburg. They came to England in 1674, at the invitation of the Duke of Monmouth. He was introduced to, and painted a portrait of, Charles II (Charles II of England). In England, Kneller concentrated almost entirely

on portraiture. He founded a studio which churned out portraits on an almost industrial scale, relying on a brief sketch of the face with details added to a formulaic model, aided by the fashion for gentlemen to wear full wigs (Wig (hair)). His portraits set a pattern that was followed until William Hogarth and Joshua Reynolds. * the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the State of Hamburg (Hamburg)'' (


powerful member

the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of this medieval trade organization. In 1359 Lübeck bought the ducal Herrschaft (Herrschaft (territory)) of Mölln from the indebted Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln (Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg), a branch of the ducal house of Saxe-Lauenburg. The City and Duke — with the consent of the Duke's brother Eric (Eric III, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg) — agreed a price of 9,737.50 Lübeck marks (Mark (money)). The parties also agreed a clause allowing for the repurchase of the lands by the Duke or his heirs, but only if they were buying back the property for themselves and not for a third party. Elisabeth Raiser, ''Städtische Territorialpolitik im Mittelalter: eine vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer verschiedenen Formen am Beispiel Lübecks und Zürichs'', Lübeck and Hamburg: Matthiesen, 1969, (Historische Studien; 406), p. 88, simultaneously: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1969. Lübeck considered this acquisition to be crucially important, since Mölln was an important staging post in the trade (especially the salt trade) between Scandinavia and the cities of Brunswick (Braunschweig) and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) via Lübeck. Therefore Lübeck manned Mölln with armed guards to maintain law and order on the roads. In 1370 Lübeck further acquired — by way of collateral for a loan — the Lordship of Bergedorf (Bergedorf (quarter)), the Vierlande, half the Sachsenwald (Saxon Forest) and Geesthacht from Duke Eric III, who had meanwhile succeeded his late brother Albert V. Elisabeth Raiser, p. 90. This acquisition included much of the trade route between Hamburg and Lübeck, thus providing a safe freight route between the cities. Eric III retained a life tenancy of these lands. Lübeck and Eric III further stipulated that once Eric had died, Lübeck would be entitled to take possession of the pledged territories until his successors could repay the debt and simultaneously exercise the repurchase of Mölln. By this stage the sum involved was calculated as 26,000 Lübeck Marks, an enormous amount of money at that time. Elisabeth Raiser, pp. 90 seq. In 1401 Eric III died without issue and was succeeded by his second cousin Eric IV, Duke of Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg (Eric IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg). In the same year Eric IV, supported by his sons Eric (Eric V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg) (later reigning as Eric V) and John (John IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg) (later John IV), captured the pawned lands without making the agreed repayment and before Lübeck could take possession of them. Lübeck acquiesced. Elisabeth Raiser, p. 137. In 1420 Eric V attacked Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg and Lübeck gained Hamburg for a war alliance in support of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg). The armies of both cities opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf, Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station (today's Zollenspieker Ferry) within weeks. This forced Eric V to agree to the Peace of Perleberg on 23 August 1420, which stipulated that all the pawned territories, which Eric IV, Eric V and John IV had violently taken in 1401, were to ceded irrevocably to the cities of Hamburg and Lübeck. The cities transformed the gained areas into the "Beiderstädtischer Besitz" (condominium of both cities (condominium (international law))), ruled by bailiffs for four-year terms. The bailiffs were to come from each of the cities alternately. The Hanseatic League, under Lübeck´s leadership, fought several wars against Denmark with varying degrees of success. Whilst Lübeck and the Hanseatic League won in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck also joined the Schmalkaldic League. After its defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power slowly declined. Lübeck remained neutral in the Thirty Years' War, but with the devastation of the war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade, the Hanseatic League, and thus Lübeck, lost importance. After the ''de facto'' disbandment of the Hanseatic League in 1669, Lübeck remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea. Full sovereignty in 1806 Lübeck remained a Free Imperial City even after the German Mediatisation in 1803 and became a sovereign state at the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. During the War of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte (Charles XIV John of Sweden) occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher (Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher) on 6 November 1806. First annexation Under the Continental System, trade suffered and from 1811 to 1813 Lübeck was formally annexed as part of the First French Empire. Reestablishment as sovereign state in 1813 Lübeck reassumed its pre-1811 status in 1813. The 1815 Congress of Vienna reconfirmed Lübeck's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation. Lübeck joined the North German Confederation in 1867. The following year Lübeck sold its share in the bi-urban condominium of Bergedorf to the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Hamburg), which was also a sovereign state of the North German Confederation. Hamburg integrated the area into its state territory, making up most of its today Borough of Bergedorf (Bergedorf). In 1871 Lübeck became an autonomous component state within the newly founded German Empire. Its status was weakened during the Weimar Republic by the Republic's enforcement of its right to determine state and Reich taxes. In 1933, in the course of the Gleichschaltung, Lübeck's senate (senate#Alternative meanings) (the city government) and Bürgerschaft (parliament) were streamlined although there was also a need to compensate Prussia for its losses to Hamburg. Besides Lübeck, which was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein Province), Hamburg had to cede its possessions of Geesthacht, which went to Schleswig-Holstein as well, and Ritzebüttel (which included Cuxhaven), which went to the Province of Hanover. From the possessions Prussia gave up to Hamburg, Altona (Altona, Hamburg) and Wandsbek had belonged to Schleswig-Holstein, while Harburg-Wilhelmsburg (Harburg, Hamburg) had been a part of Hanover. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation ('''''Norddeutscher Bund''''') was transformed into the German Empire ('''''Deutsches Kaiserreich'''''). This empire was a federal state (Federation); the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony), the grand dukes of Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden), Mecklenburg, Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse), as well as other principalities, duchies and of the free cities (free city) of Hamburg (Free City of Hamburg), Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Bremen (Bremen (state))). The (second) '''Battle of Bornhöved''' took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein. Count Adolf IV (Adolf IV of Holstein) of Schauenburg and Holstein (Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein) — leading an army consisting of troops from the cities of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Hamburg, about 1000 Dithmarsians (Dithmarschen) and combined troops of Holstein next to various north German nobles — defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark. Saxe-Lauenburg ceded Bleckede - with toll and castle - to Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-Stendal (Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal), who quickly sold his new acquisition in 1308 to the Welf duke Otto the Strict, ruling the branch Principality of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg-Celle). Two years later the duke granted Bleckede town privileges, comprising the obligation to fortify the town. In 1379 Duke Albert of Lunenburg-Celle (Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duke of Lüneburg) pawned Bleckede castle to his creditors Hamburg, Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), Hanover and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg). The latter managed to hold Bleckede by way of pawn until 1600. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. 1934 Formed from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Free City of Lübeck and territory belonging to the Free State of Oldenburg -

Free City of Lübeck

thumb right 300px Territory of the Free City of Lübeck, 1815–1937 (File:Lübeck.png) The '''Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck''' was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German (Germany) states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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