Francia

What is Francia known for?


774

as the Elbe river, something the Roman empire had only attempted once, and at which it failed in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9 AD). In order to more effectively Christianize the Saxons, Charles founded several bishopric (Diocese)s, among them Bremen (Archbishopric of Bremen), Münster, Paderborn, and Osnabrück. At the same time (773–774), Charles conquered the Lombards and thus included northern Italy in his sphere of influence. He renewed the Vatican donation

'' ("Kingdom of Italy"), which reached its zenith under the eighth-century ruler Liutprand (Liutprand, King of the Lombards). In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish (Franks) King Charlemagne, and integrated into his Empire (Francia). However, Lombard nobles continued to rule parts of the Italian peninsula well into the 11th century, when they were conquered (Norman conquest of southern Italy) by the Normans, and added to their Kingdom of Sicily

in the approximate area of today's Bolzano. During the 6th century Bavaria and Alamannia became stem duchies (Stem duchy) of the Frankish Kingdom (Francia). On conquering the Lombard Kingdom of Italy in 774, Charlemagne had himself crowned King of the Lombards. Consequently, Tyrol came to be of great importance as a bridgehead to Italy, which was re-affirmed during the Italian Campaign of Otto I (Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor). In the years 1007 and 1027 the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire


work de

kings (''rois fainéants''). Almost all government powers of any consequence were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace or ''major domus''. thumb left Baška tablet (File:Bascanska ploca.jpg), the oldest evidence of the glagolitic script (Glagolitic alphabet). According to the work ''De Administrando Imperio'' written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had arrived in what is today Croatia in the early 7th century

was duke Branimir, whom Pope John VIII referred to as ''Dux Croatorum'' ("Duke of Croats") in 879. According to the work ''De Administrando Imperio'' written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had arrived in what is today Croatia in the early 7th century, however that claim is disputed

Avars and Slavs who established control of Pannonia by year 582. According to the work ''De Administrando Imperio'' written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had


768

Empire 481 to 814-en.svg image_map_alt image_map_caption Frankish Empire, early 9th century capital Tournai (431–508) Paris (508–768) area over 1.000.000 km² latd latm latNS longd longm longEW national_motto national_anthem common_languages Old Franconian (Frankish language), Latin religion Roman Catholic

–639 year_leader4 751–768 year_leader5 768–814 today ''see'' list ( List of modern countries within the Frankish Empire). '''Francia''' or '''Frankia''', also called the '''Kingdom of the Franks''' or '''Frankish Kingdom''' ( ), '''Frankish Empire''', '''Frankish Realm''' or occasionally '''Frankland''', was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity

'') in the creation of a new world order, centred on the Pope. Upon Pepin's death in 768, his sons, Charles and Carloman (Carloman, son of Pippin III), once again divided the kingdom between themselves. However, Carloman withdrew to a monastery and died shortly thereafter, leaving sole rule to his brother, who would later become known as Charlemagne or Charles the Great, a powerful, intelligent, and modestly literate figure who became a legend for the later history of both France and Germany. Charlemagne


ancient style

of the Byzantine emperor; Childebert I is shown in profile in the ancient style, wearing a toga and a diadem. The solidus (solidus (coin)) and triens were minted in Francia between 534 and 679. The denarius (or denier (French denier)) appeared later, in the name of Childeric II and various non-royals around 673–675. A Carolingian denarius replaced the Merovingian one, and the Frisian (Frisians) penning (Pfennig), in Gaul from 755 to the 11th century. In the 4th century, Roman power decreased and Nijmegen became part of the Frankish (Francia) kingdom. It has been contended that in the 8th century Emperor Charlemagne maintained his ''palatium'' in Nijmegen on at least four occasions. During his brief deposition of 830, the emperor Louis the Pious was sent to Nijmegen by his son Lothar I. Thanks to the Waal river, trade flourished. The Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula began soon after the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom. The victory over the Moors at the Battle of Covadonga in 722 was the first major formative event. Charlemagne reconquered the western Pyrenees and Septimania in 778 and formed a Marca Hispanica to defend the border of Christian Frankia (Francia) against the aggressions of Muslim Al-Andalus. After the advent of the Crusades, much of the ideology of ''reconquista'' was subsumed within the wider context of crusading. Even before the Crusades, there was a steady trickle of soldiers arriving from elsewhere in Europe to participate in the ''Reconquista'' as an act of Christian penitence. Crusaders arrived in the County of Portugal, to be led by Afonso Henriques. By 1249, the reconquest of Portugal was complete and the Moors banished. The ''Reconquista'' ("Reconquest") is the centuries-long period of expansion of Iberia's Christian kingdoms. The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga in 722, and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula. The Christian army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees, but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers (Battle of Tours), Frankia (Francia). Later, Frankish (Franks) forces established Christian counties (Marca Hispanica) on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre, Aragon and Catalonia. ) is the reversed base of an ancient Ionic (Ionic order) column that played an important role in the ceremony surrounding the installation (Carantania#The Ducal Inauguration) of the princes of Carantania in the Early Middle Ages. After the incorporation into the Frankish Empire (Francia) the procedure held in Slovene language was continued as the first part of the coronation of the Dukes of Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia), followed by a mass (mass (liturgy)) at Maria Saal cathedral and the installation at the Duke's chair, where he swore an oath in German (German language) and received the homage of the estates. History Several sources attest the existence of a distinctive Gallican rite in the Frankish (Franks) lands between the 5th and 9th centuries. The Celtic Rite and Mozarabic rite, which are liturgically related to the Gallican, are sometimes collectively referred to as "Gallican" as opposed to the different structure of the Roman rite (Roman Rite). Lack of a central authority led to the development of local traditions of the Gallican rite in Francia, sharing a basic structure but varying in details. These traditions endured until the Carolingian dynasty. During a papal visit in 752-3, Pope Stephen II had Mass (Eucharist) celebrated using Roman chant. According to Charlemagne, his father Pepin (Pippin the Younger) and Chrodegang of Metz abolished the Gallican rites in favor of the Roman use, in order to strengthen ties with Rome that would culminate in Charlemagne's elevation to Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne completed the job his father had begun, so that by the 9th century the Gallican rite and chant had effectively been eliminated. However, the Roman chant brought to the Carolingian churches was incomplete, and ended up incorporating musical and liturgical elements from the local Gallican traditions. The resulting Carolingian chant, which developed into Gregorian chant, was a Romanized chant, but one in which traces of the lost Gallican repertory may still be found.


called great

2009 The years just following on from the death of Wilfrid are obscure in Ripon's history. After the invasion of the so-called Great Heathen Army of Norse (Norsemen) vikings in Northumbria Danelaw was inserted, and the Kingdom of Jórvík (Jórvík) was founded in the Yorkshire area. When King of England at the time Athelstan (Athelstan of England) came to Northumbria to try to force out the Danelaw, he was said


592

portion with Poitou and Touraine to Childebert (Childebert II) in exchange for extensive lands in southern and central Aquitaine. Francia split into Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy When Guntram died in 592, Burgundy went to Childebert in its entirety, but he died in 595. His two sons divided the kingdom, with the elder Theudebert II taking Austrasia plus Childebert's portion of Aquitaine, while his younger brother Theuderic II inherited Burgundy and Guntram's

his death, the monastery was founded. The Normans and the Hungarians plundered and destroyed the site several times, but Archbishop Willigis of Mainz rebuilt the church and monastery in the 10th century. His long reign was marked by the cessation of war with Francia, whose chief peacemaker Guntram, king of Burgundy, had died in 592. Without him, the Franks descended into civil war which prevented a united assault on Lombardy throughout Agilulf's rule. A truce


speaking part

;Vikings in Scotland and Ireland"; Crawford, ''Scandinavian Scotland'', pp. 39–62; Smyth, ''Warlords and Holy Men'', pp. 141–174. Public life Einhard was from the eastern German-speaking (German language) part of the Frank Kingdom (Francia). Born into a family of relatively low status, his parents sent him to be educated by the monks of Fulda - one of the most impressive centres of learning in the Frank lands - perhaps due to his small stature (Einhard referred to himself as a "tiny manlet") which restricted his riding and sword-fighting ability, Einhard concentrated his energies towards scholarship and especially to the mastering of Latin. Despite such humble origins, he was accepted into the hugely wealthy court of Charlemagne around 791 or 792. Charlemagne actively sought to amass scholarly men around him and established a royal school led by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin. Einhard evidently was a talented builder and construction manager, because Charlemagne put him in charge of the completion of several palace complexes including Aachen (Charlemagne's Palace in Aachen) and Ingelheim. Despite the fact that Einhard was on intimate terms with Charlemagne, he never achieved office in his reign. In 814, on Charlemagne's death his son Louis the Pious made Einhard his private secretary. Einhard retired from court (Noble court) during the time of the disputes between Louis and his sons in the spring of 830. The name of Frankfurt on Main (Main (river)) is derived from the ''Franconofurd'' of the Germanic tribe (Germanic peoples) of the Franks; ''Furt'' (cf. English (English language) ''ford (ford (river))'') where the river was shallow enough to be crossed by wading. Alemanni and Franks lived there (Francia) and by 794 Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly (Council of Frankfurt) and church synod, at which ''Franconofurd'' (-furt -vurd) was first mentioned. In continental Europe, this is the rise of Francia in the Merovingian period, eclipsing lesser kingdoms such as Alemannia. In England, the Wessex hegemony as the nucleus of the unification of England, Scandinavia is in the Vendel period and enters the extremely successful Viking Age, with expansion (Viking expansion) to Britain (Danelaw), Ireland and Iceland (history of Iceland) in the west and as far as Russia (Rus Khaganate) and Greece (Varangians) in the east. ) is the reversed base of an ancient Ionic (Ionic order) column that played an important role in the ceremony surrounding the installation (Carantania#The Ducal Inauguration) of the princes of Carantania in the Early Middle Ages. After the incorporation into the Frankish Empire (Francia) the procedure held in Slovene language was continued as the first part of the coronation of the Dukes of Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia), followed by a mass (mass (liturgy)) at Maria Saal cathedral and the installation at the Duke's chair, where he swore an oath in German (German language) and received the homage of the estates. History Several sources attest the existence of a distinctive Gallican rite in the Frankish (Franks) lands between the 5th and 9th centuries. The Celtic Rite and Mozarabic rite, which are liturgically related to the Gallican, are sometimes collectively referred to as "Gallican" as opposed to the different structure of the Roman rite (Roman Rite). Lack of a central authority led to the development of local traditions of the Gallican rite in Francia, sharing a basic structure but varying in details. These traditions endured until the Carolingian dynasty. During a papal visit in 752-3, Pope Stephen II had Mass (Eucharist) celebrated using Roman chant. According to Charlemagne, his father Pepin (Pippin the Younger) and Chrodegang of Metz abolished the Gallican rites in favor of the Roman use, in order to strengthen ties with Rome that would culminate in Charlemagne's elevation to Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne completed the job his father had begun, so that by the 9th century the Gallican rite and chant had effectively been eliminated. However, the Roman chant brought to the Carolingian churches was incomplete, and ended up incorporating musical and liturgical elements from the local Gallican traditions. The resulting Carolingian chant, which developed into Gregorian chant, was a Romanized chant, but one in which traces of the lost Gallican repertory may still be found.


794

penning (Pfennig), in Gaul from 755 to the eleventh century. The denarius subsequently appeared in Italy issued in the name of Carolingian monarchs after 794, later by so-called "native" kings in the tenth century, and later still by the German Emperors (Holy Roman Empire) from Otto I (Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor) (962). Finally, denarii were issued in Rome in the names of pope and emperor from Leo III (Pope Leo III) and Charlemagne onwards to the late tenth century.<

in the spring of 830. The name of Frankfurt on Main (Main (river)) is derived from the ''Franconofurd'' of the Germanic tribe (Germanic peoples) of the Franks; ''Furt'' (cf. English (English language) ''ford (ford (river))'') where the river was shallow enough to be crossed by wading. Alemanni and Franks lived there (Francia) and by 794 Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly (Council of Frankfurt) and church synod, at which ''Franconofurd'' (-furt -vurd) was first


line made

, Æthelburg (Æthelburg of Kent), established a good relationship between Kent and Northumbria which appears to have continued into Oswald (Oswald of Northumbria)'s reign. When Æthelburg fled to Kent on Edwin's death in about 633, she sent her children to Francia for safety, fearing the intrigues of both Eadbald and Oswald. The Kentish royal line made several strong diplomatic marriages over the succeeding years, including the marriage of Eanflæd, Eadbald's niece, to Oswiu


centuries history

Catholic Archdiocese of Reims bishop of Reims (approximate date). * The Vikings also sack Hamburg and Melun. * November 22 &ndash; Count of Vannes, Nominoe, defeats the king of Francia Charles the Bald at the battle of Ballon near Redon. No more toll is taken on Brittany, and it becomes an independent state lasting for seven centuries. History The former Celtic (Celts) region was conquered by the Roman Empire under Emperor Augustus about 12

Francia

'''Francia''' or '''Frankia''', also called the '''Kingdom of the Franks''' or '''Frankish Kingdom''' ( ), '''Frankish Empire''', '''Frankish Realm''' or occasionally '''Frankland''', was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

The kingdom was founded by Clovis I, crowned first King of the Franks in 496. Under the nearly continuous campaigns of Pepin of Herstal, Charles Martel, Pepin the Younger, Charlemagne, and Louis the Pious—father, son, grandson, great-grandson and great-great-grandson—the greatest expansion of the Frankish empire was secured by the early 9th century.

The tradition of dividing patrimonies among brothers meant that the Frankish realm was ruled, nominally, as one polity subdivided into several ''regna'' (kingdoms or subkingdoms). The geography and number of subkingdoms varied over time, but the particular term Francia came generally to refer to just one ''regnum'', that of Austrasia, centred on the Rhine and Meuse (Meuse (river)) rivers in northern Europe. Even so, sometimes the term was used as well to encompass Neustria north of the Loire (Loire (river)) and west of the Seine.

Eventually, the singular use of the name Francia shifted towards Paris, and settled on the region of the Seine basin surrounding Paris, which still today bears the name Île-de-France and gave its name to the entire Kingdom of France. Most of Frankish Kings were buried in the Basilica of Saint Denis, near Paris. Modern France is still named ''Francia'' in Spanish and Italian as well as ''Frankreich'' in German.

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