in a rigorous manner, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra exploited by earlier authors. He defined continuity (continuous function) in terms of infinitesimals and gave several important theorems in complex analysis and initiated the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy exercised a great influence over his contemporaries and successors. His writings cover the entire range of mathematics and mathematical
and made drawings, many of which were etched (etching) or engraved (engraving) by Rahl and Leybold. While there he also painted a "Mater dolorosa", a "Caritas", and "Criton visiting Socrates in Prison". After America entered World War I, the oiler was assigned to Commander, Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet, as an escort for the first A.B.F. sent to France. ''Kanawha'' cleared New York 17 June 1917 and crossed the submarine-infested Atlantic
-ilo-mirror.cornell.edu public english employment skills recomm quest qr_1b.htm Broken link, needs repair One view of these trends is that a strong social consensus on political economy and a good social welfare system facilitates labor mobility and tends to make the entire economy more productive, as labor can develop skills and experience in various ways, and move from one enterprise to another with little controversy or difficulty in adapting. '''Anne Desclos''' (23
of the Serravallian faunal stage MN 6 (MN 6 (faunal stage)) (about 12-14 mya). It was initially considered to be a heron and placed in the genera ''Ardea (Ardea (genus))'' and ''Proardea''. More plesiomorphic than the living species, it seems to represent an ancient member of the ''Geronticus'' lineage, in line with the theory that most living ibis genera seem to have evolve (evolution)d before 15 mya. Mlíkovský (2002) '''Guiot de Provins''' (died after 1208) was a French (France) poet and trouvère from the town of Provins in the Champagne (Champagne (province)) area. A declining number of scholars identify him with Kyot the Provençal (Kyot), the alleged writer of the source material used by Wolfram von Eschenbach for his romance ''Parzival'', but most others consider such a source to be a literary device made up by Wolfram. Hatto, p. 427. At any rate, Guiot was a popular writer in his day. Nearby is Woodbury Hill commanding extensive views south to the Malvern Hills and over the River Teme valley to the west. On the summit is an Iron Age hillfort. Owain Glyndŵr's army of Welsh (Welsh people) and French (France) camped here for eight days in the summer of 1405 facing an army of King Henry IV (Henry IV of England) at Abberley Hill. Skirmishes took place but neither large force initiated full scale battle and the Welsh withdrew under nightfall back to Wales. The location was also used as a meeting place during the English Civil War by Clubmen from the local farms and cottages. '''Martin Franklin Conway''' (November 19, 1829 – February 15, 1882) was a U.S. (United States) congressman, consul (Consul (representative)) to France, abolitionist, and advocate of the Free-State movement (Free-Stater) in Kansas. Career Diatta moved to France when he was only one year old. He was the holding force in the centre of Senegal (Senegal national football team)'s defence, and is also tough in the air, which provides a threat in attacking set-pieces. thumb Gonzales at a concert with Socalled (Image:Gonzales 2005.jpg), 2005 at Théatre National in Montreal. '''Gonzales''', (born '''Jason Charles Beck'''; 1972), is a Grammy-nominated Canadian (Canada) musician currently residing in Paris, France. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
. Some organized chasing efforts have also begun in the Top End of the Northern Territory and in southeast Australia,
not yet French such as the Place Stanislas in Nancy (Nancy, France). On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey. ref>
was established in its own right launching its internet search engine and online advertising tools http: uk.mirago.com about index.htm . Mirago’s search division provides search engine results for 11 European countries (UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, and Belgium) as well as regional search, geo-targeted and organic indexing products. Mirago's success was recognised
1918, Siberia 1918–19 *The Second World War: Europe, 1939–45 thumb right 300px Forts around Verdun (File:Fort Douaumont location map 300px.jpg). Douaumont is northeast of Verdun at upper right. Limits of German advance as at 26 February and 6 September 1916 are black lines, River Meuse, flowing to the north, is blue line at left '''Fort Douaumont''' (French ''Fort de Douaumont'') was the largest and highest fort on the ring of 19 large defensive forts protecting the city
, French (France), Austro-Hungarian (Austro-Hungary), Russian, Bulgarian and Romanian armies retained red uniforms until 1914 or later. Amongst other diverse examples, Spanish hussars, Japanese army and United States Marine Corps bandsmen, and Serbian generals had red tunics as part of their gala or court dress. However the extensive use of this colour by British, Indian and other Imperial soldiers over a period of nearly three hundred years made red uniform a veritable icon of the British Empire. The significance of military red as a national symbol was endorsed by King William IV (William IV of the United Kingdom) (reigned 1830–1837) when light dragoons and lancers had scarlet jackets substituted for their previous dark blue, hussars adopted red pelisses and even the Royal Navy were obliged to adopt red facings instead of white. Most of these changes were reversed under Queen Victoria (Victoria of the United Kingdom) (1837–1901). A red coat and black tricorne remains part of the ceremonial and out-of-hospital dress for in-pensioners (Chelsea pensioner) at the Royal Hospital Chelsea. '''Roissy-en-Brie''' is a commune (Communes of France) in the Seine-et-Marne department (Departments of France) in the Île-de-France (Île-de-France (region)) region (Regions of France) in north-central France and is located in the eastern suburbs of Paris, Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
broadcast company specialising in video compression MPEG4 encoding decoding (Code) solutions for contribution, video headend, and multi-screen transcoding. The company founded in 1991 is headquartered in Bièvres near Paris, France and have offices in USA -Miami, Los Angeles and China - Beijing . Two notable artillery-sized volley guns were developed in the mid-19th century, although neither was particularly successful in practice. General Origen Vandenburgh of the New York State Militia designed a weapon in 1860 that had eighty-five parallel .50 calibre rifle barrels. After failing to sell the weapon to the United Kingdom, he reportedly sold a small number to the Confederate States of America, although there is no record that they were actually used, one Vandenburgh gun was located at Fort Fisher, North Carolina, and another reportedly at Salisbury, NC. Also developed in the 1860s, the French (France) mitrailleuse is an example of a multi-barreled volley gun that could fire all of its barrels simultaneously or sequentially over a short period of time. The Act also had the effect of automatically terminating the state's membership of the Commonwealth. The fact that he was now clearly and unambiguously the Irish head of state was celebrated by President Seán T. O'Kelly by visits to the Holy See (Vatican City) and France. A visit to meet George VI in Buckingham Palace was also provisionally planned, but timetabling problems with the President's schedule prevented the meeting. Closed cycle steam turbines The French (France) MESMA (Module d'Energie Sous-Marine Autonome) system is being offered by the French shipyard DCNS. MESMA is available for the Agosta 90B (Agosta 90B class submarine) and Scorpène class submarines (Scorpène class submarine). It is essentially a modified version of their nuclear propulsion system with heat being generated by ethanol and oxygen. Specifically, a conventional steam turbine power plant is powered by steam generated from the combustion of ethanol (grain alcohol) and stored oxygen at a pressure of 60 atmospheres. This pressure-firing allows exhaust carbon dioxide to be expelled overboard at any depth without an exhaust compressor. Nuclear reactors have been used for 50 years to power submarines, the first being USS ''Nautilus'' (USS Nautilus (SSN-571)). The United States, France, the United Kingdom, Russia, and the People's Republic of China are the only countries currently operating nuclear powered submarines. India, having successfully developed a miniaturised reactor for submarine application, is developing Arihant class (Arihant class submarine) nuclear submarines, the first submarine, INS Arihant (s-73), is undergoing sea trials and induction is expected during mid 2012. First nuke-sub undergoes trial Naval forces get ready to operate N-submarine India in the past has leased a Charlie class (Charlie class submarine) nuclear powered submarine from Russia and plans to acquire two used Akula class submarines which would be used for training purposes. Many other developing countries have also attempted to research nuclear propulsion for submarine use in the past, but with disappointing results. However, Air Independent Propulsion is a term normally used in the context of improving the performance of conventionally propelled submarines. There is proof that in 2002 he traveled to France, despite being a fugitive, and underwent a surgical operation in Marseille for a prostate tumor, even being reimbursed by the Italian National Health Care system. DNA evidence subsequently confirmed his presence at the surgery in question. thumb 220px right Constant Prévost. (Image:Constant-Prévost-1787-1836.jpg) '''Louis-Constant Prévost''' (Paris, 4 June 1787 – Paris, 14 August 1856) was a French (France) geologist. Etymology Several etymologies have been suggested for the word "Radhanite". Many scholars, including Barbier de Meynard and Moshe Gil, believe it refers to a district in Mesopotamia called "the land of Radhan" in Arabic (Arabic language) and Hebrew (Hebrew language) texts of the period. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
'''France''' ( and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic with its capital (Capital city) in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of France establishes the country as secular (Laïcité) and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.
During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic (Celts) people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French state-building and paving the way for a future centralized absolute monarchy. During the Renaissance (French Renaissance), France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire). The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars (French Wars of Religion) primarily fought between Catholics (Roman Catholic Church) and Protestants (Protestantism) (Huguenots).
Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the ''Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'', one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France was governed as one of history's earliest Republics (French First Republic), until the Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored (Bourbon Restoration), replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy (July monarchy), then briefly by a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then by a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.
France's colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire (French colonial empire) in the world. In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but it was occupied (German military administration in occupied France during World War II) by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation (liberation of France) in 1944, a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-led French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent.
Throughout its long history (History of France), France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world's fourth-largest (List of World Heritage Sites in France) number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world. . Centre national de documentation pédagogique, "2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER"
French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings (International rankings of France) of education (Education Index), health care (Health care in France), life expectancy (List of countries by life expectancy), civil liberties, and human development (Human Development Index). France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7 (G7), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie). France is a founding and leading member state of the EU (member state of the European Union).