professors is a fundamental principle recognized by the laws of the Republic, as defined by the Constitutional Council (Constitutional Council of France); furthermore, statute law declares about higher education that "teachers-researchers (university professors and assistant professors), researchers and teachers are fully independent and enjoy full freedom of speech in the course of their research and teaching activities, provided they respect, following university traditions and the dispositions of this code, principles of tolerance and objectivity." French Education Code, L952-2. The nomination and promotion of professors is largely done through a process of peer review rather than through normal administrative procedures. History The term "lawn" derives from "Laon", a city in France, which produced large quantities of linen lawn. '''Pierre Athanase Marie Plantard ''' (18 March 1920 – 3 February 2000) was a French (France) draughtsman (technical drawing), Jean-Luc Chaumeil, "Les Archives du Prieuré de Sion" (''Le Charivari'', N°18, 1973) best known for being the principal perpetrator of the Priory of Sion hoax, by which he claimed from the 1960s onwards that he was a Merovingian descendant of Dagobert II and the "Great Monarch (Great Catholic Monarch)" prophesied by Nostradamus. Marie-France Etchegoin & Frédéric Lenoir, ''Code Da Vinci: L'Enquête'', p.61 (Robert Laffont, 2004). Today in France he is commonly regarded as a mystificator (Deception). ''L'ABC de RLC – l'Encyclopédie de Rennes-le-Château'', page 180: "Personnage emblématique de l'affaire de Rennes-le-Château, éminence grise et co-auteur de livres avec l'écrivain Gérard de Sède, dessinateur industriel, ésotériste et médium sous le nomen de Chyren, directeur, journaliste et gérant de la revue Circuit, mystificateur". (Marseille: Éditions Arqa, 2009). ISBN 2-7551-0031-1 Some of the most significant ship model basins are the David Taylor Model Basin and the Davidson Laboratory at Stevens Institute of Technology in the United States, The High Speed Towing Tank facility at Naval Science and Technological Labs at Vizag India, The Institute for Ocean Technology in St. Johns, Canada, FORCE Technology in Lyngby, Denmark , SSPA, in Gothenburg, Sweden , the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) (MARIN (research)) in Wageningen, the Netherlands , the INSEAN in Rome, Italy, the SVA Potsdam in Potsdam , the HSVA in Hamburg , Germany, the "Bassin d'essai des carènes" in Val de Reuil France and CEHIPAR in Madrid, Spain , CTO S.A. in Gdansk, Poland In 1758, at age seventeen, he participated in the Forbes Expedition under General John Forbes (John Forbes (general)) against the French (France) at Fort Duquesne as part of the French and Indian War. He remained at Fort Pitt (Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania)) after the war to engage in trade with Native Americans (Native Americans in the United States). He was captured by Lenape during Pontiac's Rebellion while trading in the west and was condemned to be burnt, but escaped death when he was adopted by an old Indian woman whose son had died in battle. He remained with the Lenape tribe for some time. Later Gibson was freed as a result of the Boquet Expedition. Earl P. Olmstead. ''David Zeisberger: A Life Among the Indians''. (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1997) p. 394-395 note 20 After this Gibson returned to being an Indian trader. He built a house at Logstown which was described as the "only house there" by David McClure. Hanna. ''Wilderness Trail''. p. 380 Gibson married a relative of Mingo leader Logan and also learned to speak the Mingo language. According to Gugin, Gibson's wife was Logan's sister. (Gugin, p. 28) Gibson's wife and several other Mingo were murdered by a group of settlers in May 1774. Woolen, p. 11 Gibson's daughter survived this incident, and was put into his care and he saw to her education. Charles Augustus Hanna. ''The Wilderness Trail'' (1911) Vol. 1, p. 381 In 1774, he participated in Dunmore's War and produced a written translation of Logan's famous speech (Logan's Lament) suing for peace: "I appeal to any white man to say if he ever entered Logan's cabin hungry and he gave him not meat. . . . " Woollen, p. 12 Mungo Jerry's hits continued through to 1976 with "Open Up" (Top Twenty in Europe); "Alright Alright Alright" (a rewrite of an old French (France) hit for Jacques Dutronc, and again a major hit worldwide reaching the Top 3 in the UK); "Wild Love"; "Long Legged Woman Dressed in Black"; "Hello Nadine" (European hit and Top Five in Canada); and "It's a Secret" (European hit). No chart (record chart) hit has had more than 13 words in the title, so "You Don't Have to be in The Army To Fight in The War" gave Mungo Jerry one more little souvenir of their hit-making days. Special honors He was a member of the Russian and Soviet (Soviet Union) national aerobatic flying teams, and was Champion of Moscow in 1983, and Champion of the Soviet Union in 1986. For his space flight experience, he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin, the French (France) title of Officier de la Légion d’Honneur (Légion d'honneur), and the new title of Hero of the Russian Federation. He also has been awarded the NASA Space Flight Medal (1994, 1998). The League’s greatest extent was from 28 September 1934 (when Ecuador joined) to 23 February 1935 (when Paraguay withdrew) with 58 members. At this time, only Costa Rica (22 January 1925), Brazil (14 June 1926), the Empire of Japan (27 March 1933) and Germany (19 September 1933) had withdrawn and only Egypt was left to join (on the 26 May 1937). The members (listed from earliest joining and alphabetically if they joined on the same day) at this time were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, the British Empire, Canada, Chile, the Republic of China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, El Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India (British Raj), Italy, Liberia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Persia Iran, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Venezuela, Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Luxembourg, Albania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Ireland (Irish Free State), Ethiopia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Turkey, Iraq, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Afghanistan and Ecuador. '''François Bérenger Saunière''' (11 April 1852 – 22 January 1917) was a Roman Catholic priest (Priesthood (Catholic Church)) in the French (France) village of Rennes-le-Château, in the Aude region, officially from 1885 until he was transferred to another village in 1909 by his bishop, a nomination he declined and subsequently resigned. From 1909 until his death in 1917 he was a non-stipendiary Free Priest (an independent priest without a parish, who did not receive any salary from the church because of suspension), and who from 1910 celebrated the Catholic Ritual of the Mass (Mass (liturgy)) in an altar constructed in a special conservatory by his Villa Bethania. Saunière's refusal to leave Rennes-le-Château to continue his priesthood in another parish incurred permanent suspension. Letter from Canon Huguet to Bérenger Saunière dated 22 January 1917, reproduced in contributions by Abbé Bruno de Monts published in ''Les Cahiers de Rennes-le-Château, Archives – Documents – Études'', Number 11 (Éditions Bélisane, 1996). ISBN 2-910730-12-3 The epitaph on Saunière's original 1917 gravestone read "priest of Rennes-le-Château 1885-1917". In pre-revolutionary France , the president of a ''Parlement'' evolved into a powerful magistrate, a member of the so-called ''noblesse de robe'' ("nobility of the gown"), with considerable judicial as well as administrative authority. The name referred to his primary role of presiding over trials and other hearings. In the 17th and 18th centuries, seats in the ''Parlements,'' including presidencies, became effectively hereditary, since the holder of the office could ensure that it would pass to an heir by paying the crown a special tax known as the ''paulette (paulette (tax))''. The post of "first president" (''premier président''), however, could only be held by the King (King of France)'s nominees. The ''Parlements'' were abolished by the French Revolution. In modern France the chief judge of a court is known as its president (''président de la cour''). Pioneers of aerial archaeology include Roger Agache (:fr:Roger Agache) in Northern France, Antoine Poidebard in Syria, L W B Rees (Lionel Rees) in Jordan O. G. S. Crawford in England and c1913, Sir Henry Wellcome in the Sudan. Appointed as coach of the Argentine national team to replace Alfio Basile, Passarella was coach during the qualification games for the 1998 World Cup (Football World Cup 1998) and during the competition itself, which was held in France. Passarella held to close friend Américo Gallego as assistant coach. Argentina's performances never reached the expected heights, and the team was eliminated in the quarter-finals after a last minute 2–1 defeat to the Netherlands (Netherlands national football team). After the elimination, Passarella left the post and was replaced by Marcelo Bielsa. He also played for the French (France) Racing Club de Paris (''Matra Racing Paris'' at the time), Olympique de Marseille, and the Italian (Italy) teams Cagliari (Cagliari Calcio) and Torino (Torino F.C.). Monaco After retiring as a player, he went into football management. He was the head coach of Monaco (AS Monaco FC) in France's (France) Ligue 1, leading Monaco (AS Monaco FC) to the Coupe de la Ligue title (Coupe de la Ligue) in 2003 (2003 Coupe de la Ligue Final) and to its first UEFA Champions League (2003–04 UEFA Champions League) final in 2004 (2004 UEFA Champions League Final). He resigned on 19 September 2005 after a poor start to the season, and disagreement with club's president. - 1. October 11, 1989 Parc des Princes, Paris, France Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
Greatest Movie Songs (album) All Time Greatest Movie Songs '', released by Sony in 1999. It was also featured after the end credits of the VHS release of "Men in Black". It was also covered by Forever the Sickest Kids for the compilation album ''Punk Goes Crunk'' & by Alvin and the Chipmunks for the album ''The A-Files: Alien Songs''. An instrumental version plays over the end credits in ''Men in Black: The Series''. Lafayette Square '''Lafayette Square''' is a seven-acre (30,000 m²) public park located directly north of the White House on H Street, bounded by Jackson Place on the west, Madison Place on the east, and Pennsylvania Avenue. The square and the surrounding structures were designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1970. Planned as part of the pleasure grounds surrounding the Executive Mansion, this square was originally called "President's Park", which is now the name of the larger National Park Service unit. The park was separated from the White House grounds in 1804, when President Thomas Jefferson had Pennsylvania Avenue cut through. In 1824, the park was officially renamed in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette (Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette), the Frenchman (France) who fought in the American Revolutionary War. thumb left Aerial view of Lafayette Square (foreground). (File:Aerial view of Lafayette Park.jpg) Loughnane was on holidays in France when the media storm erupted. He agreed to be interviewed by local radio station Clare FM from his holiday destination. Loughnane was asked to confirm if the character he had imagined shooting was Fr. Harry Bohan. Refusing to confirm or deny, Loughnane accused “this character” of being “insanely jealous of Clare’s success” during his tenure, adding: “I would regard (him) as the man, hurling-wise, who was the greatest failure ever in the history of Clare hurling.” Bohan was manager of the Clare team in the late 70s when it was widely perceived that that Clare team, which included Ger Loughnane, left at least one All-Ireland after them. He also hit out at another award recipient (widely believed to be top Croke Park official Sean Ó Laoire) describing him as “a traitor to the county” for his role in the Jimmy Cooney early-whistle affair in 1998, which denied Clare a crack at a third All-Ireland in four years. In the same interview, Loughnane also suggested that the ''Clare Champion'' newspaper, co-sponsors of the awards, were hostile to him because they did not obtain rights to print exclusive extracts from his autobiography, ‘Raising the Banner’, before it was published five years previously. thumb right Louis Roederer company headquarters (Image:Cour intérieure Louis Roederer.jpg) '''Louis Roederer''' is a producer of champagne (Champagne (wine)) based in Reims, France. Founded in 1776, it was inherited and renamed by Louis Roederer in 1833, and is noted as the producer of the luxury champagne Cristal (Cristal (wine)). Lisa Fittko's life was formed in her work in the underground resistance of Nazi-occupied Europe. She came to international recognition over forty years later through her two widely-translated memoirs, in which she describes her actions (considered inspirational by many who read about them) in the voice of a fearless young woman, a bohemian, an activist. It is, however, a voice altogether lacking in self-glorification or self-pitying victimization. Her bravery in leading refugees, including many famous intellectuals and members of the anti-Hitler resistance from Nazi-occupied France across the Pyrenees into Spain, brought her international fame. In the period between 1869 and 1875, with the founding of the new Hungarian political system, the Hungarians chose to style their economic system under a French (France) model. The problem they encountered was that their current political system was more advanced in comparison to their archaic economic system. For example, taxation of the people came in the form of quasi-military campaigns that only raised taxes by 11% (Janos 106), while it embittered the rural population. Thus, these 6 years were known as a period of poor management of the economy by a failing government. When Tisza came to power in 1875, he consolidated the economy in many ways similar to his power consolidation of the government. He initiated taxation reforms that saved the state from bankruptcy. In 1887, Sándor Wekerle became the Minister of Finance. He worked with Tisza to develop a new tax system that focused on the taxation of land. The successes of these reforms were tremendous, even though the land tax increased by 30%, the revenues of the government increased by 330% (Janos 108). Between 1880 and 1895, public revenue doubled due to the successful tax reforms. Though the Tisza-Wekerle system saved the government from bankruptcy, the tax system proved to be too harsh and eventually prevented the rise of a domestic market for the products produced by Hungary. '''Anne-Marie David''' (born 23 May 1952, Arles, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France) is a French (French people) singer. She represented two different countries at the Eurovision Song Contest. He was a member of the former Union for French Democracy, which was part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, and as a deputy for the south-west (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France, he chairs the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs), a substitute for the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (European Parliament Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs) and a member of the delegation to the EU (European Union)–Romania Joint Parliamentary Committee, from 2004 to 2009. '''Anne Laperrouze''' (born 4 July 1956 in Puylaurens, Tarn (Tarn (department))) is a French politician (Politics of France) and Member of the European Parliament for the south-west (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France. She was a member of the Union for French Democracy and is a member of DEMocrate MOvement(MODEM), which is part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (European Parliament Committee on Industry, Research and Energy). '''Claire Gibault''' (born 31 October 1945 in Le Mans) is a French (France) conductor (conducting) and politician (Politics of France) and a Member of the European Parliament for the south-east (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France. She is a member of the Union for French Democracy, which is part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education (European Parliament Committee on Culture and Education) and its Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality (European Parliament Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality). '''Claire Gibault''' (born 31 October 1945 in Le Mans) is a French (France) conductor (conducting) and politician (Politics of France) and a Member of the European Parliament for the south-east (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France. She is a member of the Union for French Democracy, which is part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education (European Parliament Committee on Culture and Education) and its Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality (European Parliament Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality). '''Lydia Schenardi''' (born 27 June 1952 in Montreuil (Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis), Seine-Saint-Denis) is a French politician (Politics of France) and Member of the European Parliament for the south-east (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France. She is a member of the Front National (National Front (France)), and is therefore a Non-Inscrit (Non-Inscrits) in the European Parliament. She sits on its Committee on Industry, Research and Energy and the Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality. '''Jean-Claude Martinez''' (born 30 July 1945 in Sète, Hérault) is a French politician (Politics of France) and Member of the European Parliament for the south-west (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France. He was a member of the Front National (National Front (France)), and was among the ''Non-Inscrit''s until the 2007 formation of the Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty Group in the European Parliament. He sits on its Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (European Parliament Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development). '''Fernand Le Rachinel''' (born 4 June 1942 in Gourfaleur, Manche) is a French politician (Politics of France) and Member of the European Parliament for the north-west (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France. He is a member of the Front National (National Front (France)), and is therefore a Non-Inscrit (Non-Inscrits) in the European Parliament. He sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism. '''Jacky Hénin''' (born 12 November 1960 in Douai) is a French politician (Politics of France) and Member of the European Parliament for the north-west (European Parliament election, 2004 (France)#Seats) of France. He is a member of the French Communist Party, which is part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left (European United Left - Nordic Green Left) group, and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on International Trade. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
French flower breeder who, among other accomplishments, created many of today's lilac varieties. As a result of his accomplishments, the term ''French lilac'' has come to mean all cultivars of the common lilac that have double flowers Lilacs the Genus Syringa by Father John Fiala , regardless of their origin. Lemoine was born at Delme, Lorraine (Lorraine (région)), France, and descended from a long line of gardeners and nurserymen. After completing college, he devoted several years to traveling and working in the leading horticultural establishments of his time, notably at that of Louis Van Houtte in Ghent, Belgium. In 1850 Lemoine established himself as a florist and gardener at Nancy (Nancy, France), France, and by 1852 the ''Revue Horticole'' mentioned Lemoine's double flowered portulaca. In 1854 Lemoine produced the first double potentilla (Gloire de Nancy), and the first streptocarpus hybrids. It was about the same period that Lemoine turned his hand to fuchsias and introduced many varieties, including the double flowered hybrid Solferino. By 1862 he had introduced a white ''Spiraea callosa'', in 1866 his ''Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora'' and the first genuine double-flowered zonal ''Pelargonium'' geraniums (Gloire de Nancy), and in 1868 the first of his hybrid weigelas. *Antefilms Production - Antefilms Production is a French (France) company that makes TV shows. It was established by Christophe Di Sabatino and Benoît Di Sabatino in 1990; *XANA Post-Production - The XANA Post-Production company is a part of MoonScoop. It does the post-production for their various shows; Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
and climaxes with the German Luftwaffe's first massed aerial assault on London on 7 September 1940. :When the series was screened on Network Seven in Australia in 1990, the original run-time of over 5 hours was shortened to less than 4 hrs so it could be shown in two 2hr episodes (plus commercials). In order to condense the series, a considerable amount of footage was cut, mostly from scenes on the ground including some entire scenes such as when Chris Hart invites one of the ground-crew LAC Todd
and Thomas as a soldier. '''''The Impossible Voyage''''' (French (French language): Voyage à travers l'impossible) is a 1904 silent film (produced by Star Film, France) by pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès. The film's run time is about 24 minutes (about five times the length of the average film at that time), and was probably inspired by Melies' successful earlier film A Trip to the Moon (Le Voyage dans la Lune). It is loosely based on Jules Verne's play "Voyage à
and Germany, each one beginning with a jump behind enemy lines. ''Airborne'' also features a multiplayer mode available for online play (online game), where users have the choice of fighting for the Allies (Allies of World War II) and parachuting down to the battlefield, or fighting for the Axis (Axis powers of World War II) and starting on the ground, defending the position from enemy paratroopers. '''Ridan''', real name '''Nadir Kouidri''' (born 1975 in France), is a French singer
Life (as well as other sporting papers). Robert Innes-Smith, "James Wentworth Day", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entry He edited the ''Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News''. He also became personal assistant to Lucy, Lady Houston and for a time shared some of her extreme ideas in supporting Benito Mussolini, although he was highly suspicious of Adolf Hitler. Innes-Smith, op cit He became a propaganda
outside the shipyard, in high buildings such as Zieleniak and the hills of Góra Gradowa (Góra Gradowa (Gdańsk)). Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
in Canada, Inner Earth People And Outer Space People, William L. Blessing, Inner Light Publications, 2008 Edition ISBN 1606110365 Hangchow in China, Chinese ghouls and goblins, G Willoughby-Meade, Stokes co, 1929 and the Amazon Rainforest. Mysteries of Ancient South America, Harold T. Wilkins, Citadel Press., New York, 1956 The French commonly refer to "la mère Patrie" as France and are ready to die
, an iconic Neotropic bird journal Naturwissenschaften volume 98 issue pages doi 10.1007 s00114-011-0849-1 Biography Diamanda Galás was born and raised in San Diego, California (San Diego), to Greek Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) parents. She studied a wide range of musical forms before moving to Europe. She made her performance debut at the Festival d'Avignon, in France, in 1979, performing the lead in the opera ''Un Jour comme un autre'', by composer Vinko Globokar Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
refused to support her musical studies. She studied piano with her mother at home, composing short works of her own, after which she began studying at the Paris Conservatory (Conservatoire de Paris) where she met Louis Durey, Francis Poulenc, Darius Milhaud, Georges Auric and Arthur Honegger. At the Paris Conservatory her skills were awarded with prizes in several categories. Most notably Tailleferre wrote 18 short works in the ''Petit livre de harpe de Madame Tardieu'' for Caroline Tardieu, the Conservatory’s Assistant Professor of Harp. Family Layard was born in Paris, France, to a family of Huguenot descent. His father, Henry Peter John Layard, of the Ceylon Civil Service, was the son of Charles Peter Layard, Dean of Bristol, and grandson of Daniel Peter Layard, the physician. Through his mother, Marianne, daughter of Nathaniel Austen, banker, of Ramsgate (Ramsgate, Kent, England), his English descent was consolidated. His uncle was Benjamin Austen, a London solicitor and close friend of Benjamin Disraeli (Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield) in the 1820s and 1830s. His brother was the ornithologist (ornithology) Edgar Leopold Layard. Early life Much of Layard's boyhood was spent in Italy, where he received part of his schooling, and acquired a taste for the fine arts and a love of travel; but he was at school also in England, France and Switzerland. After spending nearly six years in the office of his uncle, Benjamin Austen, he was tempted to leave England for Sri Lanka (Ceylon) by the prospect of obtaining an appointment in the Civil Service, and he started in 1839 with the intention of making an overland journey across Asia. Born at Mantes-la-Ville, Yvelines, Île-de-France (Île-de-France (région)), France, he began studying the piano at the age of 11 and at age 16 went to Paris where he performed on stage, singing extracts of traditional operettas and lovesongs. Over the next few years he continued to perform his lovesongs at various concert halls and cabarets and appeared in a musical comedy in Montparnasse where he was a big hit. Historian Fernand Braudel suggests that in Cairo in the 11th century Muslim and Jewish merchants had already set up every form of trade association and had knowledge of every method of credit and payment, disproving the belief that these were invented later by Italians. In 12th century France the ''courratiers de change'' were concerned with managing and regulating the debts of agricultural communities on behalf of the banks. Because these men also traded with debts, they could be called the first broker (stock broker)s. In late 13th century Bruges commodity traders gathered inside the house of a man called ''Van der Beurse'', and in 1309 they became the "Bruges Beurse", institutionalizing what had been, until then, an informal meeting. The idea quickly spread around Flanders and neighboring counties and "Beurzen" soon opened in Ghent and Amsterdam. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
'''France''' ( and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic with its capital (Capital city) in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of France establishes the country as secular (Laïcité) and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.
During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic (Celts) people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French state-building and paving the way for a future centralized absolute monarchy. During the Renaissance (French Renaissance), France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire). The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars (French Wars of Religion) primarily fought between Catholics (Roman Catholic Church) and Protestants (Protestantism) (Huguenots).
Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the ''Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'', one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France was governed as one of history's earliest Republics (French First Republic), until the Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored (Bourbon Restoration), replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy (July monarchy), then briefly by a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then by a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.
France's colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire (French colonial empire) in the world. In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but it was occupied (German military administration in occupied France during World War II) by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation (liberation of France) in 1944, a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-led French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent.
Throughout its long history (History of France), France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world's fourth-largest (List of World Heritage Sites in France) number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world. . Centre national de documentation pédagogique, "2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER"
French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings (International rankings of France) of education (Education Index), health care (Health care in France), life expectancy (List of countries by life expectancy), civil liberties, and human development (Human Development Index). France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7 (G7), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie). France is a founding and leading member state of the EU (member state of the European Union).