daughter, Maria Vagini; she died after seven years of wedded life. Prince Matthias of Tuscany employed Courtois on some striking works in his villa, Lappeggio, representing with much historical accuracy the princes military exploits. In Venice also the artist executed for the senator Sagredo some remarkable battle-pieces. In Florence he entered the Society of Jesus, taking the habit in Rome in 1655; it was calumniously rumoured that he adopted this course in order to escape
, ''florentinus'' (later ''forint''), also a gold-based currency, was used from 1325 under Charles Robert (Charles I of Hungary) and several other countries followed its example. Futurist architects were sometimes at odds with the Fascist state's tendency towards Roman imperial (Roman Empire)-classical aesthetic patterns. Nevertheless, several Futurist buildings were built in the years 1920–1940, including public buildings such as railway stations, maritime resorts and post offices. Examples of Futurist buildings still in use today are Trento's railway station, built by Angiolo Mazzoni, and the Santa Maria Novella station (Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station) in Florence. The Florence station was designed in 1932 by the ''Gruppo Toscano'' (Tuscan Group) of architects, which included Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini, with contributions by Mazzoni. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence
. This must have been some early form of gunpowder and is thought to be one of the first records of the use of firearms in a siege in Germany. The only earlier recorded use of ordnance dates back to the siege of the town of Meersburg on Lake Constance by Ludwig von Bayern (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1334. The oldest reports in all of Europe are from Italy (Florence 1326, Cividale 1331) and from the French fleet (1338-1346). He was born in Florence to a butcher with the family name of Giovanni; however he took the name of Squarcialupi, a well-known family from Tuscany, by mid-century, possibly to disguise his less than aristocratic origins. Most of his early life must have been spent in Florence, and he likely studied with both organist Giovanni Mazzuoli (also called Jovannes de Florentia, who was a pupil of Francesco Landini), as well as Matteo di Pagolo da Prato. In 1825, Giovanni Ricordi purchased the complete musical archives of La Scala and in 1839 he bought the copyright to Giuseppe Verdi's music that marked the beginnings of a long working relationship. During the 1840s, Casa Ricordi grew to be the largest music publisher in southern Europe and in 1842 the company created the musical journal the ''Gazzetta Musicale di Milano.'' In 1864 it expanded to Naples and then to Florence (1865), Rome (1871), London (1878), Palermo
against him and arrested him. He was convicted as a heretic and burned at the stake (Death by burning) on the Piazza della Signoria on 23 May 1498. A second individual of unusually acute insight was Niccolò Machiavelli, whose prescriptions for Florence's regeneration under strong leadership have often been seen as a legitimization of political expediency and even malpractice. In other words, Machiavelli was a sort of political thinker, perhaps most renowned for his political handbook
'' . In Rome, he became the assistant of Mirko Basaldella, who was himself the assistant of Arturo Martini, much admired by Joseph Erhardy. In January 1952, he came to Paris, where he has been living ever since. After an abstract period, he returned to the figure at the end of the sixties. Artistically speaking, he feels close to an international group of friends, painters and sculptors of his generation, who have been living in Paris since the 50s, including
on the historic drawings of Rome by Maarten van Heemskerck, Giuliano da Sangallo, Giovanni Antonio Dosio and other artists. In 1927 his study on the churches of medieval Rome and published ''Le Chiese di Roma nel Medio Evo''. Like his other books in many disparate fields, it represented significant original scholarship. He remained in Florence for the remainder of his life except for five years as professor at the University of Heidelberg. He was the recipient of honorary degrees from
architecture . Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence
. It was with Balla in 1915 that he wrote the manifesto ''Ricostruzione futurista dell’universo'' ("Futurist Reconstruction of the Universe") which expanded upon the ideas introduced by the other futurists. In the same year he was designing stage sets and costumes for a ballet. At Naples the male soprano Giuseppe Aprile (1732–1813) (also a teacher of Cimarosa) offered him free tuition during a festival visit to Sicily in Spring 1780. Kelly, ed. Thal 1972, 52–53. Kelly went first to Gaeta, where he sang a ''salve regina'' under Aprile, who continued to give him daily lessons and dinners: then to Palermo, where he studied several hours a day as his voice dropped to a tenor. He was soon singing the tenor arias which formed the original repertoire of Giacomo Davide cf. Rosenthal and Warrack 1974. and Giovanni Ansani (1744–1826). Kelly, ed. Thal 1972, 328. With Aprile he visited many noble houses and made his first regular Festival appearance at the Chiesa Grande, Palermo, in a motet of Gennario Maro. Kelly, ed. Thal 1972, 54–60. Aprile educated him in the work of Metastasio and other Italian poets, and, their season ended, told him he was now ready to sing in any theatre in Europe. He wrote letters of introduction to Campigli, manager of the Florence Pergola Theatre, and obtained Kelly's place on a ship for Livorno. 'Under his care and patronage,' said Aprile, 'you cannot fail of success because you have the peculiar distinction of being the only public scholar I ever taught.' Kelly, ed. Thal 1972, 62. Biography Born and raised in Florence in a Protestant household, the son of sculptor Adolf von Hildebrand, Hildebrand converted to Catholicism in 1914. He was a vocal opponent of Adolf Hitler and Nazism, fleeing from Germany to Vienna, Austria in 1933 upon Hitler's rise to power. There with the support of Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss he founded and edited an anti-Nazi weekly paper, ''Der Christliche Ständestaat'' (The Christian Corporative State). For this, he was sentenced to death ''in absentia'' by the Nazis. Marble intarsia (''opere di commessi''), called ''pietre dura'' in English for the semi-precious hardstones (Hardstone carving) combined with colored marbles that are employed, is an intarsia of coloured stones inlaid in white or black marble. Early examples in Florence date from the mid fifteenth century and reached a peak of refinement and complexity in revetments of the Medici Chapel, produced under Medici patronage in the ''Opificio delle Pietre Dure'', which was established by Ferdinando I de’ Medici. Later complex designs and refinement of the art developed in Naples circa the beginning of the 17th century. The floor of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is a particularly notable example of marble intarsia. Later this form of decoration became a feature of baroque interior design, particularly so in the Sicilian Baroque designs following the earthquake of 1693. History The airline was established in 1980 as '''Interot Airways''', but started revenue operations only in 1986 with flights from Augsburg to Düsseldorf. In 1993 it started flying to European holiday destinations for tour operators and added international scheduled services in 1994, to Florence. The co-operation with Lufthansa initiated in 1996 was accompanied by a change of name to '''Augsburg Airways'''. From 1 June 2002, its operations were restructured and in 2003 it became part of Lufthansa Regional. Augsburg Airways was purchased by Cirrus Airlines and forms part of the Cirrus Group. thumb right ''Pietà'' by Masolino da Panicale (File:Masolino, pietà, empoli.jpg). '''Empoli''' ( Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence
in Florence from 1928 to 1935, and later in Genoa from 1935 to 1936. This unit was created in Italy on 21 May 1944. From May 1944 to August 1945 it was part of Eighth Army (Eighth Army (United Kingdom)) and the 6th Armoured Division. It fought in the Liri Valley, Arezzo, advance to Florence, on the Gothic Line and the Argenta Gap. After the publication of the ''Vita'' Condivi returned to Ripatransone, where he undertook civic duties, married, and devoted himself to painting
religious subjects. One of these paintings, the unfinished and ambiguously themed ''Holy Family and other figures'' (now in the Casa Buonarroti, Florence), relied completely for its composition on a cartoon provided by Michelangelo. The cartoon, known as the ''Epifania (Epifania (Michelangelo drawing))'' as it was once erroneously believed to depict the Epiphany (Epiphany (Christian)), is now housed in the British Museum, London. 17th century During this period
; Although millions of Catholics hope for miracles on their pilgrimages, the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles, unless they have been subject to extensive analysis. Biography Born in Florence http
'''Florence''' ( , alternative obsolete form: ''Fiorenza''; Latin: ''Florentia'') is the capital city of the Italian region (Regions of Italy) of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 380,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Bilancio demografico anno 2013, dati ISTAT
Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval (Middle Ages) European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.
The Historic Centre of Florence attracts millions of tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors.
Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 50 fashion capitals of the world;