Federal Emergency Relief Administration

What is Federal Emergency Relief Administration known for?


national cultural

. A congressional resolution in 1938 called for construction of a "public building which shall be known as the '''National Cultural Center'''" near Judiciary Square, but nothing materialized. Coming to America The Marienthal study attracted the attention


science history

Social Science History year 2002 volume 26 issue 1 pages 33–70 issn 0145-5532 doi 10.1215 01455532-26-1-33 url http: muse.jhu.edu journals ssh summary v026 26.1southworth.html Key West Julius Stone, Jr., changed the economic direction of Key West, Florida, when he was the director of the southeast region of FERA. In 1934, Key West went bankrupt and state turned the city over to the FERA in a dubious constitutional move. Within two years, Stone had reversed


critically

Administration . Directed by Tugwell, the RA sought to create healthy communities for the rural unemployed with access to urban opportunities. Some of the RA's activities dealt with land conservation and rural aid, but the construction of new suburban satellite cities was the most prominent. In her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, author Jane Jacobs critically quotes Tugswell on the program: "My idea is to go just outside centers of population, pick up cheap land, build


social

entirely new federal agencies, the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Administration. Projects FERA operated a wide variety of work relief projects, including construction, projects for professionals (e.g., writers, artists, actors, and musicians), and production of consumer goods. The construction and professional projects elicited criticisms of "make-work," i.e., that little of value was produced. File:Women stuffing mattresses - NARA - 285192.jpg thumb

1 pages 46–61 issn 0486-6134 doi 10.1177 048661348802000103 Workers' education Workers' education, a form of adult education, emphasized the study of economic and social problems from the workers' perspective. When the FERA created its adult education program in 1933, workers' education classes were included. Between 1933 and 1943 thirty-six experiment in workers' education, 17 of them for a full ten years the program existed. With as many as two thousand teachers

. When Roosevelt's FERA became law in 1933 Nebraska took part. Rowland Haynes, the state's emergency relief director, was the major force in implementing such national programs as the FERA and CWA. Robert L. Cochran, who became governor in 1935, was a "cautious progressive" who sought federal assistance and placed Nebraska among the first American states to adopt a social security law. The enduring impact of FERA and social security in Nebraska was to shift responsibility for social


program

Administration (WPA). FERA under Hoover gave loans to the states to operate relief programs. One of these, the New York state program TERA (Temporary Emergency Relief Administration), was set up in 1931 and headed by Harry Hopkins, a close adviser to Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt asked Congress to set up FERA—which gave grants to the states for the same purpose—in May 1933, and appointed Hopkins to head it. Along with the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC

1 pages 46–61 issn 0486-6134 doi 10.1177 048661348802000103 Workers' education Workers' education, a form of adult education, emphasized the study of economic and social problems from the workers' perspective. When the FERA created its adult education program in 1933, workers' education classes were included. Between 1933 and 1943 thirty-six experiment in workers' education, 17 of them for a full ten years the program existed. With as many as two thousand teachers

employed at one time, officials conservatively estimated that the program reached at least one million workers nation-wide until it was ended in World War II. Three distinct phases of a federal workers' education program existed: FERA (1933–1935), Works Progress Administration (WPA—prior to separation from the other adult education programs, 1935–1939), and WPA Workers' Service Program (1939–1943). FERA and WPA workers' education stimulated educational activities within the labor movement


construction projects

entirely new federal agencies, the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Administration. Projects FERA operated a wide variety of work relief projects, including construction, projects for professionals (e.g., writers, artists, actors, and musicians), and production of consumer goods. The construction and professional projects elicited criticisms of "make-work," i.e., that little of value was produced. File:Women stuffing mattresses - NARA - 285192.jpg thumb

Communities , of the Resettlement Administration, the Division of Subsistence Homesteads, and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, from the National New Deal Preservation Association Relief While local relief before 1932 focused on providing small sums of cash or baskets of food and coal for the neediest, the federal programs launched by Hoover and greatly expanded by the New Deal tried to use massive construction projects with prevailing wages to jumpstart the economy


including construction

entirely new federal agencies, the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Administration. Projects FERA operated a wide variety of work relief projects, including construction, projects for professionals (e.g., writers, artists, actors, and musicians), and production of consumer goods. The construction and professional projects elicited criticisms of "make-work," i.e., that little of value was produced. thumb right Ojibwe (File:Women stuffing mattresses - NARA - 285192.jpg) women stuffing mattresses, c. 1935 thumb right Cheyenne (File:Women with stack of mattresses they made - NARA - 285221.jpg) women with stack of mattresses they made, 1940 In contrast, the output of the consumer goods production projects was clearly useful, as canned food, garments, mattresses, bedding, and other goods were produced and then distributed to relief recipients. But these projects, termed production-for-use by FERA administrators, came under fire from capitalists for competing with the private sector. As a result, production-for-use projects that capitalists found offensive were terminated by the time the WPA began in late 1935, and no such government production of consumer goods has been repeated since. On 20 April 1938, she was struck from the Naval Vessel Register and on 16 March 1939 sold for scrapping to Boston Iron & Metals Company of Baltimore (Baltimore, Maryland). In Spring, 1933, he was invited to Washington by Labor Secretary Frances Perkins to consult on relations with state labor departments. He advised the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Civil Works Administration. In November 1933, he was appointed Director of the Labor Compliance Division of the National Recovery Administration. He returned briefly to Madison in May 1934 but was almost immediately appointed Second Assistant Secretary of Labor. Altmeyer (1968), ix; and David Brian Robertson, "Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Divergence: John R. Commons and William Beveridge," ''The Social Service Review'' 62, no. 3 (September 1988), 513. The economy, which had experienced significant recovery since the Civil War, was dealt a double blow by the Great Depression (Great Depression in the United States) and the Dust Bowl. After the Stock Market Crash of 1929, the economy suffered significant reversals and thousands of city workers became unemployed, many of whom depended on federal relief programs such as FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps). Farmers and ranchers were especially hard hit, as prices for cotton and livestock fell sharply. Beginning in 1934 and lasting until 1939, an ecological disaster of severe wind and drought caused an exodus from Texas and Arkansas, the Oklahoma Panhandle region and the surrounding plains, in which over 500,000 Americans were homeless, hungry and jobless. First Measured Century: Interview: James Gregory . Thousands left the region forever to seek economic opportunities along the West Coast. In April 1935 Tugwell and Roosevelt created the Resettlement Administration (RA), a unit of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Directed by Tugwell, the RA sought to create healthy communities for the rural unemployed with access to urban opportunities. Some of the RA's activities dealt with land conservation and rural aid, but the construction of new suburban satellite cities was the most prominent. In her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, author Jane Jacobs critically quotes Tugswell on the program: "My idea is to go just outside centers of population, pick up cheap land, build a whole community and entice people into it. Then go back into the cities and tear down whole slums and make parks of them." Chapter 16, Gradual Money and Cataclysmic Money, p. 310 Three "Greenbelt" towns were completed before the Supreme Court found the program unconstitutional in Franklin Township v. Tugwell. Housing construction was deemed a state power and the RA was an illegal delegation of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration's power. Myhra, David. "Rexford Guy Tugwell: Initiator of America’s Greenbelt New Towns, 1935 to 1936." ''Journal of the American Planning Association''. 40, no. 3 (1974). Arnold, Joseph. ''The New Deal in the Suburbs''. Ohio State University Press, 1971. * Oklahoma History on Resettlement Administration * Complete List of New Deal Communities, of the Resettlement Administration, the Division of Subsistence Homesteads, and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, from the National New Deal Preservation Association Relief While local relief before 1932 focused on providing small sums of cash or baskets of food and coal for the neediest, the federal programs launched by Hoover and greatly expanded by the New Deal tried to use massive construction projects with prevailing wages to jumpstart the economy and solve the unemployment crisis. ERA, FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and PWA (Public Works Administration) built and repaired the public infrastructure in dramatic fashion but did little to foster the recovery of the private sector. In sharp contrast to Britain, where private housing construction pulled the country out of depression, American cities saw little private construction or investment, and so they languished in the economic doldrums even as their parks, sewers, airports and municipal buildings were enhanced. The problem in retrospect was that the New Deal's investment in the public infrastructure had only a small "multiplier" effect, in contrast to the high multiplier for jobs that private investment might have created. Richard J. Jensen, "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression." There were also small camps called hoovervilles that had very poor people living in them. , ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' (1989) 19:553-83. '''1934:''' Tate criticized the Federal Emergency Relief Administration for what he called a "new racket" in that, he said, it was planning to use the old Saint Vincent's Hospital (St. Vincent Medical Center (Los Angeles)) on Sunset Boulevard near Beaudry Avenue "as a clearinghouse for transient youths." In the vicinity, he said, were "thousands of families who are denied Federal relief because they had sufficient ambition to acquire property" but became unemployed. He added: "If they must harbor these tramps, they should be taken out into the country where they won't interfere with the family life of our citizens." "F.E.R.A. Acts Cause Rift," ''Los Angeles Times,'' September 19, 1934, page A-3


education programs

employed at one time, officials conservatively estimated that the program reached at least one million workers nation-wide until it was ended in World War II. Three distinct phases of a federal workers' education program existed: FERA (1933–1935), Works Progress Administration (WPA—prior to separation from the other adult education programs, 1935–1939), and WPA Workers' Service Program (1939–1943). FERA and WPA workers' education stimulated educational activities within the labor movement


poor people

, Fresno City (Fresno City, California), CA 1940 Poor people lacked enough food in the Depression, and farmers had too much. The mismatch was solved by the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation (FSRC), FERA, and WPA programs which aimed to reduce farm surpluses by government purchase and then redistribution of food to the needy. Three methods of distribution were employed with varying success: direct distribution, food stamps, and school lunches.

doldrums even as their parks, sewers, airports and municipal buildings were enhanced. The problem in retrospect was that the New Deal's investment in the public infrastructure had only a small "multiplier" effect, in contrast to the high multiplier for jobs that private investment might have created. Richard J. Jensen, "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression." There were also small camps called hoovervilles that had very poor people living in them. , ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' (1989) 19:553-83. '''1934:''' Tate criticized the Federal Emergency Relief Administration for what he called a "new racket" in that, he said, it was planning to use the old Saint Vincent's Hospital (St. Vincent Medical Center (Los Angeles)) on Sunset Boulevard near Beaudry Avenue "as a clearinghouse for transient youths." In the vicinity, he said, were "thousands of families who are denied Federal relief because they had sufficient ambition to acquire property" but became unemployed. He added: "If they must harbor these tramps, they should be taken out into the country where they won't interfere with the family life of our citizens." "F.E.R.A. Acts Cause Rift," ''Los Angeles Times,'' September 19, 1934, page A-3


works

dissolved Dec. 1935 superseding Works Progress Administration (WPA) jurisdiction headquarters latd latm lats latNS longd longm longs longEW region_code coordinates employees Provided work for over 20 million people budget minister1_name minister1_pfo minister2_name minister2_pfo deputyminister1_name deputyminister1_pfo

deputyminister2_name deputyminister2_pfo chief1_name chief1_position chief2_name chief2_position agency_type parent_department parent_agency child1_agency Civil Works Administration (CWA) child2_agency keydocument1 website footnotes map map_width map_caption

thumb 270px FERA camps for unemployed women in Arcola, Pennsylvania (Image:FERA camp in Pennsylvania.jpg); "Second Camp", ca. 07 1934. '''Federal Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''FERA''') was the new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the '''Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''ERA''') which President Herbert Hoover had created in 1932. FERA was established as a result of the Federal Emergency Relief Act and was replaced in 1935 by the Works Progress

Federal Emergency Relief Administration

thumb 270px FERA camps for unemployed women in Arcola, Pennsylvania (Image:FERA camp in Pennsylvania.jpg); "Second Camp", ca. 07 1934. '''Federal Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''FERA''') was the new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the '''Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''ERA''') which President Herbert Hoover had created in 1932. FERA was established as a result of the Federal Emergency Relief Act and was replaced in 1935 by the Works Progress Administration (WPA).

FERA under Hoover gave loans to the states to operate relief programs. One of these, the New York state program TERA (Temporary Emergency Relief Administration), was set up in 1931 and headed by Harry Hopkins, a close adviser to Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt asked Congress to set up FERA—which gave grants to the states for the same purpose—in May 1933, and appointed Hopkins to head it. Along with the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) it was the first relief operation under the New Deal. Basically, it gave grants and loans to states.

FERA's main goal was alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government. Jobs were more expensive than direct cash payments (called "the dole"), but were psychologically more beneficial to the unemployed, who wanted any sort of job, for self-esteem, to play the role of male breadwinner. From May 1933 until it closed in December, 1935, FERA gave states and localities $3.1 billion. FERA provided work for over 20 million people and developed facilities on public lands across the country.

Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of 1933-34, FERA instituted the Civil Works Administration (CWA) as a $400 million short-term measure to get people to work. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration was terminated in 1935 and its work taken over by two entirely new federal agencies, the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Administration.

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