retook the territories in June. See: * The war also left some 117 minefields containing nearly 20,000 mines of various types, including anti-vehicle and anti-personnel mines. ref name "BBC_Mines">
with the occasional sighting of whales. Terrain thumb "The Neck" on Saunders Island (Image:2884-saunders-landscape_RJ.jpg) The terrain is rocky and hilly, with some boggy terrain. Peat is found throughout the islands, leading to potentially dangerous fire conditions; once ignited, a peat fire can burn for months. The deeply indented coast provides good natural harbours. The highest point in the islands is the 705m Mount Usbourne. Climate Strong westerly winds are a constant in many parts of the islands. It is more likely to rain in the southeastern part of the islands with the far western islands getting very little yearly precipitation. Temperatures are cool and snow may occur at any time except for January and February, although accumulation is rare. Most visitors come to the islands between November and March. The Falklands is a victim of the Antarctic ozone hole, so it is important to wear sunscreen on sunny days during the early summer. Holidays * HM the Queen's Birthday, 21 April * Liberation Day, 14 June (1982) * Battle Day, 8 December Tourist Information * '''Falkland Islands Tourism'''. Jetty Visitor Centre, Stanley, Falkland Islands, Tel: +500 22215, Fax: +500 22619, mailto:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Islands Life in the Falklands can be divided between living in Stanley or living ''in camp''. The two main islands of the territory are East Falkland and West Falkland, with numerous smaller islands providing additional destinations. WikiPedia:Falkland Islands Dmoz:Regional South America Falkland Islands Commons:Category:Falkland Islands
Gordon Brown newspaper The Guardian date 27 March 2009 accessdate 24 August 2013 The UK bases its position on its continuous administration of the islands since 1833 (except for 1982 (Argentine occupation of the Falkland Islands)) and the islanders' "right to self-determination as set out in the UN Charter (United Nations Charter)".
Supporting the Falkland Islanders' right to self-determination publisher United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office and Ministry of Defence work Policy date 12 March 2013 accessdate 29 May 2014 Argentine policy maintains that Falkland Islanders do not have a right to self-determination, claiming that in 1833 the UK expelled Argentine authorities (and settlers) from the Falklands with a threat of "greater force" and, afterwards, barred Argentines from resettling
Survey (BAS) operates a single Dash 7 in support of its research program in Antarctica. The aircraft undertakes regular shuttle flights between either Stanley (Stanley, Falkland Islands) on the Falkland Islands, or Punta Arenas (Punta Arenas, Chile) in Chile, and the Rothera Research Station on Adelaide Island. It also operates to and from the ice runway at the Sky Blu Logistics Facility (Sky Blu) on the Antarctic mainland.
) is a prominent mountain (3,675 m) marking the highest elevation in the Crary Mountains, in Marie Byrd Land. Mapped by United States Geological Survey (USGS) from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1959-66. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Lawrence A. Frakes, United States Antarctic Research Program (USARP) geologist who worked three summer seasons in the Falkland Islands and Antarctica, 1964-65 through 1967-68. <
of Antarctica Hodson, Mount Imshaug Peninsula '''Imshaug Peninsula''' ( ) is a broad, snow-covered peninsula at the south side of Lehrke Inlet on the east coast of Palmer Land. Mapped by United States Geological Survey (USGS) in 1974. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Henry A. Imshaug, United States Antarctic Research Program (USARP) biologist in a long-range
on their wings are a darker shade. They lay 2 to 3 eggs in December. Dolphin Gulls eat many things from mussels to carrion. Vigo is the base for the big fishing companies which have prominent presence in countries such Namibia, South Africa, Mozambique, Australia, Argentina, the Falkland Islands, Chile and Peru, among others. Fish is sent all over Spain and abroad to countries like Portugal, Italy, France and other more distant markets including Asia. The BBC
, Åland Bomarsund . From 1856 to 1865 he was the naval professional member of the Board of Trade. He was promoted to Vice-Admiral in 1870, and Admiral in 1877. After Robert FitzRoy committed suicide in 1865, leaving his wife and daughter destitute, Sulivan convinced the British government to provide them with £3000, to which Charles Darwin contributed another £100 of his own money. RAF career Born the son of Air Marshal Sir Douglas Macfadyen, Ian Macfadyen was educated at Marlborough College and entered the RAF College Cranwell in 1960. The International Who's Who 2004 By Europa Publications, p. 1053 He became a flying instructor and a member of the Poachers formation aerobatic team Air Marshal Ian Macfadyen Cranston Fine Arts at the Royal Air Force College Cranwell in 1970 and was appointed Officer Commanding of No. 29 Squadron (No. 29 Squadron RAF) in 1980, with whom he saw operational service in the Falkland Islands, and Officer Commanding of No. 23 Squadron (No. 23 Squadron RAF) in 1983. He went on to be Station Commander at RAF Leuchars in Fife in 1985 and Commander of British Forces in the Middle East in 1990. Macfadyen served as the Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff, Operational Requirements (Air Systems) from 1991 and as Director General of the Saudi Arabia Armed Forces Project from 1994. He was promoted to Air Marshal in 1994 and retired from the RAF in February 1999. Its name reflects Argentina's claims of sovereignty (Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute) over the Falkland Islands (''Islas Malvinas'' in Spanish), and could be translated as "Argentine Falklands". It was created on October 20, 1994 by Provincial Law #11551, taking some of the territory of former General Sarmiento Partido. The ship landed scrap-metal workers on South Georgia on 19 March 1982. She was involved in the blockade running to the Falkland Islands. She sailed from Stanley (Stanley, Falkland Islands) towards Falklands Sound on 29 April, before the first British attack. While heading to the south on 6 May, the ship spotted the schooner ''Penelope'', property of the Falkland Islands Company, at anchor along a pier in Speedwell Island. The small craft was taken over by an Argentine prize crew the following day. Contraalmirante Horacio A. Mayorga 1998 : '' No Vencidos''. Ed. Planeta, Buenos Aires, page 313. ISBN 950-742-976-X WikiPedia:Falkland Islands Dmoz:Regional South America Falkland Islands Commons:Category:Falkland Islands
. Some of the British overseas territories, including Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands, use number plates similar to the UK, with the same colours and typeface. Some former British colonies (Crown colony) which adopted British style number plates have continued with those customs, notable examples are Hong Kong (Vehicle registration plates of Hong Kong), Singapore (Vehicle registration plates of Singapore) and Cyprus (Vehicle registration plates of Cyprus) ;United
sheep shearing times. Bear in mind that the average medium sized village located in the United Kingdom has a population of only around 3,000 and this is nearly the total population of the entire Falkland Islands. * Stanley (Stanley (Falkland Islands)) - capital and port * Goose Green - small settlement with numerous remnants of the 1982 war on East Falkland * Port Howard - 200,000 acre sheep farm on West Falkland Get in With the exception of those arriving by cruise ship who will not be spending a night on land, all visitors to the Falklands must show that they have a return ticket, accommodation and sufficient funds to cover their expenses while in the islands. A major credit card will be accepted as proof of funds. A departure tax of £22 is charged when leaving the territory from Mount Pleasant airport. A visa is required except in the following cases: # Visitors arriving on board a cruise ship and do not spend a night in the Islands. # Visitors who hold a passport from the following countries: Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea (Republic), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City. # Visitors who have a passport or international travel document issued by the Red Cross or United Nations. By plane Most international flights arrive at the Mount Pleasant (MPN) airport, which is also a military base. The only international carriers to use this airport are LanChile on a weekly flight from Santiago de Chile via Punta Arenas (CL), Rio Gallegos (AR) (monthly) and the UK Royal Air Force who carry commercial passengers direct from RAF Brize Norton, Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. Flights from the UK last eighteen hours including a stop on Ascension Island en route. The RAF contracts two flights per week which are subject to military priorities. There is also an airport in Stanley (PSY) but it has a smaller runway and is used primarily for flights within the Falklands. It is expensive to get off the Island and a return flight to Santiago (the nearest airport interchange hub) costs approximately £800 per person and is a 7 hour flight. It costs £1600 for a return ticket to the UK if you are eligible for discount (you need to be a FIG employee) otherwise it costs £2100. The Mount Pleasant airport is 56km (35 miles) from Stanley. Falkland Island Tours & Travel (Tel: 21775, mailto:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org ) operates a shuttle bus that meets all flights and that can take visitors to and from the capital for £15.00 per person (one-way). Taxis also take passengers to and from the airport - these must be pre-booked. By ship Large cruise ships stop at Stanley (Stanley (Falkland Islands))'s port throughout the island's summer months (October - April). These boats may also stop at some of the outlying islands. While cruise ships can dock at Stanley, be prepared to come ashore on a zodiac, also called a rigid inflatable boat (RIB), when landing on most other islands. It is also typical for expedition ships en route to Antarctica, to include a stop at the Falkland Islands in their itinerary. Get around By plane thumb FIGAS plane on the airstrip at Sea Lion Island (Image:2635-sea-lion-figas-plane_RJ.jpg) Travelling between islands in the Falklands is generally done using the Falkland Islands Government Air Service (FIGAS). The planes are Britten Norman Islander aircraft, capable of carrying eight passengers plus pilot. Be aware however, that passenger load may be reduced depending on the condition of the airstrips being visited. With the exception of Stanley and Mount Pleasant, all airstrips in the Falklands are either dirt strips or grassy fields. Be prepared for slight delays while livestock is cleared from airstrips prior to takeoff landing! FIGAS flights leave twice daily from the airstrip just outside of Stanley and travel to a variety of locations throughout the islands. There is a baggage limit of 20 kg per person which is strictly enforced; you and your baggage will be weighed prior to boarding in Stanley. For those with more than 14 kg of baggage there is an additional charge of £1.00 per kg, space permitting. Note that unless the plane is flying to an island with a very poor landing strip there are almost never weight constraints that would prevent travelling with a few extra kilos of baggage. Reservations are required for travel and should be booked at least 24 hours in advance. Booking reservations can be done either by calling the airport (Tel: 27219), emailing mailto:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org or visiting the airport in person when it is open (hours vary depending on flight schedules but mid-morning is usually a good time). Flight schedules are announced the night before departure and are also available via a fax service. Most lodges will post the schedule as soon as it is announced. Flights can be paid for in cash or with credit card. Fares vary by destination but sample fares (one-way) from November 2009 were: * Stanley to Sea Lion Island: £59.46 * Stanley to Port Howard: £58.75 * Saunders Island to Pebble Island: £25.38 * Pebble Island to Stanley: £64.43 By boat While it is theoretically possible to get around the Falklands by boat, as of March 2010 there was no regular service available to tourists travelling in small groups to the outer islands; (contrary to reports in guide books, the ''Golden Fleece'' does not taxi passengers around the islands). For large groups it may be possible to charter a boat in advance thus providing a great way to visit some of the less-travelled islands. Be aware that per-passenger landing fees are charged on many of the islands; contact the island's owner before visiting. However there is a regular passenger ferry between New Haven, 2 hours car journey from Stanley (Stanley (Falkland Islands)) to Port Howard. Ferry tickets must be booked in advance from Workboat Services on 22300. As of December 2008 example prices were: Foot Passage single £10; Car Passage single £25. Large cruise ships are the most common means for people to visit the Falklands, and most will make several landings at various islands. Note that aside from Stanley all landings from cruise ships are done using zodiacs (small inflatable boats), and in many cases the lack of docking areas will require a quick wade from the zodiac onto shore. By taxi Within Stanley there are two taxi services that can be hired for travel throughout the town and surrounding areas, including the Mount Pleasant airport. By Land Rover Land Rover rental may be possible from Stanley. Contact either the Falkland Islands Company or Stanley Services ( mailto:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org ) for information. Roads in Stanley are paved, but elsewhere road conditions range from well-maintained dirt roads to boggy mud streams. Unless your travels specifically require having your own vehicle, renting a Land Rover is neither necessary nor a particularly good idea. Talk As the Falklands are a British overseas territory, the British variety of '''English''' is universal. People who aren't Falkland Islanders or who have never visited the Falkland Islands speak of the islands having Spanish as an unofficial language; this is completely untrue. See * Museum - The Museum is situated on Holdfast Road. Do Buy The official Falklands currency is the Falkland Pound (FKP) whose value is set equivalent to that of one British pound (GBP). Money can be exchanged at the only bank in the islands which is located in Stanley across from the FIC West store. British pounds will generally be accepted anywhere in the islands and within Stanley credit cards and American currency are also often accepted. On the outlying islands credit cards will probably not be accepted, although British and American currency may be taken; check with the owners in advance to determine what is an acceptable payment method. It is nearly impossible to exchange Falklands currency outside of the islands, so be sure to exchange all money prior to leaving the islands. Eat Meals in the Falklands are primarily traditional British. Fish and chips, roast beef, mutton and tea are standard fare. There are some Spanish influences such as Milanesa and Casuela. While in camp many of the lodges provide home-cooked meals in very generous portions and their food is generally better than is found in Stanley's pubs and cafés. However, Stanley does have a few good restaurants. It is difficult to find fresh fruit and vegetables, and they are generally very expensive. A banana will cost £1 and a small orange or one single plum will cost 90p. Cabbage and cauliflower costs around £4.50 for half a portion. Half a portion of lettuce costs around £3.50 and a small cucumber costs £4. Tomatoes for some reason are very expensive, if you buy 2 small tomatoes that will set you back £2.50! There is no fresh milk available and all milk is UHT long life milk. The only fresh meat on sale in the supermarket is mutton. A frozen chicken costs around £12 for a 2kg bird. Drink While most items in the Falklands are expensive due to the cost of importing, there are no taxes on alcohol making beer prices fairly reasonable. Pubs and lodges offer a wide selection, although most drinks will usually come from a can or bottle rather than a tap. Sleep Accommodation in Stanley includes numerous bed and breakfasts as well as a handful of hotels. Buildings are generally older and the warm hospitality also seems to come from a bygone age. While in camp lodging includes everything from old farmhouses to lodges built specifically for tourism. Camping may be permitted with permission of the landowner. Many places are self-catering meaning supplies will need to be purchased in either Stanley or from a local source, if one is available. When in camp it is essential that lodging be reserved in advance; in Stanley it is generally possible to find lodging without a reservation but it is still recommended that reservations be made. Work A work permit is required for any foreign national, including UK citizens, working in the Falklands. Work permits should generally be applied for prior to coming to the islands and will require an employer's sponsorship. Additional information can be found at the Falkland Islands Government site. Like everything in the Falklands, living expenses will be very high. Kerosene (the only form of heating available to most housing here) costs £200 to £300 or more per month to heat a small 3 bed house. The internet is very expensive and it costs around £80 per month for a limited data package of 4GB per month. Overall the cost of living is at least 3 times higher than the UK. Stay safe thumb A marked minefield at Port William photographed in 2003 (File:Falklands-Minefield.JPG) Crime is relatively unknown in the Falklands, although one should still take the normal precautions of not leaving items unattended or travelling alone late at night. If problems are encountered the police force should be helpful. Unexploded ordnance from the 1982 conflict, including land mines, are still found in the islands. No civilians have been harmed by landmines since the conflict ended, and the remaining minefields are all well marked and clearly cordoned off. It is a criminal offence to enter a minefield or to remove minefield signage. Many animals in the islands can be dangerous when cornered or with young. Elephant seals, sea lions and fur seals are probably the most dangerous; keep a safe distance when viewing these animals. A general rule is that if the animal seems to notice your presence, you are too close. The Falklands, being located at a far southern latitude, may be affected by the Antarctic ozone hole from August until December. During this time be sure to wear sunscreen on sunny days, as the risk of sunburn is increased significantly. During other months of the year the ozone hole shrinks and the danger from the sun is not significantly greater than anywhere else on the planet. However, it is wise to wear sunscreen as the burning effect of the sun is often under-estimated by visitors to the islands. Stay healthy There are no special medical requirements for visiting the Falklands. There is a large hospital in Stanley, but outside of the capital there are no medical facilities. For serious injuries, the costs of being airlifted out of the islands are very high. Your travel insurance must cover the costs of medical evacuation. Respect Since the population has British roots, customs tend to follow those of the United Kingdom, although in many ways the islanders are more conservative than Britain. Drugs are not tolerated and travellers should be aware that among some residents there is still a mistrust of Argentines stemming from the 1982 conflict between the UK and Argentina. You should ''never'' refer to the islands as Argentine. In a 2013 referendum, 99.8% of the turnout voted to remain British, and many residents were there during the 1982 war. This should give you a good idea of how likely you are to cause offence, as calling the islands Argentine is virtually guaranteed to irritate and potentially start a fight, unless used sarcastically (which, as a rule of thumb, should not be a subtle joke and instead should be very clear of what you actually mean). In addition to the above concerns, there exists a '''Country Code''' that should be followed by visitors to the islands: * Always ask permission before entering private land. * Keep to paths wherever possible. Leave gates open or shut as you found them. * Be aware of the high fire risk throughout the Islands. Be extremely careful when smoking not to start fires. Take cigarette butts away with you. * Do not litter; take your rubbish home with you. * Do not disfigure rocks or buildings. * Do not touch, handle, injure or kill any wild bird or other wild animal. * Never feed any wild animals. * Always give animals the right of way. Remember not to block the routes of sea birds and seals coming ashore to their colonies. * Try to prevent any undue disturbance to wild animals. Stay on the outside of bird and seal colonies. Remain at least six metres away. When taking photographs or filming stay low to the ground. Move slowly and quietly. Do not startle or chase wildlife from resting or breeding areas. * Some plants are protected and should not be picked. * Whalebones, skulls, eggs or other such items may not be exported from the Falklands. Connect For all emergencies, including Police, Fire, Ambulance and Bomb Disposal, dial '''999''' free of charge. The country code for dialling the Falklands is '''+500'''. The local phone company, Cable & Wireless, sells phone cards which can be used throughout the territory but international calls cost £0.90 per minute. Broadband internet access now exists island-wide although speeds are much closer to dialup, 56 Kbps or less. Several hotels, as well as the visitor centre offer computers that accept Cable & Wireless internet cards and there are an increasing number of Wi-Fi hotspots. Both phone and internet cards can be purchased from the Cable & Wireless office in Stanley (located on the hill past the War Memorial), as well as in some of the stores in town. The larger lodges will also sell phone cards and may have internet cards. More recently a GSM cell phone network has been made available but works only for Stanley, Mount Pleasant and a few other locations on East Falkland. The postal service in the Falklands is reliable and letters can be mailed easily from Stanley and most settlements. The main post office is located in Stanley town centre across from the FIC West store. WikiPedia:Falkland Islands Dmoz:Regional South America Falkland Islands Commons:Category:Falkland Islands
) of 1982, Argentine Air Force C-130s undertook highly
Sea King (Westland Sea King) aircraft, slightly larger than the ship had originally been designed to accommodate. In addition many small machine guns were added around the flight deck and island for close-in defence. During survey work in Antarctica in January 2006, the ship's engineering staff discovered her rudder was apparently loose on the stock. Her work period was cut short and she returned to Mare Harbour in the Falkland Islands for further inspections. Det Norske Veritas
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-- The '''Falkland Islands''' ( ) are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles (500 km) east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles (12,200 km 2 ), comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory (British Overseas Territories), the Falklands have internal self-governance (self-governance), and the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The islands' capital is Stanley (Stanley, Falkland Islands) on East Falkland.
Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine (Argentina) settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833 (Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (1833)), although Argentina maintains its claim to the islands (Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute). In April 1982, Argentine forces temporarily occupied the islands (1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands). British administration was restored two months later at the end of the Falklands War.
The population (2,932 inhabitants in 2012) primarily consists of native Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French, Gibraltarian (Gibraltarians) and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, and Chile has reversed a population decline. The predominant (and official) language is English. Under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens (British nationality law).
The islands lie on the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic (Oceanic climate) and tundra climate zones, and both major islands have mountain ranges reaching . They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands because of competition from introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing, tourism and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina.