, 1861. Following the unification of Italy, pursued a military career joining the Italian army later fighting at the Battle of Custoza (Battle of Custoza (1866)) on June 24, 1866. Rising to the rank of general by 1891, Baratieri was appointed commander of Italian forces in colonial Africa and the following year became governor of Eritrea. Baratieri would spend several years fighting with local Ethiopian forces along the border from 1893 to 1895, winning several victories over the Mahdists
The Independent date 26 April 2010 url http: www.independent.co.uk life-style history baboon-mummy-analysis-reveals-eritrea-and-ethiopia-as-location-of-land-of-punt-1954547.html author Jarus, Owen Ona Culture thumb right Excavation of archaeological site outside of Sembel (File:SembelExcavation.jpg). Excavations at Sembel found evidence of an ancient pre-Aksumite (Kingdom of Aksum) civilization in greater Asmara. This Ona urban culture is believed to have been among
merchants began to abandon the town. '''Assab''' (or '''Aseb''', anciently '''Avalites''', Ge'ez (Ge'ez alphabet) ዓሳብ ''ʿAsab'') is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. In 1989, it had a population of 39,600. Assab possesses an oil refinery, which was shut down in 1997 for economic reasons. Nearby is the site of the ancient city of Arsinoe (Arsinoe (Eritrea)). Red Sea From 10 June 1940, the ''Regia Marina'' Red Sea Flotilla, based in Massawa, Eritrea, posed a potential threat to Allied shipping crossing the Red Sea between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Initially, the East African Campaign (East African Campaign (World War II)) went well for Italy. In August 1940, the threat to Allied passage of the Red Sea was increased after the Italian conquest of British Somaliland. This allowed the Italians the use of the port of Berbera in what had been British Somaliland. In January 1941, British and Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Nations) forces launched a counterattack in East Africa and the threat posed by the Red Sea Flotilla disappeared when Italian East Africa fell. For most of the first millennium AD, the Axumite Kingdom in Ethiopia and Eritrea had a powerful navy and trading links reaching as far as the Byzantine Empire and India. Between the 14th and 17th centuries, the Ajuuraan State centered in modern-day Somalia practiced hydraulic engineering and developed new systems for agriculture and taxation, which continued to be used in parts of the Horn of Africa as late as the 19th century. '''El Ferik Ibrahim Abboud''' ( Commons:Category:Eritrea WikiPedia:Eritrea Dmoz:Regional Africa Eritrea
; Italian aircraft appeared in great strength. The Italian airmen shot down seven RAF Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters whilst losing five Fiat CR-42s and, for forty-eight hours, proceeded to methodically bomb the 1st Battalion Essex Regiment and the 3rd Battalion 18th Royal Garwhal Rifles. The Italians did this until the British and Commonwealth troops were compelled to withdraw from the positions they had just won. The 10th Indian Brigade re-occupied the ridge west
four brigades totaling 17,978 troops, with fifty-six artillery pieces. Lewis, ''Fashoda'', pp. 116f. He breaks down their numbers into 10,596 Italian officers and soldiers and 7,104 Eritrean askaris. However, it is likely that fewer fought in the actual battle on the Italian side: Harold Marcus notes that "several thousand" soldiers were needed in support roles and to guard the lines of communication to the rear. He accordingly estimates that the Italian force at Adwa consisted of 14,923 effectives. Marcus, ''Menelik II'', p. 173 One brigade under General Albertone was made up of Eritrean askari led by Italian officers. Thomas Pakenham, page 481 "The Scramble for Africa", ISBN 0-349-10449-2 The remaining three brigades were Italian units under Brigadiers Dabormida, Ellena and Arimondi. While these included elite Bersaglieri, Alpini and Cacciatori (Hunters of the Alps) units, a large proportion of the troops were inexperienced conscripts recently drafted from metropolitan regiments in Italy into newly formed "di formazione" battalions for service in Africa. George Fitz-Hardinge Berkley ''The Campaign of Adowa and the rise of Menelik'', London: Constable 1901. Raffaele Ruggeri, page 82 ''Le Guerre Coloniali Italiane 1885 1900'', Editrice Militare Italiana 1988 Immediate aftermath The Italians suffered about 7,000 killed and 1,500 wounded in the battle and subsequent retreat back into Eritrea, with 3,000 taken prisoner; Ethiopian losses have been estimated around 4,000–5,000, but with 8,000 wounded. Pankhurst, Richard. ''The Ethiopians: A History'' (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 191–2. In their flight to Eritrea, the Italians left behind all of their artillery and 11,000 rifles, as well as most of their transport. As Paul B. Henze notes, "Baratieri's army had been completely annihilated while Menelik's was intact as a fighting force and gained thousands of rifles and a great deal of equipment from the fleeing Italians." Henze, ''Layers of Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'' (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 170. The 3,000 Italian prisoners, who included General Albertone, appear to have been treated as well as could be expected under difficult circumstances, though about 200 died of their wounds in captivity. Chris Prouty notes that Albertone was given into the care of Azaj Zamanel, commander of Empress Taytu's personal army, and "had a tent to himself, a horse and servants". ''Empress Taytu'', pp. 169f. However, 800 captured askaris, regarded as traitors by the Ethiopians, had their right hands and left feet amputated. Augustus Wylde records when he visited the battlefield months after the battle, the pile of severed hands and feet was still visible, "a rotting heap of ghastly remnants." Augustus B. Wylde, ''Modern Abyssinia'' (London: Methuen, 1901), p. 213 Further, many had not survived their punishment, Wylde writing how the neighborhood of Adwa "was full of their freshly dead bodies; they had generally crawled to the banks of the streams to quench their thirst, where many of them lingered unattended and exposed to the elements until death put an end to their sufferings." Wylde, ''Modern Abyssinia'', p. 214 There does not appear to be any foundation for reports that some Italians were castrated and these may reflect confusion with the atrocious treatment of the askari prisoners. Prouty has collected the few documented experiences of these POWs, none of whom claim to have been treated inhumanely (''Empress Taytu'', pp. 170–83). She repeats the opinion of the Italian historian Angelo del Boca, that "the paucity of the record is attributable to the glacial welcome received in Italy by the returning prisoners for having lost a war, and the fact that they were subjected to long interrogations when they debarked, were defrauded of their back pay, had their mementoes confiscated and were ordered not to talk to journalists" (p. 170). While the Gregorian calendar is widely used in Israel's (Israel) business and day-to-day affairs, the Hebrew calendar, used by Jews worldwide for religious and cultural affairs, also influences civil matters in Israel (such as national holidays) and can be used there for business dealings (such as for the dating of checks (Cheque)). The Chinese (Chinese calendar), Hebrew (Hebrew calendar), Hindu (Hindu calendar), and Julian (Julian calendar) calendars are widely used for religious and or social purposes. The Iranian (Persian) calendar (Iranian calendar) is used in Iran and some parts of Afghanistan. The Ethiopian calendar or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and Eritrea. In Thailand, where the Thai solar calendar is used, the months and days have adopted the western standard, although the years are still based on the traditional Buddhist calendar. Bahá'ís (Bahá'í Faith) worldwide use the Bahá'í calendar (Baha'i calendar). thumb Status of the foreign relations of Chile around the world. (File:Foreign relations of Chile.svg) Chile does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Togo, Taiwan (Republic of China), or Yemen. Regarding Western Sahara, Chile has sent contradictory comments. Chile's Senate speaker Sergio Romero has said that Chile does not recognize Western Sahara's independence, Commons:Category:Eritrea WikiPedia:Eritrea Dmoz:Regional Africa Eritrea
the Bible, from the Book of Proverbs, or from the Book of Qine, an anthology of proverbs and love poems. Subject matter includes the futility of life, the inevitability of death, saints, mores, morality, prayer, and praises to God. A song can last a few minutes to several hours depending on the text and the persistence of the player. Though many texts are of a religious nature, the instrument is not used in the Ethiopian Orthodox (Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) church
of food production such as agro-forestry. Piloted in Ethiopia in the 1990s it has spread to Malawi, Uganda, Eritrea and Kenya. In an analysis of the programme by the Overseas Development Institute, CABDA's focus on individual and community capacity-building is highlighted. This enables farmers to influence and drive their own development through community-run institutions, bringing food security to their household and region. Commons:Category:Eritrea WikiPedia:Eritrea Dmoz:Regional Africa Eritrea
fashion, Kenenisa bested the field in the short course despite a fast pace set by Qatari Saif Saaeed Shaheen. He followed that win with a long course victory the next day over Eritrean Zersenay Tadese and Kenyan rival Eliud Kipchoge. Ajwain originated in the Middle East, possibly in Egypt and the Indian subcontinent, but also in Iran and Afghanistan. It is sometimes used as an ingredient in ''berbere'', a spice mixture favored in Eritrea and Ethiopia
; The stalemate led the President of Eritrea to urge the UN to take action on Ethiopia with the Eleven Letters (s:Eleven Letters) penned by the President to the United Nations Security Council. The situation has been further escalated by the continued efforts of the Eritrean and Ethiopian leaders in supporting opposition in one another's countries. In 2011, Ethiopia accused Eritrea of planting bombs at an African Union summit in Addis Ababa, which was later
'''Religion''' right1 '''Percent''' bars According to recent estimates, 50% of the population adheres to Christianity, Islam 48%, while 2% of the population follows other religions including traditional African religion and animism. According to a study made by Pew Research Center, 63% adheres to Christianity and 36
'''Eritrea''' ( ), which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.
Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups. It has a population of around six million inhabitants. Most residents speak Afroasiatic languages, either of the Semitic (Semitic languages) or Cushitic (Cushitic languages) branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinya (Tigray-Tigrinya people) make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan (Nilo-Saharan languages)-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam.
The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia (Tigray Region), rose somewhere around the first or second centuries Munro-Hay, Stuart (1991) Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, p. 57 ISBN 0-7486-0106-6. Henze, Paul B. (2005) ''Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'', ISBN 1-85065-522-7. and adopted Christianity (Eritrean Orthodox Church) around the time Islam had spread through Egypt and the Levant. Aksumite Ethiopia. Workmall.com (24 March 2007). Retrieved on 3 March 2012. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri Kingdom (Medri Bahri), with a smaller region being part of the Hamasien Republic (Hamasien). The creation of modern day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent Kingdoms and various vassal states of the Ethiopian empire and the Ottoman Empire (Habesh), eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Subsequent annexation into Ethiopia led to the Eritrean War of Independence, ending with Eritrean independence following a referendum (Eritrean independence referendum, 1993) in April 1993. Hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia persisted, leading to the Eritrean–Ethiopian War of 1998–2000 and further skirmishes with both Djibouti (Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict) and Ethiopia (2010 Eritrean–Ethiopian border skirmish).
Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations and IGAD, and is an observer in the Arab League.