Elmet

What is Elmet known for?


title creating

. Mexborough is located at the north eastern end of a dyke known as the ''Roman Ridge'' that is thought to have been constructed either by the Brigantian tribes (Brigantes) in the 1st century AD, In the north there developed the British kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd, the "Old North", comprising Ebrauc (probable name), Bryneich (Bernicia), Rheged, Strathclyde, Elmet and Gododdin. Fifth and sixth century repairs along Hadrian's Wall have been uncovered, and at Whithorn in southwestern Scotland (possibly the site of St Ninian's monastery). Chance discoveries have helped document the continuing urban occupation of some Roman towns such as Wroxeter and Caerwent. Roger White and Philip Barker, ''Wroxeter: Life and Death of a Roman City'', (Stroud: Tempus, 1998) Continued urban use might be associated with an ecclesiastical (Christianity) structure. Sub-Roman This is the period from the departure of the Romans in about 410 AD to the start of Danish supremacy in the area in 866 AD. At the end of Roman rule in the 5th century, Northern Britain may have come under the rule of Romano-British Coel Hen, the last of the Roman-style ''Duces Brittanniarum'' (Dukes of the Britons). However, the Romano-British kingdom rapidly broke up into smaller kingdoms and York became the capital of the British kingdom of Ebrauc. Most of what became Yorkshire fell under the rule of the kingdom of Ebrauc but Yorkshire also included territory from the kingdoms of Dunoting (Dunod Fawr) and Elmet, which formed at around this time as did Cravenshire (Craven District). thumb right 150px Depiction of Edwin of Northumbria (File:Saint King Edwin of Northumbria.jpg) from Sledmere In the late 5th century and early 6th century Angles from the Schleswig-Holstein peninsula began colonising the Wolds, North Sea and Humber coastal areas. This was followed by the subjugation of the whole of east Yorkshire and the British kingdom of Ebruac in about 560. The name the Angles gave to the territory was Dewyr, or Deira (Deira (kingdom)). Early rulers of Deira extended the territory north to the River Wear and about 600, Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria) was able to unite Deira with the northern kingdom of Bernicia, forming the kingdom of Northumbria, whose capital was at Eoforwic, modern day York. A later ruler, Edwin of Northumbria completed the conquest of the area by his conquest of the kingdom of Elmet, including Hallamshire and Loidis, in 617. He converted to the Christian religion, along with his nobles and many of his subjects, in 627 and was baptised at Eoforwic. His defeat at the Battle of Hatfield Chase by Penda of Mercia in 633 was followed by continuing struggles between Mercia and Northumbria for supremacy over Deira. Edwin's successor, Oswald, was sympathetic to the Celtic church and around 634 he invited Aidan (Aidan of Lindisfarne) from Iona to found a monastery at Lindesfarne as a base for converting Northumbria to Celtic Christianity. Aidan soon established a monastery on the cliffs above Whitby with Hilda (Hilda of Whitby) as abbess. Further monastic sites were established at Hackness and Lastingham and Celtic Christianity became more influential in Northumbria than the Roman system. This caused conflict within the church until the issue was resolved at the Synod of Whitby in 663 by Oswiu of Northumbria opting to adopt the Roman system. It is not entirely certain whether Hussa was the son of Ida (Ida of Bernicia), founder of the kingdom of Bernicia, or rather the leader of a rival Anglian faction. Little is known of Hussa's life and reign, however. At some point during his reign, the coalition forces of Rheged and the Brythonic (Britons (historical)) kingdoms of Strathclyde, Bernicia and Elmet laid siege to Hussa and was almost successful in driving the Anglian Bernician kings out of Britain (Sub-Roman Britain). It is thought this alliance ultimately failed due to arguments between the different British tribes culminating in the murder of Urien, the king of Rheghed, around 590 by his former ally, Morcant. * King Morcant who almost single-handedly destroyed any hope the Britons of The Old North (Y Gogledd Hen) had of resisting the Anglian (Angles) invaders during 6th century. He was part of a grand Brythonic (Britons (historical)) alliance, along with King Urien of Rheged, King Riderch Hael (Riderch I of Alt Clut) of Alt Clut (Kingdom of Strathclyde) and King Gwallawc Marchawc Trin of Elmet. They were initially extremely successful in driving back the Angles from Bryneich territory, forcing them to vacate ''Din Guardi'' – possibly the capital - around 590 and besieging them on ''Ynys Metcaut'' (now called Lindisfarne). However, Morcant grew envious of the successes of Urien, and perhaps became uneasy about the prospects of a greatly empowered Rheged after the Angles had been defeated. Treacherously, he had Urien assassinated by a man called Llofan Llaf Difo and the alliance of the Britons of the North collapsed. The Angles broke out from their containment and retook most of the lands they had held before the war to expel them had begun. thumb 300px Plan of the Roman Ridge (Image:RomanRidge.svg) The '''Roman Rig''' (also known as '''Roman Ridge''', '''Scotland Balk''', or '''Barber Balk''') is the name given to a series of earthworks to the north east of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England that are believed to originally have formed a single Dyke (Dike (construction)) running from near Wincobank in Sheffield to Mexborough. Its purpose and date of construction are unknown. Formerly thought to have been a Roman road (Roman roads in Britain), modern archaeologists think that it was built either in the 1st century AD by the Brigantian tribes (Brigantes) as a defence against the Roman invasion of Britain, or after the 5th century to defend the kingdom of Elmet from the Angles. Ealdwulf was a first cousin of the saintly children of Anna of East Anglia. He was born into a Christian royal household, since his mother Hereswith may have been baptized in childhood by Paulinus of York in 626, together with Edwin, her sister and other members of the Northumbrian royal family. Hereswith's father was murdered as an exile in the British kingdom of Elmet: Edwin afterwards slew Ceretic of Elmet soon after becoming king in 616. The diplomatic marriage of Ealdwulf's parents occurred in the period between 626 and 633, when Edwin was slain by Cadwallon ap Cadfan. The marriage must have carried the expectation that Æthilric was to be a Christian husband and probably king of the East Angles. Like Edwin's conversion of Eorpwald (Eorpwald of East Anglia) in 627, it sealed Æthilric in kinship to Edwin. * Alt Clut or Ystrad Clud – a kingdom centred at what is now Dumbarton in Scotland. Later known as the Kingdom of Strathclyde, it was one of the best attested of the northern British kingdoms. It was also the last surviving, as it operated as an independent realm into the 11th century before it was finally absorbed by the Kingdom of Scotland. Koch 2006, p. 1819. * Elmet – centred in western Yorkshire in northern England. It was located south of the other northern British kingdoms, and also well east of present-day Wales, but managed to survive into the early 7th century. Koch 2006, pp. 670–671. * Gododdin – a kingdom in what is now southeastern Scotland and northeastern England, the area previously noted as the territory of the Votadini. They are the subjects of the poem ''Y Gododdin'', which memorialises a disastrous raid (Battle of Catraeth) by an army raised by the Gododdin on the Angles of Bernicia. Koch 2006, pp. 823–826. In contrast to most historians, Professor Nicholas Brooks has suggested that the list is of Northumbrian origin, noting that it would account for the inclusion of Elmet and the absence of the two Northumbrian kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia. He notes that a Mercian tribute list was would not have been headed by Mercia, as "an early mediaeval king did not impose tribute upon his own kingdom": it must have been a list produced by another kingdom, perhaps with an altogether different purpose. Brooks, ''Anglo-Saxon Myths'', p. 62. Featherstone, ''Tribal Hidage'', p. 30. - Ceredig ap Gwallog c.614–617 Elmet ''King of the Britons'' (in 614) Bede may refer only to Britons in Elmet - The reason for Gildas' disaffection for these individuals is unknown. He was selective in his choice of kings, as he had no comments concerning the kings of the other British kingdoms that were thriving at the time, such as Rheged, Gododdin, Elmet, Pengwern Powys (Pengwern), or the kingdoms of modern-day southern England. That he chose only the kings associated with one king's pre-eminence (Maglocune, the "dragon") suggests a reason other than his claim of moral outrage over personal depravity. Neither outrage nor a doctrinal dispute would seem to justify beginning the condemnation of the five kings with a personal attack against Constantine's mother (the "unclean lioness"). Etymology The name Swillington is derived from Old English (Old English language) ''swin'' "pig" + ''lēah'' "wood" + ''tun'' "farm". The name was recorded as ''Svilentone'' in 1147. Historically Swillington's full title was Swillington-in-Elmet, which refers to the village being part of the former Celtic kingdom of Elmet. However as with many other places the "-in-Elmet" has been lost in modern times with only a few exceptions such as Barwick-in-Elmet and Sherburn-in-Elmet surviving. Nowadays Elmet only exists as a political constituency (United Kingdom constituencies). Many local people, mainly of the younger generations have taken to abbreviating Swillington to "Swilly".


600

– and the people were known as the ''Elmetsæte''. They are recorded in the late 7th century ''Tribal Hidage'' as the inhabitants of a minor territory of 600 hides (hide (unit)). They were the most northerly group recorded in the ''Tribal Hidage''. The Elmetsæte probably continued to reside in West Yorkshire as a distinct group throughout the Saxon period and may have colluded with Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd when he invaded Northumbria and briefly held the area

causing the foundation of a new Kingdom, England. As in what became England, indigenous Brythonic Celtic culture in some of the south-eastern parts of what became Scotland (approximately the Lothian and Borders region) and areas of what became the Northwest of England (the kingdoms of Rheged, Elmet, etc.) succumbed to Germanic influence c.600—800, due to the extension of overlordship and settlement from the Anglo-Saxon areas to the south. Between c. 1150 and c. 1400 most

army was attacked by Oswiu at a point of strategic vulnerability, which would help explain Oswiu's victory over forces that were, according to Bede, much larger than his own. Breeze, "The Battle of the ''Uinued'' and the River Went, Yorkshire", pages 381–82. 13 (#References) thumb 200px right The main Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms in Edwin's time. (Image:Britain peoples circa 600.svg) With the death of Æthelfrith


making massive

came under increasing pressure from the expanding Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxon England) kingdoms of Deira and Mercia. Forces from Elmet joined the ill-fated alliance in 590 against the Angles of Bernicia who had been making massive inroads further to the north. During this war it is thought Elmet's king Gwallog was killed. The northern alliance collapsed after Urien of Rheged was murdered and a feud broke out between two of its key members. After the unification of the Anglian kingdom


Northumbria

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of the Britons in Wales and the West Country (''i.e.'' Cornwall and Dumnonia), and to the south of those in the ''Hen Ogledd'' or Old North. As one of the southeasternmost Brittonic regions for which there is reasonably substantial evidence, it is notable for having survived relatively late in the period of Anglo-Saxon conquest (Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain). Elmet was invaded and conquered by Northumbria in the autumn of 616 or 626. The kingdom

tribal identity in pre-Roman times and that this re-emerged after Roman rule collapsed. The existence of Elmet is attested in the ''Historia Brittonum'', which says that King Edwin of Northumbria "occupied Elmet and expelled Certic (Ceretic of Elmet), king of that country". Bede's ''Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum'' says that Hereric, the father of St Hilda of Whitby, was killed at the court of King Ceretic. It is generally presumed that Ceretic Certic were


poems

inscription found in Gwynedd reads "ALIOTVS ELMETIACOS HIC IACET", or "Aliotus the Elmetian lies here". A ''cantref'' (administrative division) of Dyfed was also named ''Elfed'', the Welsh (Welsh language) equivalent of Elmet. A number of ancestors of Ceretic are recorded in Welsh sources: one of Taliesin's poems is for his father Gwallog ap Llaennog, who may have ruled Elmet near the end of the 6th century. Towards the end of the 6th century, Elmet

in 1994 simply titled ''Elmet'', and with a third of the book being new additional poems and photographs. References *

and 29 (in Latin) Of the poems in ''The Book of Taliesin'', twelve are addressed to known historical kings such as Cynan Garwyn, king of Powys, and Gwallog of Elmet. Eight of the poems, however, are addressed to Urien Rheged, whose kingdom was centered in the region of the Solway Firth on the borders of present-day England and Scotland and stretched east to Catraeth (identified by most scholars as present-day Catterick, North Yorkshire Catterick


book collaboration

'' Published work The slipcase Rainbow Press 1979 first edition of ''Remains of Elmet: A Pennine Sequence'', her book collaboration with poet Ted Hughes, has become highly collectible and fetches several thousand pounds. The book was also published in popular form by Faber and Faber (with poor reproduction of the images), and then re-published by them in 1994 simply as ''Elmet'' with a third of the book being new additional poems and photographs. Hughes called the 1994


626

of the Britons in Wales and the West Country (''i.e.'' Cornwall and Dumnonia), and to the south of those in the ''Hen Ogledd'' or Old North. As one of the southeasternmost Brittonic regions for which there is reasonably substantial evidence, it is notable for having survived relatively late in the period of Anglo-Saxon conquest (Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain). Elmet was invaded and conquered by Northumbria in the autumn of 616 or 626. The kingdom

, and of the powerful Æthelberht of Kent the same year, Raedwald and his client Edwin were well placed to dominate England, and indeed Raedwald did so until his death a decade later. Edwin annexed the minor British (Brython) kingdom of Elmet following a campaign in either 616 or 626. Elmet had probably been subject to Mercia and then to Edwin. Death of Ceretic in ''Annales Cambriae'', s.a. 616; Bede, ''HE'', IV, xxiii; Higham, ''Kingdom of Northumbria'', pp. 84–87 & 116. ref

at Chester (Battle of Chester) in 616. Edwin would launch a successful occupation of Lindsey (Kingdom of Lindsey) in 625, and he invaded and defeated Wessex (Kingdom of Wessex) in 626. He would also invade and occupy Anglesey, besieging Cadwallon on ''Ynys Seiriol'' ( , ''A History of Wales, Vol. I


published work

'' Published work The slipcase Rainbow Press 1979 first edition of ''Remains of Elmet: A Pennine Sequence'', her book collaboration with poet Ted Hughes, has become highly collectible and fetches several thousand pounds. The book was also published in popular form by Faber and Faber (with poor reproduction of the images), and then re-published by them in 1994 simply as ''Elmet'' with a third of the book being new additional poems and photographs. Hughes called the 1994


traditional founder

a conflation of Cerdic (Cerdic of Wessex), the traditional founder of Wessex, who, despite his political affiliation with the Saxons, was likely to be half-British himself, and another Cerdic (Cerdic of Elmet), who reigned over the Celtic kingdom of Elmet around present-day Leeds until his defeat at the hands of Edwin of Northumbria. Whatever the case, Geoffrey places a lengthy interregnum between the expulsion of Keredic and the rise of the next British king, Cadfan


personal

") suggests a reason other than his claim of moral outrage over personal depravity. Neither outrage nor a doctrinal dispute would seem to justify beginning the condemnation of the five kings with a personal attack against the mother of one of the kings, calling her an "unclean lioness". , ''De Excidio'', sections 28

depravity, but neither outrage nor a doctrinal dispute would seem to justify beginning the condemnation of the five kings with a personal attack against the mother of one of the kings, calling her an "unclean lioness". , ''De Excidio'', sections 28 and 29 (in Latin) Geoffrey's legendary Keredic may have been

and 12,000 of his subjects in 626 7. Koch (1997), p. xxxiii. Urien Rheged was thus the real victor of the battle. Mynyddog Mwynfawr was not a person's name but a personal description meaning 'mountain feast' or 'mountain chief'. Wmffre (2002) agrees that ''Mynyddog'' is not a personal name, but suggests that it is a reference to the Christian God. See Wmffre, pp. 83-105. Some aspects of Koch's view of the historical context have been criticised by both

Elmet

'''Elmet''' was an independent Brittonic (Britons (Celtic people)) kingdom covering a region of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire in the Early Middle Ages, between about the 5th century and early 7th century.

Elmet was invaded and conquered by Northumbria in the autumn of 616 or 626. The kingdom is chiefly attested in topographical (topography) and archaeological evidence, references in early Welsh poetry, and historical sources such as the ''Historia Brittonum'' and Bede. The name survives throughout the area in place names such as Barwick-in-Elmet and Sherburn-in-Elmet. A local parliamentary constituency is also called Elmet and Rothwell (Elmet and Rothwell (UK Parliament constituency)).

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