the Archaic period the Greeks began again to carve in stone. Free-standing figures share the solidity and frontal stance characteristic of Eastern models, but their forms are more dynamic than those of Egyptian sculpture, as for example the Lady of Auxerre and Torso of Hera (Early Archaic period, c. 660-580 BCE, both in the Louvre, Paris). After about 575 BCE, figures, such as these, both male and female, wore the so-called archaic smile. This expression, which has no specific appropriateness
Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). ''Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present''. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2. Page 63. Cyrus's date of death can be deduced from the last two references to his own reign (a tablet from Borsippa dated
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in the reference to Dedi, specifically in the Westcar Papyrus, to indicate that he did the cups and balls for anyone. The famous drawing of two men performing the cups and balls, from the tomb and Beni Hasan is believed by most experts to be bakers making bread with bread molds.)(Note: Since there is no indication that Dedi performed the Cups and Balls, and the Beni Hasan hieroglyph is no longer considered to represent the effect, there is no evidence for the existence of the Cups and Balls during
. In 1997, 46 years and 5 invitations later, his work was acknowledged at the Cannes Film Festival with a lifetime achievement award on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the festival. He is also credited with discovering Omar Sharif, whose first starring role was in Chahine's film ''The Blazing Sun'' (1954). He also provided Hind Rostom with a very early role as a murder victim in ''Bab al-Hadid'' (''Cairo Station''). History It was first identified in 1905 at a quarantine camp on the Sinai Peninsula in El-Tor, Egypt by a German physician, E. Gotschlich. The vibrios were found in the guts of six pilgrims returning from Mecca. Though the pilgrims failed to show ante or post mortem evidence of cholera, the vibrios isolated from the guts were agglutinable within the anti-cholera serum. Later in 1905, Kraus and Pribram found that the bacteria, which produced soluble hemolysin, were more related to non-cholera vibrios; therefore, referred to all hemolytic vibrios as El Tor vibrios. In the early 1930s, A. Shousha, A. Gardner and K. Venkatraman, all researchers, suggested that only hemolytic vibrios agglutinated with anti-cholera serum should be referred to as El Tor vibrios. In 1959, R. Pollitzer designated El Tor as its own species ''V. eltor'' separate from ''V. cholera'', but six years later, in 1965, R. Hugh discovered that ''V. cholerae'' and ''V. eltor'' were similar in 30 positive and 20 negative characteristics. Thus, they were classified as a single species ''V. cholera'': however, Hugh believed the differing features between the two could be of epidmiological importance, so El Tor vibrios were further classified as ''V. cholerae'' biotype eltor (serogroup O1). The first Likud prime minister was Menachem Begin, who had led the party to victory in the 1977 elections (Israeli legislative election, 1977), the first time the left-wing had lost power in Israel's political history. A former leader of the hard-line paramilitary Irgun, Begin helped initiate the peace process with Egypt, which resulted in the Camp David Accords and the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Palestinians Likud has espoused opposition to Palestinian statehood and support of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. However, it has also been the party which carried out the first peace agreements with Arab states. For instance, in 1979, Likud Prime Minister, Menachem Begin, signed the Camp David Accords with Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat, which returned the Sinai Peninsula (occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967) to Egypt in return for peace between the two countries. Yitzhak Shamir was the first Israeli Prime Minister to meet Palestinian leaders at the Madrid Conference (Madrid Conference of 1991) following the Persian Gulf War (Gulf War) in 1991. However, Shamir refused to concede the idea of a Palestinian state, and as a result was blamed by some (including United States Secretary of State James Baker) for the failure of the summit. Later, as Prime Minister, Netanyahu restated Likud's position of opposing Palestinian statehood, which after the Oslo Accords was largely accepted by the opposition Labor Party (Labor Party (Israel)), even though the shape of any such state was not clear. The know-how and material for developing chemical weapons were obtained by Saddam's regime from foreign firms. German and European firms were involved The largest suppliers of precursors for chemical weapons production were in Singapore (4,515 tons), the Netherlands (4,261 tons), Egypt (2,400 tons), India (2,343 tons), and West Germany (1,027 tons). One Indian company, Exomet Plastics (now part of EPC Industrie Ltd.) sent 2,292 tons of precursor chemicals to Iraq. The Kim Al-Khaleej firm, located in Singapore and affiliated to United Arab Emirates, supplied more than 4,500 tons of VX, sarin, and mustard gas precursors and production equipment to Iraq. What Iraq Admitted About its Chemical Weapons Program Crown Prince and Prime Minister Upon the accession of Faisal's elder brother, Saud (King Saud), to the throne in 1953, Faisal was appointed Crown Prince. Saud, however, embarked on a lavish and ill-considered spending program that included the construction of a massive royal residence on the outskirts of the capital, Riyadh. He also faced pressure from neighboring Egypt, where Gamal Abdel Nasser had overthrown the monarchy in 1952. Nasser was able to cultivate a group of dissident princes led by Prince Talal (Talal bin Abdul-Aziz) who defected to Egypt (see Free Princes). Fearing that Saud's financial policies were bringing the state to the brink of collapse, and that his handling of foreign affairs was inept, senior members of the royal family and the religious leadership (the ''ulema'') pressured Saud into appointing Faisal to the position of prime minister in 1958, giving Faisal wide executive powers. ''King Faisal'', Encyclopedia of the Orient, http: lexicorient.com e.o faisal.htm, retrieved Mar 27, 2007. In this new position, Faisal set about cutting spending dramatically in an effort to rescue the state treasury from bankruptcy. This policy of financial prudence was to become a hallmark of his era and earned him a reputation for thriftiness among the populace. Faisal also supported monarchist and conservative movements in the Arab world, and sought to counter the influences of socialism and Arab Nationalism in the region by promoting pan-Islamism as an alternative. To that end, he called for the establishment of the Muslim World League, visiting several Muslim countries to advocate the idea. He also engaged in a propaganda and media war with Egypt's pan-Arabist president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, and engaged in a proxy war with Egypt in Yemen that lasted until 1967 (see Yemeni Civil War). Faisal never explicitly repudiated pan-Arabism, however, and continued to call for inter-Arab solidarity in broad terms. Following the death of Nasser in 1970, Faisal drew closer to Egypt's new president, Anwar Sadat, who himself was planning a break with the Soviet Union and a move towards the pro-American camp. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, launched by Sadat, Faisal withdrew Saudi oil from world markets, in protest over Western (Western world) support for Israel during the conflict. This action quadrupled the price of oil and was the primary force behind the 1973 energy crisis. It was to be the defining act of Faisal's career, and gained him lasting prestige among many Arabs and Muslims worldwide. In 1974, he was named ''Time'' magazine (Time magazine)'s Man of the Year (Time Magazine Person of the Year), and the financial windfall generated by the crisis fueled the economic boom that occurred in Saudi Arabia after his death. The new oil revenue also allowed Faisal to greatly increase the aid and subsidies begun following the 1967 Arab-Israeli War to Egypt, Syria, and the Palestine Liberation Organization. "Faisal and Oil", TIME Magazine, January 6, 1975. It is a commonly-held belief in Saudi Arabia and the Arab (Arab World) and Muslim world that Faisal's oil boycott was the real cause of his assassination, via a Western (Western world) conspiracy, Muhammad Hassanein Heykal, "The Saudi Era" (in Arab Reports and Analysis), ''Journal of Palestine Studies'', Vol. 6, No. 4. (Summer, 1977), p. 160. Retrieved via JSTOR Halliday , "Political killing in the cold war", Published by openDemocracy Ltd. his assassin having just returned from the United States (see below). Family Faisal married three times. He only had one wife at a time. The first wife passed away. He divorced his second wife. His last and his most prominent wife was Iffat Al-Thuniyyan . She was raised in Turkey and was a descendant of the Al Saud clan who were taken to Istanbul or Cairo by Egyptian forces in 1818 (see First Saudi State). Iffat is credited with being the influence behind many of her late husband's reforms, particularly with regards to women. "King Faisal Assassinated." Lewiston Evening Journal Lewiston-Auburn, Maine 25 Mar. 1975: 1+. Print. Mark. Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. 169. Print. Apion''' or simply known as '''Apion''' ( Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
was invited to become Attorney-General, a position in which he pushed for the strict application of sharia in 1983. Throughout the Cold War, the organization benefitted from the pro-Islamist support of Saudi Arabia. They gained disproportionate power over the Sudanese economy through their dominance of Islamic banking. Landon was private secretary to the Governor of New South Wales 1900; in 1903 he was special correspondent of the Daily Mail at the Delhi Durbar
: press.princeton.edu titles 5036.html Princeton University Press Press Reviews, retrieved 6th June 2009 In this book he argues that the experiences of the Hyksos in Egypt became a central foundation of myth (mythology)s in Canaanite culture, leading to the story of Moses. He further argues that many of the details in the Exodus (The Exodus) story are more consistent with the 7th century BC, long after the time of King David, rather than the era when the event is described as having taken place. This view was expounded upon in ''The Bible Unearthed'' by Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman. right thumb 250px Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek (Image:Cairo opera house.jpg) district. The '''Cairo Opera House''' ( Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard
the attempted crossing of the canal by the 74th Regiment, Turkish 25th Division. Bean, page 156-162. See map of positions page 156 Her largest-scale work, the evening-length ''Clytemnestra (Clytemnestra (dance))'', was created in 1958, with a score by Egyptian-born composer Halim El-Dabh. She also collaborated with composers including Aaron Copland on ''Appalachian Spring'', Louis Horst, Samuel Barber, William Schuman, Carlos Surinach
'''Egypt''' ( lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa, but it is also considered a Mediterranean country (Mediterranean) as it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is also bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
With over 87 million inhabitants, Egypt is the largest country in North Africa and the Arab World, the third-largest in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about , where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt has one of the longest histories (History of Egypt) of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world's first nation states. Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx (Great Sphinx of Giza), as well the ruins of Memphis (Memphis, Egypt), Thebes (Thebes, Egypt), Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.
Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional (Regional power) and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', ''International Studies Review,'' Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687. Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified (economy of Egypt) in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. In 2011 (Egyptian Revolution of 2011), long term President Hosni Mubarak stepped down amid mass protests. Later elections saw the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was ousted by the army a year later amid mass protests.