Egypt

What is Egypt known for?


modern time

, Greenland, Haiti, Cuba, East Africa and Central America. Ptolemy was a geographer of the middle Roman Empire, an Egyptian. The idea of the continents preceded the imperial Romans but through them reached to modern time to determine today's geographic views, which are enhancements and refinements of the classical. Stating that "continents are bounded more properly, when it is possible, by seas than by rivers," Ptolemy


work writing

, publishing his first papers, taking part in a medical study, and continuing to struggle with his health. In 1948, he returned to purely academic work, gaining numerous short-term positions at institutes in France, Romania, and Egypt. During this time, he contributed to the leftist Parisian paper ''Combat'', out of which grew his first full-length work, ''Writing Degree Zero'' (1953). In 1952, Barthes settled at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he


book attacking

. Adams' health was failing rapidly from an incurable lung-disease and he spent the winter of December 1892-February 1893 in Alexandria to finish his book attacking the British occupation of Egypt. The result, 'The New Egypt' was released after his death in 1893. Other posthumous publications were 'Tiberius'—a striking drama, with an Introduction by William Michael Rossetti, which presents a new view of the Emperor's character—and his first novel was revised


special playing

centimeters; each pipe has around five or six small holes for fingering. It requires a special playing technique known as "circular breathing," which is tricky but produces a continuous tone, without pausing to take a breath. The mijwiz is played in Egypt and the Levant as an accompaniment to either belly dancing (Belly dance) or dabke, the folkloric line dance of the Levant. The mijwiz is most popular today in the Levant (Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Syria


competing local

. Aftandilian, Published by Council on Foreign Relations, 1993, ISBN 0-87609-146-X, pages 6–8 After World War II, Pan-Arabism sought to unite all Arabic-speaking countries into one political entity. Only Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Libya and North Yemen considered the short-lived unification of the United Arab Republic. Historical divisions, competing local nationalisms, and geographical sprawl were major reasons for the failure of Pan-Arabism. Arab Nationalism was another strong force in the region which peaked during the mid-20th century and was professed by many leaders in Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Syria, and Iraq. Arab Nationalist leaders of this period included Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria, Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Zaki al-Arsuzi, Constantin Zureiq and Shukri al-Kuwatli of Syria, Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of Iraq, Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia, Mehdi Ben Barka of Morocco, and Shakib Arslan of Lebanon. Modern boundaries Many of the modern borders of the Arab World were drawn by European imperial powers during the 19th and early 20th century. However, some of the larger states (in particular Egypt and Syria) have historically maintained geographically definable boundaries, on which some of the modern states are roughly based. The 14th century Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi, for instance, defines Egypt's boundaries as extending from the Mediterranean in the north to lower Nubia in the south; and between the Red Sea in the east and the oases of the Western Libyan desert. The modern borders of Egypt, therefore, are not a creation of European powers, and are at least in part based on historically definable entities which are in turn based on certain cultural and ethnic identifications. The main economic organisations in the Arab World are the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), comprising the states in the Persian Gulf, and the Union of the Arab Maghreb (UMA), made up of North African States. The GCC has achieved some success in financial and monetary terms, including plans to establish a common currency in the Persian Gulf region. Since its foundation in 1989, the UMA's most significant accomplishment has been the establishment of a 7000 km highway crossing North Africa from Mauritania to Libya's (Libya) border with Egypt. The central stretch of the highway, expected to be completed in 2010, will cross Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. In recent years a new term has been coined to define a greater economic region: the MENA region (standing for Middle East and North Africa) is becoming increasingly popular, especially with support from the current US administration. Saudi Arabia remains the top Arab economy in terms of total GDP. It is Asia's eleventh largest economy, followed by Egypt and Algeria, which were also the second and third largest economies in Africa (after South Africa), in 2006. In terms of GDP per capita, Qatar is the richest developing country in the world. CIA World Factbook, GDP by country classification To the east, the Red Sea defines the boundary between Africa and Asia, and thus also between Arab Africa and the Arab Middle East. This sea is a long and narrow waterway with a northwest tilt, stretching 2,300 kilometers from Egypt's Sinai peninsula southeast to the Bab-el-Mandeb strait between Djibouti in Africa and Yemen in Arabia but on average just 150 kilometers wide. Though the sea is navigable along its length, historically much contact between Arab Africa and the Arab Middle East has been either overland across the Sinai or by sea across the Mediterranean or the narrow Bab al Mendeb strait. From northwest to southeast, Egypt, Sudan, and Eritrea form the African coastline, with Djibouti marking Bab al Mendeb's African shore. The Command was too expensive to maintain and cost cuts were made during the 1950s which caused a reduction in strength. By mid-1957, the Command had been cut to 82 aircraft. By mid-1958 it had shrunk to just 67. The Shackletons dominated the core of this force numbering 54 aircraft. The Neptune was cut from the service altogether, beginning on 31 August 1956. Ashworth 1992, p. 210. There was little operational action for the Command at this point. It airlifted British Army forces into Egypt during the Suez Crisis which was its major action during this period. The lack of funds and any active conventional military role saw the Command struggle to keep its frontline strength high. Ashworth 1992, p. 212. There was a brief alert in October 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when all six Squadrons it then possessed were put on high alert, but nothing came of the crisis. Ashworth 1992, p. 218. When she was eighteen, Blanchett went on a vacation to Egypt. A fellow guest at a hotel in Cairo asked if she wanted to be an extra (Extra (actor)) in a movie, and the next day she found herself in a crowd scene cheering for an American boxer losing to an Egyptian in the film ''Kaboria'', starring the Egyptian actor Ahmad Zaki (Ahmad Zaki (actor)). Blanchett returned to Australia and later moved to Sydney to study at the National Institute of Dramatic Art, graduating in 1992 and beginning her career in the theatre. He was one year old when Nazi Germany invaded Greece (Battle of Greece), and he spent the next four years in exile in Egypt and Cape Town, (where his sister Irene was born), with his family. He returned to Greece with his family in 1946. King George died in 1947, and his brother became King Paul, making Constantine crown prince. He was educated at a preparatory school and later a boarding school where he was an above average student academically. A fellow student recalled him as, "a good chap, a young man with all the right instincts. He was at his best on the playing fields." On April 23 the King and the government left the Greek mainland for Crete but after the German airborne attack (Battle of Crete) on the island he was evacuated to Egypt. Once again he went into exile to Great Britain, seemingly at the behest of King Farouk of Egypt and Farouk's pro-Italian ministers. Van der Kiste, p.164 In 1564 he published his first map, ''Typus Orbis Terrarum'', an eight-leaved wall map of the world. which subsequently appeared in reduced form in the ''Terrarum (Theatrum Orbis Terrarum)'' (the only extant copy is in now at Basel University Library). cf. Bernoulli, ''Ein Karteninkunabelnband'', Basle, 1905, p. 5 He also published a two-sheet map of Egypt in 1565, a plan of the Brittenburg castle on the coast of the Netherlands in 1568, an eight-sheet map of Asia in 1567, and a six-sheet map of Spain before the appearance of his atlas. thumb 180px left Map of the Persian Empire (Image:Persian Empire Abraham Ortelius.jpg) from the '' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum'' On May 20, 1570, Gilles Coppens de Diest at Antwerp issued Ortelius’ ''Theatrum Orbis Terrarum'', the "first modern atlas" (of 53 maps). Three Latin editions of this (besides a Dutch (Dutch language), a French (French language) and a German (German language) edition) appeared before the end of 1572; twenty-five editions came out before Ortelius' death in 1598; and several others were published subsequently, for the atlas continued to be in demand until about 1612. Most of the maps were admittedly reproductions (a list of 87 authors is given in the first ''Theatrum'' by Ortelius himself, growing to 183 names in the 1601 Latin edition), and many discrepancies of delineation or nomenclature occur. Errors, of course, abound, both in general conceptions and in detail; thus South America is initially very faulty in outline, but corrected in the 1587 French (french language) edition, and in Scotland the Grampians (Grampian Mountains (Scotland)) lie between the Forth (Firth of Forth) and the Clyde (Firth of Clyde); but, taken as a whole, this atlas with its accompanying text was a monument of rare erudition and industry. Its immediate precursor and prototype was a collection of thirty-eight maps of European lands, and of Asia, Africa, Tartary and Egypt, gathered together by the wealth and enterprise, and through the agents, of Ortelius’ friend and patron, Gilles Hooftman, lord of Cleydael and Aertselaer: most of these were printed in Rome, eight or nine only in the Southern Netherlands. Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt


years years

, allowing it to handle either vegetation or prey. Religion *According to Leon Kass, 17 has some significant meaning (as yet not known exactly) in the book of Genesis (Book of Genesis). For example, the patriarch Jacob lived 17 years years after his son Joseph (Joseph (Hebrew Bible)) went missing and presumed dead, and lived 17 years after their reunion in Egypt, and the lifespans of Abraham aged 175, Isaac aged 180, and Jacob aged 147


excellent position

and slow route, this put the Italian fleet in an excellent position to interdict British supplies and reinforcements. * Terrorism: Al-Qaida sued over September 11 attacks. Major insurance companies are suing al-Qaida and Middle Eastern governments in a bid to recover billions (1000000000 (number)) of dollars in losses related to the September 11 attacks. Terrorism : On the eve of the second


campaign great

ai_n13783944 accessdate 19 May 2008 Examples An early example was the treaty that ended the great 602–629 War (Roman-Persian Wars#The last campaign) between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine Empire) and the Sassanian Persian (Sassanid Empire) Empires. The Persians had occupied Asia Minor, Palestine and Egypt. After a successful Roman counteroffensive in Mesopotamia finally brought about the end of the war, the integrity of Rome's eastern frontier


live hard

, will not even rise to a fraction of the increase that prices have risen to. This means that 90% of people who work in the service hospitality industry try to make their main source of income from living off of tips. In fact, for these people, tips form a large majority of their income because without tips, their monthly wages salaries would simply not be enough for them to survive in a place where prices rise steadily and salaries remain the same. Bear in mind that these people quite often live

hard lives, often responsible for feeding large families and may very well live in poverty simply because their income from work is not sufficient for them to live easy lives. Many of them are forced in these jobs because otherwise they would not find another job at all in a country with such high unemployment rates and overpopulation. Thus, almost everyone at your hotel asks for a tip, even if all they did was a small thing. You don't have to pay huge tips as often smallest bills


films starring

, the concept of the trio—Brahma the creator, Shiva the destroyer and Vishnu the preserver dates back to millennia before Christ. At the very least, they suggest that Greek philosophy brought a late influence into the creation of the doctrine. Maciste's debut set the tone for his later adventures. Including "Cabiria" itself, there have been at least 52 movies featuring Maciste, 27 of them being pre-1930 silent films starring Bartolomeo Pagano and the other 25

Egypt

'''Egypt''' ( lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa, but it is also considered a Mediterranean country (Mediterranean) as it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is also bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

With over 87 million inhabitants, Egypt is the largest country in North Africa and the Arab World, the third-largest in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about , where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt has one of the longest histories (History of Egypt) of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world's first nation states. Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx (Great Sphinx of Giza), as well the ruins of Memphis (Memphis, Egypt), Thebes (Thebes, Egypt), Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.

Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional (Regional power) and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', ''International Studies Review,'' Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687. Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified (economy of Egypt) in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. In 2011 (Egyptian Revolution of 2011), long term President Hosni Mubarak stepped down amid mass protests. Later elections saw the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was ousted by the army a year later amid mass protests.

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