from the Bulgarians. In 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the European (European theatre of World War I) and Middle Eastern theatres (Middle Eastern theatre of World War I) of World War I allied with the Central Powers. Mustafa Kemal was given the task of organizing and commanding the 19th Division (19th Division (Ottoman Empire)) attached to the Fifth Army (Fifth Army (Ottoman Empire)) during the Battle of Gallipoli (Gallipoli Campaign). Mustafa Kemal became the front-line commander
suburbs, however the depopulation of the city resulted much of them now lying in the middle of open fields. *
Mehmed Agha , architect of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Istanbul)). He is considered the greatest architect of the classical period of Ottoman architecture (Ottoman architecture#Classical period), and has been compared to Michelangelo, his contemporary in the West. De Osa, Veronica. Saoud (2007), p. 7 Michelangelo and his plans for St. Peter's Basilica in Rome were well-known in Istanbul, since Leonardo da Vinci and he had been invited, in 1502 and 1505 respectively, by the Sublime Porte to submit plans for a bridge spanning the Golden Horn (Golden Horn#Leonardo's bridge). Vasari (1963), Book IV, p. 122 . The next Grand Vizier Rüstem Pasha gave Sinan several more commissions. In 1550 Sinan built a large inn (''han'') in the Galata district of Istanbul. About ten years later he built another ''han'' in Edirne, and between 1544 and 1561 the Taṣ Han at Erzurum. He designed a caravanserai in Eregli and an octagonal madrasah in Constantinople. Between 1553 and 1555, Sinan built the Sinan Pasha Mosque (Sinan Pasha Mosque (Istanbul)) at Beşiktaş, a smaller version of the Üç Şerefeli Mosque at Edirne, for the Grand Admiral Sinan Pasha (Sinan Pasha (Ottoman admiral)). This proves again that Sinan had thoroughly studied the work of other architects, especially since he was responsible for the upkeep of these buildings. He copied the old form, pondered over the weaknesses in the construction and tried to solve this with his own solution. In 1554 Sinan used the form of the Sinan Pasha mosque again for the construction of the mosque for the next Grand Vizier Kara Ahmet Pasha (Kara Ahmet Pasha Mosque) in Constantinople, his first hexagonal mosque. By applying this hexagonal form, Sinan could reduce the side domes to half-domes and set them in the corners at an angle of 45 degrees. Clearly, Sinan must have appreciated this form, since he repeated it later in mosques such as the Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque at Kadırga and the Atik Valide Mosque at Üsküdar. According to him from his autobiography "''Tezkiretü’l Bünyan''", his masterpiece is the Selimiye Mosque (Selimiye Mosque (Edirne)) in Edirne. Breaking free of the handicaps of traditional Ottoman architecture, this mosque marks the climax of Sinan's work and of all classical Ottoman architecture. While it was being built, the architect's saying of "''You can never build a dome larger than the dome of Hagia Sophia and specially as Muslims''" was his main motivation. When it was completed, Sinan claimed that it had the largest dome in the world, leaving Hagia Sophia behind. In fact, the dome height from the ground level was lower and the diameter barely larger (0.5 meters, approximately 2 feet) than the millennium-older Hagia Sophia. However, measured from its base the dome of Selimiye is higher. Sinan was more than 80 years old when the building was finished. In this mosque he finally realized his aim of creating the optimum, completely unified, domed interior : a triumph of space that dominates the interior. He used this time an octagonal central dome (31.28 m wide and 42 m high), supported by eight elephantine piers of marble and granite. These supports lack any capitals (Capital (architecture)) but have squinches or consoles at their summit, leading to the optical effect that the arches seem to grow integrally out of the piers. By placing the lateral galleries far away, he increased the three-dimensional effect. The many windows in the screen walls flood the interior with light. The buttressing semi-domes are set in the four corners of the square under the dome. The weight and the internal tensions are hidden, producing an airy and elegant effect rarely seen under a central dome. The four minarets (83 m high) at the corners of the prayer hall are the tallest in the Muslim world, accentuating the vertical posture of this mosque that already dominates the city. *6 October – At Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal, Japan, Lieutenant Yōzō Kaneko makes the Imperial Japanese Navy Commons:Edirne
: www.albanianhistory.net texts16-18 AH1515.html 1515. John Musachi: Brief Chronicle on the Descendants of our Musachi Dynasty ". ''Documents 16th to 18th centuries''. Texts and Documents of Albanian History. Robert Elsie, expert on Albanian studies, characterizes John Musachi's chronicle as "no work of great scholarship" whose historical accounts are confusing, although it is an important source for late 15th-century Albania.
implemented law reform, which established equal rules and punishment for all peoples, living within the country's boundaries, intending to reduce the poverty and to strengthen the social ties in his vastly enlarged state. thumb left 250px Bulgaria towards the death of Khan Krum in 814. (File:Territorial expansion during the reign of Khan Krum (803-814).png) In 354, I ''Maximiana'' was in Thrace, in the neighborhood of Adrianople (modern Edirne). Thus it is likely that it fought
in fares as low as 10 TL (€5) pp. Bus station in Edirne is located way out of the city but free service midibuses will take you to the city center. There are no direct buses to Bulgaria. It is, however, possible to take a taxi to Kapikule on the Bulgarian border. From there one can sometimes wave over a bus traveling on to Plovdiv and Sofia. Another approach could be to walk across the border and take a bus or train from Kapitan Andreevo on the Bulgarian side of the border. By train There are two daily trains from Istanbul’s Sirkeci station (one at 8:30AM in the morning, and the other at 3:50PM in the afternoon. Both arrives in Edirne about four hours later). Trains from Europe to Istanbul also call at the station. The main station (signed as ''Edirne Gar'' on the station building) lies about 4 km east of downtown, close to the main avenue heading eastern suburbs of the city (which is also the main highway to Istanbul). However, all trains to Edirne drive onward west to Kapıkule (main borderpost on Bulgarian border) and call at ''Edirne Şehir'' station on the way, too, which is little more than a platform next to the rail tracks, lying less than a kilometre away from downtown to southwest, on the edge of the old quarter (''Kaleiçi'') and close to the banks of Tundzha. By car The city is on the main highways linking Turkey and Europe (road numbers: toll-free D100 and toll-road motorway O-3 E80). A drive takes no more than two hours from Istanbul (224 km away) to Edirne on the motorway, even less if you drive ''very'' fast. The main European-Turkish border post Kapikule Kapitan Andreevo (between Turkey and Bulgaria, SE of Svilengrad) is about 15-20 km away from the city, while less significant Pazarkule border post (between Turkey and Greece, north of Orestiada) is even nearer. By boat While it's theoretically possible for even large ships to enter the Maritsa River from the Aegean Sea and navigate upriver up to Edirne (which was indeed common during the time of Romans), the intense border area through which the river flows makes any use of any kind of water transportation impractical. Get around Almost entirety of Edirne is in walking distance, which is made even easier by the mostly flat topography of the city. However for some relatively distant places you may take taxi which will cost only a few euros. There are also lots of minibuses heading for outer neighborhoods of the city. See The sights in Edirne can be roughly grouped into those that are in downtown, those in northwestern neighbourhoods (Sarayiçi, and Yeniimaret) across the Tundzha River, and those in southwestern neighbourhood (Karaağaç) across the Tundzha and the Maritsa Rivers. A good number of medieval bridges span these rivers. Downtown Main sights in downtown are quite close to the main square and to each other, and can be (hastily) done in half a day. thumb 270px Detail from interior of Selimiye Mosque (Image:Edirne 5269.jpg) thumb 220px Pedestrianized street of Saraçlar Caddesi in downtown (Image:Edirnedowntown.jpg) * Commons:Edirne
Seljuk (Seljuks of Rum) and Anatolian Beylik monumental buildings and their own original innovations. The most famous of Ottoman architects was (and remains) Mimar Sinan, who lived for approximately one hundred years and designed several hundreds of buildings, of which two of the most important are Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and Selimiye Mosque (Selimiye Mosque (Edirne)) in Edirne. Apprentices of Sinan later built the famous Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmed Mosque) in Istanbul and the Taj
&lpg PA60&dq Ottoman+Architecture title Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 12 last Necipoğlu first Gülru oclc 33228759 year 1995 publisher Leiden : E.J. Brill accessdate 2007-08-20 page 60 isbn 9789004103146 Commons:Edirne
Seljuk (Seljuks of Rum) and Anatolian Beylik monumental buildings and their own original innovations. The most famous of Ottoman architects was (and remains) Mimar Sinan, who lived for approximately one hundred years and designed several hundreds of buildings, of which two of the most important are Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and Selimiye Mosque (Selimiye Mosque (Edirne)) in Edirne. Apprentices of Sinan later built the famous Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmed Mosque) in Istanbul and the Taj Mahal in India. This put him at odds with the Byzantine Emperor, and the indiscipline of the Almogavars marked the end of Roger de Flor. On 30 April 1305, he was slain along with 300 cavalry and 1,000 infantry by the Alans, another group of mercenaries at the service of the Emperor. Roger had been in Adrianopolis (modern Edirne) attending a banquet offered by Emperor Michael. The emperor later attacked Gallipoli attempting to conquer the city from the remnants of the Company under the command of Berenguer d'Entença who had arrived with 9 Catalan galleys. The attack was unsuccessful, but it largely decimated the Company. Berenguer d'Entença was captured by the Genoese (Genoa) shortly after, and later liberated. The Company had only 206 horsemen, 1,256 foot soldiers left and no clear leader when Emperor Michael, trusting in his numerical superiority attacked, only to be defeated in Apros in July 1305. Tekirdağ was for many years a depot for the produce of the Edirne province, but its trade suffered when Alexandroupolis became the terminus of the railway up the river Maritsa. Bulgaria's war aims were focused on Thrace and Macedonia (Macedonia (region)). It deployed its main force in Thrace, forming three armies. The First Army (First Army (Bulgaria)) (79,370 men), under general Vasil Kutinchev with three infantry divisions, was deployed to the south of Yambol, with direction of operations along the Tundzha river. The Second Army (Second Army (Bulgaria)) (122,748 men), under general Nikola Ivanov, with two infantry divisions and one infantry brigade, was deployed west of the First and was assigned to capture the strong fortress of Adrianople (Edirne). According to the plans, the Third Army (Third Army (Bulgaria)) (94,884 men), under general Radko Dimitriev, was deployed east of and behind the First, and was covered by the cavalry division hiding it from the Turkish view. The Third Army had three infantry divisions and was assigned to cross the Stranja mountain and to take the fortress of Kirk Kilisse. The 2nd (49,180) and 7th (48,523 men) divisions were assigned independent roles, operating in Western Thrace and eastern Macedonia respectively. **formerly ''Antiochia in Troad'' – Antiochus I Soter *Edirne, formerly ''Hadrianopolis'' – Roman emperor Hadrian *Eski Stambul: Kardzhali and its neighborhood became part of the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia under the stipulations of the Berlin Congress of 1878, but after the reunification of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia in 1885, was ceded back to the Ottoman Empire as a township of Gümülcine (Komotini) sanjak in Edirne vilayet. Ottoman rule (History of Ottoman Bulgaria) ended during the First Balkan War, with its liberation by the Bulgarian General Vasil Delov on 21 October 1912. The day has been celebrated yearly, since 1937, as a municipal holiday through concerts and commemorative events. Kardzhali was declared the center of Kardzhali Province, which was founded from southern part of Stara Zagora Province http: www.visittobulgaria.com visit dir.asp?d 0-8-Ardino Ardino's history in 1949. These 3700 people mostly settled in the Edirne area (mainly in Kırklareli and Şarköy) of Turkish Thrace, and became known as ''Karadjovalides'' Thede Kahl, "The Islamisation of the Meglen Vlachs (Megleno-Rumen): The Village of Nânti (Nótia) and the Nântinets in Present-Day Turkey". Nationalities Papers 34:1, March 2006 after the Turkish name of Moglen: (Kahl 2006) Jewish communities in the Ottoman Empire (History of the Jews in Turkey#Ottoman era) held a protected status and continued to practice their own religion, as did Christians. Yitzhak Sarfati, born in Germany, became the Chief Rabbi of Edirne and wrote a letter inviting European Jews to settle in the Ottoman Empire, in which he asked:: "''Is it not better for you to live under Muslims than under Christians?''". B. Lewis (Bernard Lewis), "The Jews of Islam", New York (1984), pp. 135 – 136 Sultan Beyazid II (1481–1512), issued a formal invitation to the Jews expelled from Catholic Spain and Portugal, leading to a wave of Jewish immigration. Shortly after Simeon's visit to Constantinople, Constantine's mother Zoe returned to the palace on the insistence of the young emperor and immediately proceeded to eliminate the regents. Through a plot, she managed to assume power in February 914, practically removing Patriarch Nicholas from the government, disowning and obscuring his recognition of Simeon's imperial title Commons:Edirne
'''Edirne''' ( ), is a city in the Turkish (Turkey) region of East Thrace, close to its borders with Greece and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1363 to 1453, "In 1363 the Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Edirne, although Bursa retained its spiritual and economic importance." ''Ottoman Capital Bursa''. Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 19 December 2014. before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became (Fall of Constantinople) the empire's fourth and final capital. At present, Edirne is the capital of Edirne Province in Turkish Thrace (East Thrace). The city's estimated population in 2010 was 138,793, up from 119,298 in 2000.