East Pakistan

What is East Pakistan known for?


dramatic performances

called the Bangladesh Liberation War. India succeeded in removing Pakistani soldiers from the area, capturing 97,000 Pakistani POWs in the process. Following the war, East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh. Dylan has featured the song regularly in his concerts in the years since he wrote it, and there have been some dramatic performances. Dylan performed it in 1971 at The Concert for Bangladesh, organized by George Harrison and Ravi Shankar. The concert


low commitment

lacked Jinnah's political stature. The third major difference was itself in Muslim League, the party had weak political structure with no public base ground or support. Its activities revealed in high factionalism, low commitment to resolve public problems, corruption and incompetency of planning social and economics programmes. ref name "Routeledge Publications" >


military construction

Project at Sandia Laboratory (Sandia National Laboratories), Albuquerque, New Mexico. As the District Engineer of the Trans-East District of the Corps in 1957-59, he was responsible for U.S. military construction in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, and he initiated transportation surveys in East Pakistan and Burma. nowrap 1971-12-16 ''De facto:'' Province of East Pakistan dissolved following the surrender of the Pakistani Army at the end of the Bangladesh


harsh criticism

The M.I. reported that the Martial Law (Martial law) was promulgated in entire country, both East-Pakistan (East Pakistan) and West-Pakistan (West Pakistan), and country's all agencies fell under the direct control of the President and Chief Martial Law Administrator, and the three intelligence agencies began competing to demonstrate their loyalty to Ayub Khan and his military government. The group emerged out of the pro-China trend of the communist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan. In 1967 Siraj Sikder had formed the Mao Tse Tung Thought Research Centre in Dhaka. The Centre was physically attacked by Jamaat-e-Islami cadres at several times. On January 8, 1968 the group formed the ''Purba Banglar Sramik Andalon'' ('Workers Movement of East Bengal'). The founding conference lasted, which was completed in a single day, was held in the residence of a jute mill worker in Dhaka. The conference was attended by 45-50 followers of the Centre. Amin, Md. Nurul. ''Maoism in Bangladesh: The Case of the East Bengal Sarbohara Party'' in Asian Survey, Vol. 26, No. 7. (Jul., 1986), pp. 759-773. * Whenever I had an opportunity to address the people in different parts of our province, I told them clearly that indeed, I was of the opinion that India should not be divided because today in India we have witnessed the result. Thousands and thousands of young and old, children, men, and women were massacred and ruined. But now that the division is an accomplished fact, the dispute is over. " I delivered many speeches against the division of India, but the question is: has anybody listened to me? You may hold any opinion about me, but I am not a man of destruction but of construction. If you study my life, you will find that I devoted it to the welfare of our country. We have proclaimed that if the Government of Pakistan would work for our people and our country the Khudai Khidmatgars would be with them. I repeat that I am not for the destruction of Pakistan. In destruction lies no good. "Neither Hindus nor Muslims, nor the Frontier (w:North-West Frontier Province), not Punjab (w:Punjab (Pakistan)), Bengal (w:East Pakistan) or Sindh (w:Sindh) stands to gain from it. There is advantage only in construction. I want to tell you categorically I will not support anybody in destruction. If any constructive programme is before you, if you want to do something constructive for our people, not in theory, but in practice, I declare before this House that I and my people are at your service... (February 1948) **Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: A True Servant of Humanity by Girdhari Lal Puri pp -188 ? 190


time setting

The M.I. reported that the Martial Law (Martial law) was promulgated in entire country, both East-Pakistan (East Pakistan) and West-Pakistan (West Pakistan), and country's all agencies fell under the direct control of the President and Chief Martial Law Administrator, and the three intelligence agencies began competing to demonstrate their loyalty to Ayub Khan and his military government. The group emerged out of the pro-China trend of the communist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan. In 1967 Siraj Sikder had formed the Mao Tse Tung Thought Research Centre in Dhaka. The Centre was physically attacked by Jamaat-e-Islami cadres at several times. On January 8, 1968 the group formed the ''Purba Banglar Sramik Andalon'' ('Workers Movement of East Bengal'). The founding conference lasted, which was completed in a single day, was held in the residence of a jute mill worker in Dhaka. The conference was attended by 45-50 followers of the Centre. Amin, Md. Nurul. ''Maoism in Bangladesh: The Case of the East Bengal Sarbohara Party'' in Asian Survey, Vol. 26, No. 7. (Jul., 1986), pp. 759-773. * Whenever I had an opportunity to address the people in different parts of our province, I told them clearly that indeed, I was of the opinion that India should not be divided because today in India we have witnessed the result. Thousands and thousands of young and old, children, men, and women were massacred and ruined. But now that the division is an accomplished fact, the dispute is over. " I delivered many speeches against the division of India, but the question is: has anybody listened to me? You may hold any opinion about me, but I am not a man of destruction but of construction. If you study my life, you will find that I devoted it to the welfare of our country. We have proclaimed that if the Government of Pakistan would work for our people and our country the Khudai Khidmatgars would be with them. I repeat that I am not for the destruction of Pakistan. In destruction lies no good. "Neither Hindus nor Muslims, nor the Frontier (w:North-West Frontier Province), not Punjab (w:Punjab (Pakistan)), Bengal (w:East Pakistan) or Sindh (w:Sindh) stands to gain from it. There is advantage only in construction. I want to tell you categorically I will not support anybody in destruction. If any constructive programme is before you, if you want to do something constructive for our people, not in theory, but in practice, I declare before this House that I and my people are at your service... (February 1948) **Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: A True Servant of Humanity by Girdhari Lal Puri pp -188 ? 190


successful business

The M.I. reported that the Martial Law (Martial law) was promulgated in entire country, both East-Pakistan (East Pakistan) and West-Pakistan (West Pakistan), and country's all agencies fell under the direct control of the President and Chief Martial Law Administrator, and the three intelligence agencies began competing to demonstrate their loyalty to Ayub Khan and his military government. The group emerged out of the pro-China trend of the communist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan. In 1967 Siraj Sikder had formed the Mao Tse Tung Thought Research Centre in Dhaka. The Centre was physically attacked by Jamaat-e-Islami cadres at several times. On January 8, 1968 the group formed the ''Purba Banglar Sramik Andalon'' ('Workers Movement of East Bengal'). The founding conference lasted, which was completed in a single day, was held in the residence of a jute mill worker in Dhaka. The conference was attended by 45-50 followers of the Centre. Amin, Md. Nurul. ''Maoism in Bangladesh: The Case of the East Bengal Sarbohara Party'' in Asian Survey, Vol. 26, No. 7. (Jul., 1986), pp. 759-773. * Whenever I had an opportunity to address the people in different parts of our province, I told them clearly that indeed, I was of the opinion that India should not be divided because today in India we have witnessed the result. Thousands and thousands of young and old, children, men, and women were massacred and ruined. But now that the division is an accomplished fact, the dispute is over. " I delivered many speeches against the division of India, but the question is: has anybody listened to me? You may hold any opinion about me, but I am not a man of destruction but of construction. If you study my life, you will find that I devoted it to the welfare of our country. We have proclaimed that if the Government of Pakistan would work for our people and our country the Khudai Khidmatgars would be with them. I repeat that I am not for the destruction of Pakistan. In destruction lies no good. "Neither Hindus nor Muslims, nor the Frontier (w:North-West Frontier Province), not Punjab (w:Punjab (Pakistan)), Bengal (w:East Pakistan) or Sindh (w:Sindh) stands to gain from it. There is advantage only in construction. I want to tell you categorically I will not support anybody in destruction. If any constructive programme is before you, if you want to do something constructive for our people, not in theory, but in practice, I declare before this House that I and my people are at your service... (February 1948) **Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: A True Servant of Humanity by Girdhari Lal Puri pp -188 ? 190


television acting

On promotion to Major General, he served as GOC East Pakistan commanding 14th Infantry Division (Dhaka), Commandant of the Command and Staff College (Quetta), Master General of Ordnance (GHQ) and GOC 15th Infantry Division (Sialkot). Razzak was born in Kolkata, Bengal, (now in West Bengal, before the partition of India). He migrated to erstwhile East Pakistan in 1964. Initially, Razzak became a favourite of the viewers of Pakistan television

acting in the series ''Ghoroa''. From 1955 to 1970, the One Unit policy meant that there were only two provinces - East (East Pakistan) and West Pakistan. East Pakistan had the same divisions as East Bengal had previously, but West Pakistan gradually gained seven new divisions to add to the original six. The Baluchistan States Union became Kalat Division, while the former Baluchistan Chief Commissioner's Province (Baluchistan (Chief Commissioners Province)) became Quetta Division. Most of the former Sind Province (Sind Province (1936–1955)) became Hyderabad Division, with some parts joining the princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur (princely state)) to form Khairpur Division. The former princely state of Bahawalpur (Bahawalpur (princely state)) became the Bahawalpur Division. The Federal Capital Territory (Federal Capital Territory (Pakistan)) was absorbed into West Pakistan in 1961 and merged with the princely state of Las Bela (Las Bela (princely state)) to form the Karachi-Bela Division. In 1969, the princely states of Chitral (Chitral (princely state)), Dir (Dir (princely state)) and Swat (Swat (princely state)) were incorporated into West Pakistan as the division of Malakand (Malakand Division) with Saidu as the divisional headquarters. Contesting the 1970 elections from three seats as leader of the Pakistan Muslim League-Qayyum faction he won two National Assembly seats one provincial seat and in 1973 entered into alliance with the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) after East Pakistan broke away in the Bangladesh Liberation War. The Anushilan Samiti evolved into the Revolutionary Socialist Party (Revolutionary Socialist Party (India)). The wing in East Pakistan evolved into the Shramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal in current day Bangladesh. Bengal was divided into two provinces (Partition of Bengal (1947)) on 3 July 1946 in preparation for the partition of India - the Hindu-majority West Bengal and the Muslim-majority '''East Bengal'''. The two provinces each had their own Chief Minister. In August 1947 West Bengal became part of India and East Bengal became part of Pakistan. Tensions between East Bengal and the western wing of Pakistan led to the One-Unit policy. In 1955, most of the western wing was combined to form a new '''West Pakistan''' province while East Bengal became the new province of '''East Pakistan'''. This system lasted until 1971 when East Pakistan declared independence during the Liberation War of Bangladesh and the new nation of '''Bangladesh''' was formed. However Pakistan did not recognise Bangladesh until February 22nd 1974, and diplomatic relations were established on January 18th 1976. After absorption into the Dominion of Pakistan, the province of East Pakistan (former East Bengal) was administered by a ceremonial Governor and an indirectly-elected Chief Minister. During the year from May 1954 to August 1955, executive powers were exercised by the Governor and there was no Chief Minister. Novels and Epics were introduced to Bengali literature in the mid-19th century. Rabindranath Tagore, poet, playwright, novelist, painter, essayist, musician, and social reformer, is the best known figure of Bengali literature to the world. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. After the post-partition (Partition of India) era, Bengali literature comprises literature of erstwhile East Pakistan and modern-day Bangladesh and of Paschimbanga (West Bengal). The first National Games were held at Polo Ground, Karachi from 23 to 25 April 1948. Sportsmen and officials from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and all the integrated Provincial units of West Pakistan took part in these games. The total number of athletes was 140. No competitors were, however, invited from any foreign country. Competitions were held in track and field, basketball, boxing, cycling, volleyball, weightlifting and wrestling. Sonali Bank was established in 1972 under the Bangladesh Banks (Nationalisation) Order, through the amalgamation and nationalisation of the branches of National Bank of Pakistan, Bank of Bhowalpur and Premier Bank branches located in East Pakistan until the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. When it was established, Sonali Bank had a paid up capital of 30 million taka. In 2001, its authorised and paid up capital were Tk 10 billion and Tk 3.272 billion respectively. Presently, its authorised and paid up capital is Tk 10 billion and Tk 9 billion respectively The bank's reserve funds were Tk 60 million in 1979 and Tk 2.050 billion on 30 June 2000. According to Dr M. Waheeduzzaman Manik, after Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah’s protest against imposing of Urdu as the lingua franca of Pakistan (published in daily ''Azad'' on 29 July 1947), on 25 February 1948, member Dhirendranath Datta demanded Bengali instead (spoken by 55% of the citizens), Members Bhupendra Kumar Datta, Prem Hari Barma and Srish Chandra Chattopadhyay "wholeheartedly supported Dhiren Datta’s historic amendment and vehemently defended the rightful place of Bengali." On 28 March 1971, at the onset of Bangladesh Liberation War, Pakistani military junta tortured Dhirendranath Datta to death in Comilla. Rash B. Ghosh, History of Language Day Even in the opposition, Bhupen enjoyed the admiration of the ruling party. Khawaja Nazimuddin, Prime Minister (1951–53), speaking of Bhupen, once exclaimed : "He knows how to plan, organise and execute.". Samyukta, p157 His articles in the ''Ittefaq'' drew the attention of the intelligentsia in the then East Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was particularly proud to have known ''Bhupenda''. ''Purbo-Paschim'' '''Purbo-Paschim''' (East and the West) is an epic Bengali saga by Sunil Gangopadhyay. The narrative deals with a particular family that had to migrate from East Pakistan to West Bengal, and their fight against the tide.The story stretches from a pre-independence period to early 1980s and reflects the socio-economical changes that this region went through during this long period of time. Adamjee Jute Mills was established to utilize the relatively finer jute fibers of the Bangladesh (East Pakistan of that time) region. Narayanganj was the largest or second largest jute market of the world. As there are many rivers and was a gateway to Dhaka, Narayanganj's economic activities were largely contributed by Adamjee Jute Mills and it was also called the Dundee of the East. thumb Infinity Tower II houses several IT ITES Companies (Image:Kolkata infinity tower II.PNG) Kolkata was the most developed and the most industrialized City in India till the late Seventies. However, Kolkata witnessed an economic decline from the eighties till the early nineties. The partition (Partition of India) was a major blow to the once flourishing economy during the world wars, it removed most of the hinterland cutting down the supply of the human resource (Human resources) and a took away a huge portion of its market. Also the huge inflow of refugee from East Pakistan, Bihar, Jharkhand was a major drain to the city's infrastructure which was inadequate for the population boom. In the 70's the city saw a predominance of the trade-union movements which forced the investors to flow out of the state to other newly emerging destinations in India. As the investors lacked trust in the newly formed communist government the lack of capital destroyed most of its small scale industries like foundrys and tool casting. History First incorporated as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Association Ltd in 28 April 1954 and started formal trading (Trade) in 1956. It was renamed as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Ltd in 23 June 1962. Again renamed as Dacca Stock Exchange Ltd in 13 May 1964. After the liberation war (Bangladesh Liberation War) in 1971 the trading was discontinued for five years. In 1976 trading restarted in Bangladesh, on 16 September 1986 DSE was started. The formula for calculating DSE all share price index was changed according to IFC (International Finance Corporation) on 1 November 1993. The automated trading was initiated in 10 August 1998 and started on 1 January 2001. Central Depository System was initiated in 24 January 2004. As of November 16, 2009, the benchmark index of the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) crossed 4000 points for the first time, setting another new high at 4148 points. In 2010, the index crossed 8500 points and finally crashed in the first quarter of 2011. Millions of investors lost their money and came out onto the street blaming the speculators and regulators for the bubble that finally burst. In November 1957, Begum Zeb-un-Nissa Hamidullah, the ''Mirror'''s editor, wrote a blistering and opinionated editorial in defence of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, whose ministry in East Pakistan had been abruptly forced to resign due to threats from Iskander Mirza. In retaliation, the central government imposed a six-month ban on the magazine and privately threatened its editor. Begum Hamidullah responded by taking the government to the Supreme Court and, with the help of eminent lawyer A.K Brohi, managed to win. The ''Mirror'' was awarded the costs of the petition, and the incident made journalistic history in Pakistan, as it was the first case of a woman journalist appearing successfully before the highest court in the land. Soon after their independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations but the violent partition and numerous territorial disputes would overshadow their relationship. Since their independence, the two countries have fought three major wars (Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts), one undeclared war (Kargil War) and have been involved in numerous armed skirmishes and military standoffs. The Kashmir dispute is the main center-point of all of these conflicts with the exception of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The M.I. reported that the Martial Law (Martial law) was promulgated in entire country, both East-Pakistan (East Pakistan) and West-Pakistan (West Pakistan), and country's all agencies fell under the direct control of the President and Chief Martial Law Administrator, and the three intelligence agencies began competing to demonstrate their loyalty to Ayub Khan and his military government. The group emerged out of the pro-China trend of the communist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan. In 1967 Siraj Sikder had formed the Mao Tse Tung Thought Research Centre in Dhaka. The Centre was physically attacked by Jamaat-e-Islami cadres at several times. On January 8, 1968 the group formed the ''Purba Banglar Sramik Andalon'' ('Workers Movement of East Bengal'). The founding conference lasted, which was completed in a single day, was held in the residence of a jute mill worker in Dhaka. The conference was attended by 45-50 followers of the Centre. Amin, Md. Nurul. ''Maoism in Bangladesh: The Case of the East Bengal Sarbohara Party'' in Asian Survey, Vol. 26, No. 7. (Jul., 1986), pp. 759-773. * Whenever I had an opportunity to address the people in different parts of our province, I told them clearly that indeed, I was of the opinion that India should not be divided because today in India we have witnessed the result. Thousands and thousands of young and old, children, men, and women were massacred and ruined. But now that the division is an accomplished fact, the dispute is over. " I delivered many speeches against the division of India, but the question is: has anybody listened to me? You may hold any opinion about me, but I am not a man of destruction but of construction. If you study my life, you will find that I devoted it to the welfare of our country. We have proclaimed that if the Government of Pakistan would work for our people and our country the Khudai Khidmatgars would be with them. I repeat that I am not for the destruction of Pakistan. In destruction lies no good. "Neither Hindus nor Muslims, nor the Frontier (w:North-West Frontier Province), not Punjab (w:Punjab (Pakistan)), Bengal (w:East Pakistan) or Sindh (w:Sindh) stands to gain from it. There is advantage only in construction. I want to tell you categorically I will not support anybody in destruction. If any constructive programme is before you, if you want to do something constructive for our people, not in theory, but in practice, I declare before this House that I and my people are at your service... (February 1948) **Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: A True Servant of Humanity by Girdhari Lal Puri pp -188 ? 190


run lead

;ref name testlist O'Neill played a key role in the victory in the Second Test in Lahore that was to Australia's last in Pakistan until 1998. O'Neill made his maiden Test century of 134 in the first innings to give Australia a 245-run lead. Haigh, p. 130. He then took his maiden Test wicket in Pakistan's second innings, that of Shujauddin (Shujauddin Butt) . ref name


original founder

Hossain changed the name of the original founder and publisher and replaced it with his name. ''Ittefaq'' always strongly opposed all military rule of Pakistan starting from Ayub Khan (Ayub Khan (Field Marshal)) to Yahya Khan. Background After months of internal tensions in East Pakistan (current day Bangladesh) and a clampdown on Bengali nationalists, many independence fighters had organised themselves into a guerilla army. Called the Mukti Bahini, these rebels were aided


violent political

s planned CVA-01 aircraft carrier will not be built because of its expense. It also declares that the traditional strike (Strike warfare), reconnaissance (Aerial reconnaissance), air defense, and airborne early warning functions of carrier-based aircraft can be carried out more cheaply by shore-based Royal Air Force aircraft, that the use of cruiser- and frigate-based helicopters would be a cheaper means of providing Antisubmarine warfare anti

East Pakistan

conventional_long_name East Pakistan native_name common_name East Pakistan continent Asia region South Asia country Pakistan status Former eastern wing of Pakistan p1 East Bengal flag_p1 Flag of Pakistan.svg s1 Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh flag_s1 Flag of Bangladesh (1971).svg image_map East Bengal Map.gif capital Dhaka common_languages Bengali (Bengali language) (official) Bihari (Bihari languages) Urdu (Urdu language) English (English language) religion Islam latd 23 latm 42 latNS N longd 90 longm 21 longEW E government_type legislature Legislative Assembly (East Bengal Legislative Assembly) title_leader Administrator leader1 Azam Khan (Azam Khan (general)) year_leader1 1960–1962 leader2 Abdul Monem Khan year_leader2 1962–1969 leader3 Syed Mohammad Ahsan year_leader3 1969–1971 leader4 Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi year_leader4 1971 title_representative Chief Minister representative1 Abu Hussain Sarkar year_representative1 1955–1956, 1958 representative2 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan year_representative2 1956–1958 title_deputy Governors (List of Governors of Pakistan) deputy1 Amiruddin Ahmad year_deputy1 1955–1956 deputy2 A. K. Fazlul Huq year_deputy2 1956–1958 deputy3 Zakir Husain (Zakir Husain (governor)) year_deputy3 1958–1960 era Cold War event_start Established (One Unit) date_start year_start 1955 event1 Final settlement (One Unit) date_event1 22 November 1954 event2 Bangladesh Liberation War date_event2 26 March 1971 event3 Indo-Pakistani War (Indo-Pakistani War of 1971) date_event3 3 December 1971 event_end Dissolution (Instrument of Surrender (1971)) date_end 16 December year_end 1971 stat_year1 stat_area1 147570 currency Pakistani rupee 16 December 1971 -- today

'''East Pakistan''' ( ), present-day '''Bangladesh''', was a provincial state (Former administrative units of Pakistan) of Pakistan (Islamic Republic of Pakistan) that existed in the Bengal region (Bengal) of the northeast of South Asia from 1955 until 1971, following the One Unit programme (One Unit) that laid the existence of East Pakistan.

In 1947, the region of Bengal under the British Empire (British Raj) was divided (Partition of Bengal (1905)#The Second Partition) into East (East Bengal) and West Bengal that separated the eastern areas with a Muslim majority from the western areas with a Hindu majority.

After the general elections, President (President of Pakistan) General Yahya Khan attempted to negotiate with both Pakistan Peoples Party and Awami League to share power in the central government but talks failed when President Yahya Khan authorised an armed operation (Operation Searchlight) (codename ''Searchlight (Operation Searchlight)'') to attack the Awami League. As response to this operation, the Awami League announced the declaration of independence (Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence) of East Pakistan on 26 March 1971 and began an armed struggle (Bangladesh Liberation War) against the Pakistan, with India staunchly supporting Awami League by the means of providing arm ammunition to its guerrilla forces (Mukti Bahini).

East Pakistan had an area of 147,570 km 2 (56,977 mi 2 ), bordering India on three sides (East, North, and West) and the Bay of Bengal to the South. East Pakistan was one of the largest provincial states of Pakistan, with the largest population, largest political representation, and sharing the largest economic share. A nine-month-long war (Bangladesh Liberation War) ended on 16 December 1971, when the Pakistan Armed Forces were overrun in Dhaka, ultimately signing the instrument of surrender (Instrument of Surrender (1971)) which resulted in the largest number of prisoners of war since World War II. Finally on 16 December 1971, East Pakistan was officially disestablished and was succeeded as the independent state of Bangladesh.

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