East Germany

What is East Germany known for?


heavy political

, Comrade Brezhnev work Time (Time (magazine)) language date 6 December 1971 accessdate 24 January 2011 page 1 Advocates of U.S. unilateralism argue that other countries should not have "veto power" over matters of U.S. national security. Presidential Candidate John Kerry received heavy political heat after saying, during a presidential debate (United States Presidential debate), that American national security actions must pass a "


cultural production

been transformed into a mobile platform for music, cultural production, documentation and communication. Inside this listed historical monument, the former cargo holds are used as venues for live music, exhibitions (art exhibition), performances and media art. Artists and co-workers are lodged and fed on board. Kok reached her peak at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. She won the gold medal in the 200 meter butterfly race in a time of 2:24.7, beating the East German (East Germany) Helga Lindner by 0.1 seconds. The 100 meter butterfly race in that Olympic Games ended in disappointment for her, when she did not feel well beforehand, and finished in fourth place.. thumb 280px The baroque Town Hall. (Image:Coburg-Rathaus1.jpg) In 1920, two years after the abdication of the last duke, the locals voted to join Bavaria. Thus whilst the other Saxon-Thuringian principalities were later incorporated into the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) after World War II, Coburg became part of West Germany. As a result, the town spent the Cold War years lying right next to the Iron Curtain, surrounded by East German territory on three sides. Wagenknecht was born on July 16, 1969, in the East German (East Germany) city of Jena. European Parliament profile Her mother worked for a state-run art distributor. Her father, whom she never met, was Iranian (Iranian peoples). She was cared for primarily by her grandparents until 1976, when she and her mother moved to East Berlin. While in Berlin, she became a member of the Free German Youth (FDJ). She completed her Abitur exams (Abitur) in 1988 and joined the Socialist Unity Party (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) (SED) in early 1989. "Günter Gaus im Gespräch mit Sahra Wagenknecht" from Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (rbb), 11 February 2004. "Kurzbiographie" from www.sahra-wagenknecht.de (29 June 2007). Following the merger of the PDS and the WASG (Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative) that formed the Left Party (The Left (Germany)), Wagenknecht considered campaigning for the position of party vice-chair. However, party leaders such as Lothar Bisky and Gregor Gysi objected to the idea (primarily because of her perceived sympathies for the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany)). Following the controversy, she announced that she would not run for the post. Wagenknecht successfully contested a seat in the 2009 federal election (German federal election, 2009) in North Rhine-Westphalia. DIE LINKE.NRW (Party website), "(21 April 2009). Being in the Bundestag she became the left party's spokesperson for economic politics. The Nazi additions were repealed in East Germany in 1950, but homosexual relations between men remained a crime until 1968. West Germany kept the more repressive version of the law, legalizing male homosexual activity one year after East Germany, in 1969. The age of consent was equalized in East Germany through a 1987 court ruling, with West Germany following suit in 1989; it is now 14 years (16 18 in some circumstances) for female-female, male-male and female-male activity. The company was greatly affected by World War II. Steenbergen left Dresden in 1942, never to return, and the Ihagee factory was destroyed during the Allied bombing of Dresden in April 1945. The partitioning of Germany after the war left Dresden and Ihagee in the Soviet occupation zone, later East Germany. The Soviet Union quickly reestablished Ihagee, producing some Exakta and Exa cameras from the parts and machinery that had survived the bombing. The company was taken over by Pentacon, the maker of the successful Praktica camera, in 1951. New immigrants face prejudices and problems integrating with the native population and often segment into separate communities. Higher rates of delinquency and more general integration problems persist amongst some migrant groups. Notwithstanding police operations focusing on this matter, migrants may still be subject to racist assaults mainly in rural areas or small towns in former East Germany. Such problems are not unique to Germany and the incidence of the more severe of these problems are relatively rare in perspective. Some German states (which are responsible for education affairs) have banned Muslim teachers from wearing headscarves (headscarf) in class, generally by prohibiting the use of all religious symbols by teachers; this issue is being intensively discussed in the general public. Unlike France, German states have not extended this ban to pupils. German political backlash due to integration with Europe is resulting in new laws seeking to equalize the pay of eastern European workers (such as those from Poland and the Czech Republic) in an effort to curb the advantages to their hire. Alleged and real competition of "cheap" labour force mainly from Eastern Europe is an issue which right and far-right political groups - in some areas with some success - try to use to promote nationalist approaches in immigration policy. However, during the last decades, no far-right movement has been able to gain enough support to win seats in federal elections or to play any important role in politics on the federal level. Geography Neighbour states were: West Germany and East Germany, People's Republic of Poland, Soviet Union, People's Republic of Hungary, and Austria. The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


bronze team

. It was converted at the Elbe Aircraft Plant (Elbe Flugzeugwerke) (EADS EFW) in Dresden, and flew in 1996. After two dozen monitoring missions, it was lost in a mid-air collision in 1997. Komissarov, pp. 38–39 Germany '''The German Democratic Republic, or East Germany,''' had an extremely successful gymnastics program before the reunification of Germany. Both the MAG and WAG teams frequently won silver or bronze team medals at the World Championships and Olympics. Male gymnasts (List of gymnasts#Germany 2) such as Andreas Wecker and Roland Brückner and female gymnasts (List of gymnasts#Germany) such as Maxi Gnauck and Karin Janz contributed to their country's success. After the reunification of Germany, they have continued to have a measure of success with such gymnasts as Fabian Hambüchen and the former Soviet Uzbek gymnast Oksana Chusovitina. After years as a II division or lower-table I division side in East Germany, ''Energie'' has emerged as one of the few former DDR sides to enjoy relative prosperity in a united Germany. After five seasons playing tier III football, they earned promotion to the 2. Bundesliga (2nd Bundesliga (football)) in 1997, winning the Regionalliga Nordost, and then played their way into the Bundesliga (Fußball-Bundesliga) in 2000, where they managed a three year stay. A key player in their Bundesliga run was Vasile Miriuţă, an imaginative midfield player who played a big part in the team's promotion. After being relegated, ''Energie'' narrowly missed a prompt return to the top tier, losing out to ''1. FSV Mainz 05'' on goal differential. In season 2004–05 ''Energie'' struggled into both financial (reported debts of 4.5 million Euros) and sports problems: The season goal of promotion was missed by far – the club escaped the relegation to 3rd tier Regionalliga (football) by scoring one more goal (season overall) than SV Eintracht Trier 05 while having the same amount of points and goal differential. During season the manager and the chairman were replaced. Next season (2005–06 (Fußball-Bundesliga 2005–06)) was a much more successful one – the club has returned to play in the First Division Bundesliga after winning promotion. The Bundesliga season 2006–07 (Fußball-Bundesliga 2006–07) resulted in a 13th place and a club record in Bundesliga season points (41). Energie Cottbus was the only club from East Germany playing in the Bundesliga (Fußball-Bundesliga) until 1. FC Nürnberg (1. FC Nuremberg) knocked the team out on 1 June 2009. German Chancellor Angela Merkel is an honorary member of the club. The faction in the 11th Bundestag, 1987–1990 In the 1987 parliamental elections, the Green Party (German Green Party) manages to increase its share of votes to 8.3%, gaining 44 parliament seats in the process. When the East German (East Germany) parliament, the ''Volkskammer'', which was freely elected on March 18, 1990 for the first time, is disbanded in the process of the German reunification (Germany), another 7 seats are added as 7 members of the 21-member ''Volkskammer'' faction of the Green Party, elected by their peers, enter the Bundestag. The Green group in the 12th Bundestag, 1990–1994 In 1990, elections are held separately in former East (East Germany) and West Germany; in West Germany, the Green Party (German Green Party) does not manage to gain enough votes to enter parliament, only scoring 4.8% instead of the necessary 5%, but in East Germany, the Greens gain a 6.1% share of the votes and 8 seats in the Bundestag. While a green presence in the 12th Bundestag is thus secured, the Greens cannot form a faction, instead remaining a "group" (with less rights and a smaller budget). Post-1945 thumb right Officers of the East Germany East German (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-33349-0002, Neustrelitz, Jahrestag der DDR, Volkspolizei.jpg) ''Volkspolizei'' parading through the streets of Neustrelitz in 1955. The StG 44 remained in service with the organization until the early 1960s. Former German Karabiner 98k rifles were widely distributed throughout the Eastern Bloc, some being refurbished 2 or 3 times by different factories. They were used by military and para-military forces (such as the East German (East Germany) Combat Groups of the Working Class), and were replaced by Soviet weapons in the 1960s. thumb East Germany East German (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-85458-0003, Berlin, Mauerbau, Kampfgruppen, NVA, VP.jpg) members of the Combat Group of the Working Class (Combat Groups of the Working Class) and Border Troops (Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic) at the border of the Berlin sector in 1961. The Combat Group members are equipped with Karabiner 98k rifles. Sometimes portions of a single country can fall into two distinct spheres of influence. In the colonial era the buffer states of Iran and Thailand, lying between the empires of Britain (United Kingdom) Russia and Britain France respectively, were divided between the spheres of influence of the imperial powers (power (international)). Likewise, after World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones, which later consolidated into West Germany and East Germany, the former a member of NATO and the latter a member of the Warsaw Pact. Peng participated in a number of foreign trips throughout the communist world after becoming Defense Minister, the first time that he had traveled outside of China and North Korea. In May 1955 Peng visited East Germany, Poland (People's Republic of Poland), and the Soviet Union, meeting with Wilhelm Pieck, Józef Cyrankiewicz, Nikita Krushchev, and the Soviet marshals Konstantin Rokossovsky and Georgy Zhukov. In September 1955 Peng traveled to Poland and the Soviet Union to attend the signing of the Warsaw Pact as an observer. In November 2 – December 3, 1957 Peng accompanied Mao on his second visit to the Soviet Union. From April 24 – June 13, 1959 Peng went on a "military goodwill tour" across the communist world, visiting Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary (People's Republic of Hungary), Romania (Communist Romania), Bulgaria (People's Republic of Bulgaria), Albania (People's Socialist Republic of Albania), the Soviet Union, and Mongolia (Mongolian People's Republic). Domes 67 thumb left Milton Obote in Leipzig (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-76054-0003, Leipzig, Kenia-Tag, Gerald Götting.jpg), East Germany, with Gerald Götting (right) and S. Oyaka (left), October 1960. East Germany chose Berlin (in practice, East Berlin) as its capital when the country was formed from the Soviet occupation zone in October 1949; however, this was rejected by the western allies, who continued to regard Berlin as an occupied city that was not legally part of any German state. Although half the size and population of West Berlin (which the East German authorities generally referred to as "Westberlin"), it included most of the historic center. The Pergamon Museum was severely damaged during the air attack on Berlin (Battle of Berlin (air)) at the end of the Second World War (World War II). Many of the display objects were stored in safe places, and some of the large pieces were walled in for protection. In 1945, the Red Army collected all of the loose museum items, either as war booty or, ostensibly, to rescue them from looting and fires then raging in Berlin. Not until 1958 were most of the objects returned to East Germany. Significant parts of the collection remain in Russia. Some are currently stored in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow and the Hermitage (Hermitage Museum) in Saint Petersburg. The return of these items has been arranged in a treaty between Germany and Russia but, as of June 2003, is blocked by Russian restitution laws. In March 1945, the bust was found by the American Army and given over to its Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives branch. It was moved to the Reichsbank in Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main) and then, in August, shipped to the U.S. Central Collecting Point in Wiesbaden where it was displayed to the public in 1946. In 1956, the bust was returned to West Berlin. There it was displayed at the Dahlem Museum (Berlin State Museums#Dahlem). As early as 1946, East Germany (German Democratic Republic) insisted on the return of Nefertiti to Museum Island in East Berlin, where the bust had been displayed before the war. In 1967, Nefertiti was moved in the Egyptian Museum in Charlottenburg and remained there until 2005, when it was moved to the Altes Museum. The bust returned to the Neues Museum as its centerpiece when the museum reopened in October 2009. The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


special legal

colors Black, white, red (imperial colors (Flag of Germany#North German Confederation and the German Empire)) '''JAT Yugoslav Airlines Flight 367''' was a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 aircraft (registration YU-AHT) which exploded shortly after overflying NDB (Non-directional beacon) Hermsdorf, East Germany, while en route from Stockholm to Belgrade on 26 January 1972. The aircraft, piloted by captain Ludvig Razdrih, broke into two pieces and spun out of control, crashing near the village of Srbská Kamenice in Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic). 27 of 28 of those on board were killed upon ground impact; but one crew member, Vesna Vulović, survived. Official abstract of final report (english) In 1950 the regiment arrived in West Germany as part of the 4th Guards Brigade, part of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR). In 1952 the ''regiment'' joined the Berlin Brigade in West Berlin, an enclave in Communist East Germany during tense times between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact. The ''Welsh Guards'' returned home the following year and soon after deployed to the British-controlled Suez Canal Zone (SEZ) in Egypt. As previously in Palestine, the ''Welsh Guards''' time in Egypt was quite turbulent. They performed internal security duties there. They remained in the SEZ until the British


aggressive quot

During the initial postwar era, the USAAF repaired several former Luftwaffe airfields in Bavaria which was part of the American occupation zone of Germany. With the advent of the Berlin Blockade and the chilling of relations with the Soviet Union by 1948 it became obvious to United States Air Force planners that these bases were tactically untenable because of their proximity to the East German (East Germany) and Czechoslovakian borders. Likewise Country A, a perfectly state capitalist (state capitalism) country with a planned economy with very low average per capita income would receive a higher score for having lower income inequality than Country B with a higher income inequality, even if the bottom of Country B's population distribution had a higher per capita income than Country A. Real examples


century tradition

The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


science history

of Germany SED regime (such as the toleration of students who were members of a church), he and his wife fled East Germany in 1955, and settled in Marburg, West Germany. Here, Drechsler studied again, at the University of Marburg (1955-1961), mostly Political Science, History, and German (German language), and became a student and then assistant of the famous political scientist (the main representative of political science of the "Frankfurt School", Wolfgang


main conservative

, the party sided with the CDU and CSU, the main conservative parties in Germany. An exception to the party policy was made in the 2002 campaign, in which it adopted a position of "equidistance" to the CDU and SPD. Following German reunification in 1990, the FDP merged with the Association of Free Democrats, a grouping of liberals from East Germany and the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany. During the 1990s, the FDP won between 6.2 and 11 percent of the vote in Bundestag elections. It last participated in the federal government by representing the junior partner in the government of Chancellor Helmut Kohl of the CDU. In Germany, federalism was abolished only during Nazism (Nazi Germany) (1933–1945) and in East Germany during most of its existence (1952–1990). Adolf Hitler viewed federalism as an obstacle to his goals. As he wrote in ''Mein Kampf'', "National Socialism (Nazism) must claim the right to impose its principles on the whole German nation, without regard to what were hitherto the confines of federal states." The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


international historical

in the three western zones. The East was often described as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Karl Dietrich Erdmann, Jürgen Kocka, Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Agnes Blänsdorf. ''Towards a Global Community of Historians: the International Historical Congresses and the International Committee of Historical Sciences 1898–2000''. Berghahn Books, 2005, pp. 314. ("However the collapse of the Soviet empire, associated with the disintegration of the Soviet satellite regimes in East-Central Europe, including the German Democratic Republic, brought about a dramatic change of agenda.") Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, and the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. Soviet forces (Group of Soviet Forces in Germany), however, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. The GDR established the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), or "Stasi", which aided the Soviet Army in suppressing uprisings in 1953 (Uprising of 1953 in East Germany). Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany. ''Eugene Register-Guard'' October 29, 1989. p. 5A. The economy was centrally planned, and increasingly state-owned (Government-owned corporation). Peter E. Quint. ''The Imperfect Union: Constitutional Structures of German Unification'' Princeton University Press 2012, pp. 125-126. Prices of basic goods and services were set by central government planners, rather than rising and falling through an unregulated market. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Nonetheless it did not match the economic growth of West Germany. Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were young well-educated people, it further weakened the state economically. The government fortified its western borders (Inner German border) and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to emigrate (Escape attempts and victims of the inner German border) were killed by border guards or mines. The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


play called

of candidates from all parties. In practice, however, only the Communist Party had any real power; all parties in the front had to accept its "leading role." By ensuring that Communists dominated the candidate lists, it effectively predetermined the composition of the legislature. *An episode of ''History Bites'' features this book, with Bob Bainborough portraying Goethe. *Ulrich Plenzdorf, a GDR (East Germany) poet, wrote a novel and a play called '' Die neuen Leiden des

East Germany

'''East Germany''', formally the '''German Democratic Republic''' or '''GDR''' ( ) or ''DDR''), was a state within the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany which was occupied by Soviet (USSR) forces at the end of the Second World War—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.

The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic (West Germany) was established in the three western zones. The East was often described as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Karl Dietrich Erdmann, Jürgen Kocka, Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Agnes Blänsdorf. ''Towards a Global Community of Historians: the International Historical Congresses and the International Committee of Historical Sciences 1898–2000''. Berghahn Books, 2005, pp. 314. ("However the collapse of the Soviet empire, associated with the disintegration of the Soviet satellite regimes in East-Central Europe, including the German Democratic Republic, brought about a dramatic change of agenda.") Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, and the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. Soviet forces (Group of Soviet Forces in Germany), however, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. The GDR established the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), or "Stasi", which aided the Soviet Army in suppressing uprisings in 1953 (Uprising of 1953 in East Germany). Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany. ''Eugene Register-Guard'' October 29, 1989. p. 5A.

The economy was centrally planned, and increasingly state-owned (Government-owned corporation). Peter E. Quint. ''The Imperfect Union: Constitutional Structures of German Unification'' Princeton University Press 2012, pp. 125-126. Prices of basic goods and services were set by central government planners, rather than rising and falling through an unregulated market. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Nonetheless it did not match the economic growth of West Germany. Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were young well-educated people, it further weakened the state economically. The government fortified its western borders (Inner German border) and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to emigrate (Escape attempts and victims of the inner German border) were killed by border guards or mines.

In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the emergence of a government committed to liberalization. The following year open elections (East German general election, 1990), were held, Geoffrey Pridham, Tatu Vanhanen. ''Democratization in Eastern Europe'' Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-11063-7 pp. 135 and international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty (Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany) on the status and borders of Germany. The GDR was dissolved and Germany was unified (German reunification) on 3 October 1990.

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