What is Durrës known for?

fine title


title Spatial Transformation of the Waterfront: Before, during and after Socialism Time-frame: 1900-44:45-90:91-2000 Case Study: Durrës - A Port City publisher Lambert Academic Publishing year 2012 isbn 978-3847339939 url http: www.amazon.com Spatial-Transformation-Waterfront-Socialism-Time-frame dp 3847339931 *Lida Miraj, Via Egnatia through History_ How was used and abused a ... aace.al ... Via%20Egnatia%20through%20History_%20How%20was%20... Page 1. VIA EGNATIA


: A Chronological Compendium of 667 Battles to 31BC'', (series Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series), 2000:47 ISBN 1-85367-389-7. at the same year. thumb left 240px The Beauty of Durrës (File:Mosaic of The Beauty of Durrës.jpg) For Catullus, the city was ''Durrachium Hadriae tabernam'', "the ''taberna'' of the Adriatic", one of the stopping places for a Roman traveling up the Adriatic, as Catullus had done himself in the sailing season

Compendium of 667 Battles to 31Bc, from the Historians of the Ancient World (Greenhill Historic Series) by John Drogo Montagu,ISBN 1853673897,2000,page 47 and in 167 brought to Rome as a captive to participate in Gallus' triumph (Roman triumph), after which he was interned in Iguvium. People go to church at midnight on 24 December, or during 25 December. The Christmas atmosphere is felt not only in the capital city, Tirana, but also in many other cities, for example

leading part

strong Italian accent and had to confine himself to mute roles. It was his performance in Molière's ''Tartuffe'' of the ''Burgtheater'' 1899 1900 season, that stunned the renowned Austrian actor Josef Kainz, playing the leading part. With Kainz' encouragement and support, Moisiu's career as one of great European stage actors of the early-20th century began. The following year took him to the New German Theatre (Prague State Opera) in Prague and in 1903 he joined the ensemble


''Dıraç''. In English usage, the Italian form ''Durazzo'' used to be widespread, but the local Albanian name ''Durrës'' has gradually replaced it in recent decades. History Ancient thumb left Ancient Greek Ancient Greek coinage coin (File:Dyrrachium coin.jpg) of Dyrrachium. ''Obv''. Cow feeding a calf. ''Rev''. Two stylized thunders of Zeus with the letters ΔΥΡ (''DYR''). Though surviving remains are minimal, A selection of modern travelers' accounts and references

modern appearance

and developed into a major seaport under the rule of King Zog (Zog of Albania), with a modern harbour being constructed in 1927. An earthquake in 1926 damaged some of the city and the rebuilding that followed gave the city its more modern appearance. During the 1930s, the Bank of Athens had a branch in the city. thumb right 230px Italian invasion of Albania Italian soldiers (File:Durazzo, Albania, April 1939, Italian soldiers entering the city.jpg) entering the city on 7 April 1939 after facing fierce resistance from Mujo Ulqinaku and the Royal Albanian Army. The Second World War saw Durrës (called ''Durazzo'' again in Italian) and the rest of Albania being annexed to the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) between 1939–1943, then occupied by Nazi Germany until 1944. Durrës's strategic value as a seaport made it a high-profile military target for both sides. It was the site of the initial Italian landings (Italian invasion of Albania) on 7 April 1939 (and was fiercely defended by Mujo Ulqinaku) as well as the launch point for the ill-fated Italian invasion of Greece (Greco-Italian War). The city was heavily damaged by Allied (Allies of World War II) bombing during the war and the port installations were blown up by the retreating Germans in 1944. The Communist regime of Enver Hoxha rapidly rebuilt the city following the war, establishing a variety of heavy industries in the area and expanding the port. It became the terminus of Albania's first railway, begun in 1947. In the late 1980s, the city was briefly renamed Durrës-Enver Hoxha. The city was and continues to remain the center of Albanian mass beach tourism. Following the collapse of communist rule in 1990, Durrës became the focus of mass emigrations from Albania with ships being hijacked in the harbour and sailed at gunpoint to Italy. In one month alone, August 1991, over 20,000 people migrated to Italy in this fashion. Italy intervened militarily, putting the port area under its control, and the city became the center of the European Community's "Operation Pelican", a food-aid program. In 1997, Albania slid into anarchy (1997 rebellion in Albania) following the collapse of a massive pyramid scheme which devastated the national economy. An Italian-led peacekeeping force was controversially deployed to Durrës and other Albanian cities to restore order, although there were widespread suggestions that the real purpose of "Operation Alba" was to prevent economic refugees continuing to use Albania's ports as a route to migrate to Italy. Following the start of the 21st century, Durrës has been revitalized as many streets were repaved, while parks and façades experienced a face lift. Economy thumb right Durrës seaside seen from the SH2 expressway exit ramp (File:Rruga SH2 - @Durrës.jpg) thumb ''Torra'' (Venetian tower) as part of Durrës Castle (File:Torra në Durrës.jpg) is touristic point. Durrës is an important link to Western Europe due to its port and its proximity to the Italian port cities, notably Bari, to which daily ferries run. As well as the dockyard, it also possesses an important shipyard and manufacturing industries, notably producing leather, plastic and tobacco products. The southern coastal stretch is renowned for its traditional mass beach tourism having experienced uncontrolled urban development. The city's beaches are also a popular destination for many foreign and local tourists, with an estimated 800,000 tourists visiting annually. Many Albanians from Tirana and elsewhere spend their summer vacations on the beaches of Durrës. In 2012, new water sanitation systems are being installed to completely eliminate sea water pollution. In contrast, the northern coastal stretch is mostly unspoiled and set to become an elite tourism destination as a number of beach resorts are being built since 2009. Neighboring districts are known for the production of good wine and a variety of foodstuffs. The port has experienced major upgrades in recent years culminating with the opening of the new terminal in July 2012. In 2012, The Globe and Mail ranked Durrës at no. 1 among 8 exciting new cruise ports to explore. 8 exciting new cruise ports to explore, The Globe and Mail, 2012-02-24 Climate Durrës has a typical Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and cool winters. The average of water temperature in Durrës is from Commons:Category:Durrës Wikipedia:Durrës Dmoz:Regional Europe Albania Localities Durres

classical history

, ISBN 1-113-19974-1, The (734) southern portion, or Illyria Graeca, belonged to the province of Macedonia. Atlas of Classical History by R. Talbert, 1989, page 175: "... divided the diocese of Moesia into two, styled Thracia and Macedonia, the latter consisting of the provinces from Epirus Nova and Macedonia southward. But there is evidence that Constantine considered ..." Later it became a theme Encyclopedia of ancient Greece by Nigel Guy Wilson

frequent attacks

ride abreast on them. Significant portions of the ancient city defences still remain, although they have been much reduced over the centuries. Like much of the rest of the Balkans, Dyrrachium and the surrounding ''Dyrraciensis provinciae'' suffered considerably from barbarian incursions during the Migrations Period. It was besieged in 481 by Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, and in subsequent centuries had to fend off frequent attacks by the Bulgarians (First Bulgarian Empire). Unaffected by the fall of the Western Roman Empire (fall of the Roman Empire), the city continued under the Byzantine Empire as an important port and a major link between the Empire and western Europe. Middle Ages thumb left Durrës in 1573 (File:Durrës, Pinargenti.jpg) The city and the surrounding coast became a Byzantine province (the Theme of Dyrrhachium) in the early 9th century. Byzantine rule was contested by the Bulgarians (First Bulgarian Empire) under Simeon the Great, but it remained in Byzantine hands until the late 10th century, when Samuel of Bulgaria conquered the city and held it until c. 1005. Dyrrachium was lost in February 1082 by the emperor Alexios I Komnenos to the Normans under Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund (Bohemund I of Antioch) in the Battle of Dyrrhachium (Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081)). Byzantine control was restored a few years later but the city was lost again in 1185, this time to the Norman King William II of Sicily. In 1205, after the Fourth Crusade, the city was transferred to the rule of the Republic of Venice, which formed the "Duchy of Durazzo". This Duchy was conquered in 1213 and the city taken by the Despotate of Epirus. In 1257, Durrës was briefly occupied by the King of Sicily, Manfred of Hohenstaufen (Manfred of Sicily). It was re-occupied by the Despote of Epirus Michael II until 1259 when the Despotate was defeated by the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea in the Battle of Pelagonia. In the 1270s, Durrës was again controlled by Nikephoros I Angelos, the son of Despot Michael II, who in 1278 was forced to yield the city to Charles d' Anjou (Charles I of Sicily). thumb right Venetian Tower of Durrës, part of Durrës Castle (File:Durrës Albania 1.jpg) In c. 1273, it was wrecked by a devastating earthquake (according to George Pachymeres; R. Elsie, ''Early Albania'' (2003), p. 12) but soon recovered. It was briefly occupied by King Milutin (Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia) of Serbia in 1296. In the early 14th century, the city was ruled by a coalition of Anjous, Hungarians, and Albanians of the Thopia family. In 1317 or 1318, the area was taken by the Serbs and remained under their rule until the 1350s. At that time the Popes, supported by the Anjous, increased their diplomatic and political activity in the area, by using the Latin bishops, including the archbishop of Durrës. The city had been a religious center of Catholicism after the Anjou were installed in Durrës. In 1272, a Catholic archbishop was installed, and until the mid-14th century there were both Catholic and Orthodox archbishops of Durrës. Etleva Lala (2008) Regnum Albaniae, the Papal Curia, and the Western Visions of a Borderline Nobility thumb left Durrës Castle Durrës Ancient City Wall Entrance (File:07Durres01.jpg) Two Irish pilgrims who visited Albania on their way to Jerusalem in 1322, reported that Durrës was “inhabited by Latins, Greeks, perfidious Jews and barbaric Albanians”. ''Itinerarium Symonis Simeonis et Hugonis Illuminatoris ad Terram Sanctam'', edited by J. Nasmith, 1778, cited in: Elsie Robert, ''The earliest references to the existence of the Albanian language''. Zeitschrift für Balkanologie, Munich, 1991, v. 27.2, pp. 101–105. Available at http: www.scribd.com doc 87039 Earlies-Reference-to-the-Existance-of-the-Albanian-Language :”''Inhabitatur enim Latinis, Grecis, Judeis perfidis, et barbaris Albanensibus''” (Translation in R. Elsie: ''For it is inhabited by Latins, Greeks, perfidious Jews and barbaric Albanians''). When the Serbian King (Tsar) Dušan (Stephen Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia) died in 1355, the city passed into the hands of the Albanian family of Thopias (Thopia family). In 1376 the Navarrese Company Louis of Évreux, Duke of Durazzo, who had gained the rights on the Kingdom of Albania (Kingdom of Albania (medieval)) from his second wife, attacked and conquered the city, but in 1383 Karl Topia regained control of the city. Fine (1994), p. 384 The Republic of Venice regained control in 1392 and retained the city, known as ''Durazzo'' in those years, as part of the ''Albania Veneta''. It fended off a siege by the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Sultan Mehmed II in 1466 but fell to Ottoman forces in 1501. Durrës became a Christian (Christianity) city quite early on; its bishopric (Diocese) was created around 58 and was raised to the status of an archbishopric in 449. It was also the seat of a Greek Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) metropolitan bishop. Under Turkish rule, many of its inhabitants converted to Islam and many mosques were erected. This city was renamed as Dıraç but did not prosper under the Ottomans and its importance declined greatly. By the mid-19th century, its population was said to have been only about 1,000 people living in some 200 households. Its decrepitude was noted by foreign observers in the early 20th century: "The walls are dilapidated; plane-trees grow on the gigantic ruins of its old Byzantine citadel; and its harbour, once equally commodious and safe, is gradually becoming silted up." Commons:Category:Durrës Wikipedia:Durrës Dmoz:Regional Europe Albania Localities Durres

history written

accompanied by a salad of fresh vegetables, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, green peppers (bell pepper) and olives with olive oil, vinegar and salt. Lunch also includes a main dish of vegetables and meat. Seafood specialties are also common in the coastal cities of Durrës, Sarandë and Vlorë. In high altitude localities, smoked meat and pickling is very common. In ''History'' written in 1079–1080, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates referred

between 1000-1018 by an anonymous author in a Bulgarian text of the 11th century. * In ''History'' written in 1079-1080, Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates referred

in a Bulgarian text of the 11th century. R. Elsie: Early Albania, a Reader of Historical Texts, 11th - 17th Centuries, Wiesbaden 2003, p. 3 * In ''History'' written in 1079-1080, Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates referred to the ''Albanoi'' as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the ''Arbanitai'' as subjects of the duke of Dyrrachium (Durrës). It is disputed, however, whether the "Albanoi" of the events of 1043 refers

major attempt

February 2007 . The '''Kingdom of Albania''', or ''Regnum Albaniae'', was established by Charles of Anjou (Charles I of Naples) in the Albanian territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. He took the title of "King of Albania" in February 1272. The kingdom extended from the region of Durrës (then known as Dyrrhachium) south along the coast to Butrint. A major attempt to advance further in direction of Constantinople, failed at the Siege

academic publishing

title Spatial Transformation of the Waterfront: Before, during and after Socialism Time-frame: 1900-44:45-90:91-2000 Case Study: Durrës - A Port City publisher Lambert Academic Publishing year 2012 isbn 978-3847339939 url http: www.amazon.com Spatial-Transformation-Waterfront-Socialism-Time-frame dp 3847339931 *Lida Miraj, Via Egnatia through History_ How was used and abused a ... aace.al ... Via%20Egnatia%20through%20History_%20How%20was%20... Page 1. VIA EGNATIA


'''Durrës''' is the second largest city of Albania and is central on the coast, about west of the capital Tirana. It is one of the most ancient and economically significant cities of Albania.

Durrës is at one of the narrower points of the Adriatic Sea, opposite the Italian (Italy) ports of Bari ( Moreover, it is the meeting point of national roads SH2 (National Road 2 (Albania)) and SH4 (National Road 4 (Albania)).

Founded in the 7th century BC by Greek colonists (Colonies in antiquity#Greek colonies) from Corinth and Corcyra (Corfu) under the name '''Epidamnos''', Rhodes, P.J. (P. J. Rhodes) ''A History of the Classical Greek World 478-323 BC''. 2nd edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 88. it has been continuously inhabited for 2,700 years and is one of the oldest cities in Albania. Durrës served as Albania's national capital from 7 March 1914 until 11 February 1920 during the reign of William of Albania in Principality of Albania. Organic Statute of the Principality of Albania (in Albanian), http: licodu.cois.it

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