Dunhuang

What is Dunhuang known for?


large sweet

in business at these markets. A Central Asian dessert or sweet is also sold, consisting of a large, sweet confection made with nut (nut (fruit))s and dried fruit, sliced into the portion desired by the customer. Climate Yumen has a cold desert climate (Köppen (Köppen climate classification) ''BWk''), with an annual total precipitation of , the majority of which occurs in summer; precipitation occurs only in trace amounts and quickly evaporates.


early stage

established shortly after 104 BC. Hulsewé, A. F. P. (1979). China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. Brill, Leiden. pp.75-76 ISBN 90-04-05884-2 Located in the western end of the Hexi Corridor near the historic junction of the Northern (Northern Silk Road) and Southern Silk Roads, Dunhuang was a town of military importance. Hill (2009), p. 133.<

to 2nd Centuries CE''. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. *Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. ''China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty''. E. J. Brill, Leiden. *Legge, James. Trans. and ed. 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-hsien of his travels in India and Ceylon (AD 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books


character school

of an Emperor - Dharma character school - Di mo - Diao Chan - Diaoyutai Islands - Die xue shuang xiong - Dizi (musical instrument) - Dim sum - Ding Ling - Dinghai (Dinghai District) - Diocesan Boys' School, Hong Kong - Dipteronia - Direct Subsidy Scheme - Dirk Struan - Discovery Bay - District Council of Hong Kong - District of China - Districts of Hong Kong - Doctrine of the Mean - Dog (zodiac) - Donald Tsang - Dong (film


including ancient

of important archaeological finds were uncovered from Wuwei, including ancient copper carts with stone animals. Zhang Yiping, ''Story of the Silk Road'', 2005, 五洲传播出版社, ISBN 750850832 It became an important provincial capital during the Former Han Dynasty as the ''Hou Hanshu'' makes clear: "In the third year 170 CE , Meng Tuo, the Inspector of Liangzhou, sent the Provincial Officer Ren She, commanding five hundred soldiers from


wearing+elaborate

royal portraits were painted in association with an increasing number of deities in the caves, suggesting the Khotanese royalty knew they were in trouble. thumb left A daughter of the King of Khotan, married to the ruler of Dunhuang (File:Dunhuang Mogao cave Cao donor figures.jpg), Cao Yanlu, is here shown wearing elaborate headdress decorated with jade pieces, mural in Mogao cave (Mogao Caves) 61, Five Dynasties. Patron saint of the Shaolin monastery Image:Varjapani


play important

increasingly weakened the political and military powers of the Monguor. Through the Ming (Ming Dynasty) (1368–1644) and Qing (Qing Dynasty) (1644–1912) dynasties, the Monguor continued to play important roles in the national defense, and political and religious affairs of China. Starting in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the ranches of the Monguor were taken into the state possession, and their horses became the subject of being drafted into the national army and looted by the Mongols from the north, resulting in the eventual shift of their lifestyles toward sedentary agriculture, supplemented by minimum animal husbandry, as the original Monguor groups became settled into the form of different villages. In the last two centuries, the areas formerly occupied by the Monguor were encroached upon by increasing inland Chinese migrations. Throughout this period, the Monguor maintained a high degree of political autonomy and self governance under the local chiefdom system of Tusi. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1995). "Xi xia huang zu hou yi kao Investigation on the descendants of the Royal Family of Western Xia 西夏皇族后裔考." Xi bei da xue xue bao Journal fo Northwest University 西北大学学报 88 (3): 46-52. Da, Song 大松 (1996). "Li pei ye shi xi xia huang zu hou yi Li Peiye is the descendant of the Royal Family of Western Xia 李培业是西夏皇族后裔." Qi lu zhu tan Qilu Abacus Forum 齐鲁珠坛 (6): 26. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1997). "Xi xia huang zu hou yi zai kao Reinvestigation on the descendants of the Royal Family of Western Xia 西夏皇族后裔再考." Xi Qiang wen hua West Qiang Culture 西羌文化. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1998). Xi xia li shi shi pu Genological records of Li Clan of Western Xia 西夏李氏世谱. Shenyang 沈阳 , Liaoning min zu chu ban she Liaoning Nationalities Press 辽宁民族出版社. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 (2005). "Li tu si xian shi bian zheng A Textual Analysis of the Ancestral Origins of Li Tusi 李土司先世辨正." Xi bei min zu yan jiu Northwest Ethno-National Studies 西北民族研究 46(3): 119-129. the Monguor troops led by their Tusi defended not only their own homeland but also joined the national army to participate in wars that took place as far as in eastern Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Yunnan, Mongolia, and Dunhuang, Schram (1961). The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier: Part III. Records of the Monguor Clans. History of the Monguors in Huangchung and the Chronicles of the Lu Family. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society. which progressively weakened their military power. Their political power came to the ultimate decline when the Tusi system was abolished in 1931, which exacerbated more Monguor to lose their language. By the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, only about fifty thousand of the Monguor have maintained to speak their language, primarily in Qinghai and Gansu. During the Chinese classificatory campaigns carried out in the 1950s, those who could no longer speak their language were classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," those who could not speak their language but adopted the Islamic religion were classified into "Hui (Hui people)," those who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were classified into "Mongols," and those who spoke their language and adopted the Islamic religion were classified into "Dongxiang (Dongxiang people)," "Bao’an," and "Yügu," the last of which represented the intermixture of the Xianbei and Sari Uigur. thumb 200px Emperor Wu worshipping two statues of Golden Man (or Gautama Buddha Buddha (Image:HanWudiBuddhas.jpg)) in 121 BC, Mogao Caves, Dunhuang, ca. 8th century CE. (However, note that there is no historical record of Emperor Wu actually being aware of Buddhism. The first confirmed contact between a Chinese emperor and Buddhist doctrines would not happen until a century later, during the reign of Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Han). Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 45. ) Repertoire thumb 110px Early 10th century tablature (File:Dunhuang pipa tablature.JPG) for ''pipa'' from Dunhuang Mogao Caves. Pipa has been played solo, or as part of a large ensemble or small group since the early times. Few pieces for ''pipa'' survived from the early periods, some however were preserved in Japan as part of togaku (Tang music) tradition. In the early 1900s, twenty-five pieces were found amongst tenth century manuscripts in the Mogao caves near Dunhuang, most of these pieces however may have originated from the Tang Dynasty. A report on Chinese research into the Dunhuang music manuscripts Chen Yingshi, ''Musica Asiatica'', 1991 ISBN 0-521-39050-8 Three Ming Dynasty pieces were discovered in the ''Gaohe Jiangdong'' (高河江東) collection dating from 1528 which are very similar to those performed today, such as "The Moon on High" (月兒高). During the Qing Dynasty, scores for pipa were collected in ''Thirteen Pieces for Strings'' (弦索十三套). There were originally two major schools of ''pipa'' during the Qing Dynasty — the Northern (Zhili, 直隸派) and Southern (Zhejiang, 浙江派) schools, and music scores for these two traditions were collected and published in the first mass-produced edition of solo pieces for pipa, now commonly known as the ''Hua Collection'' (華氏譜). This was first published as Nanbei Erpai Miben Pipapu Zhenzhuan (南北二派祕本琵琶譜真傳) The collection was edited by Hua Qiuping (華秋萍) and published in 1818 in three volumes. Commons:Category:Dunhuang Wikipedia:Dunhuang Dmoz:Regional Asia China Gansu Dunhuang


international collaboration

state and was renamed the kingdom of Shanshan. Hulsewé (1979), p. 89. The capital was to south-west of Lop Nur near modern Ruoqiang (Ruoqiang Town) (Charkhlik) on the Southern Silk Route between Dunhuang and Khotan. Preservation *International Dunhuang Project — an international collaboration to make more than 100,000 manuscripts, paintings and artifacts from Dunhuang and other Silk Road sites available


made great

other dialects, along with the ''fanqie'' analysis of the Guangyun rime dictionary (a later version of the Qieyun of 601 AD). In 1915, he published his reconstruction of Middle Chinese, which underlies in one form or another all subsequent reconstructions. Walter Simon (Walter Simon (sinologist)) and Henri Maspero also made great contributions in the field during the early days of its development. Karlgren himself had no direct access to the Qieyun, which was thought lost; however, fragments of the ''Qieyun'' were discovered in the Dunhuang Caves in the 1930s, and a nearly complete copy was discovered in 1947 in the Palace Museum. Languages The Mi Tripitaka (蕃大藏經) is the Tangut (Tangut language) canon. 国图藏西夏文文献的价值 It is not known if the Khitan edition is in Chinese or Khitan, as all Khitan Buddhist texts found are in Chinese. The Taishō edition contains classical Japanese works. The Dunhuang edition contains some works in old Western Regions languages. 怀念北图馆长北大教授王重民先生 The ''Tripitaka Sinica'' mentioned above features a Tibetan section. The Tibetan Plateau is bounded on the north by a broad escarpment where the altitude drops from around Commons:Category:Dunhuang Wikipedia:Dunhuang Dmoz:Regional Asia China Gansu Dunhuang


physical location

, Urga (Ulan Bator), Phudrak, and Stog Palace versions, each named after the physical location of its printing. In addition some canonical texts have been found in Tabo Monastery and Dunhuang which provide earlier exemplars to texts found in the Kangyur. All extant Kangyur appear to stem from the Old Narthang Monastery Kangyur. The stemma of the Kangyur have been well researched in particular by Helmut Eimer. Dunhuang sojourn Whilst the East Mountain Teachings (pejoratively known


scientific books

in an attempt to reach the Burmese (Burma) border. Everywhere he went he purchased and was given old historical and scientific books which he shipped back to England through diplomatic channels and were to form the foundation of his later research. He got to know Zhou Enlai and met numerous Chinese scholars, including the painter (Painting) Wu Zuoren (吳作人), and the meteorologist Zhu Kezhen who was later to send him in Cambridge crates of books, including the 2,000 volumes

Dunhuang

pic DH name.svg piccap "Dunhuang", as written in Chinese picsize 125px psp Tunhwang c 敦煌 w Tun 1 -huang 2 p Dūnhuáng w2 Tun 1 -huang 2 p2 Dūnhuáng s2 炖煌 t2 燉煌 '''Dunhuang''' ( in ancient times meaning 'Blazing Beacon') is a county-level city (pop. 187,578 (2000)) in northwestern Gansu province, Western China. It was a major stop on the ancient Silk Road and is best known for the nearby Dunhuang Caves (Mogao Caves). It has also been known at times as Shāzhōu (沙州), or 'City of Sands', Cable and French (1943), p. 41. "or Dukhan as the Turkis call it." Skrine (1926), p. 117.

Dunhuang is situated in a rich oasis containing Crescent Lake (Crescent Lake (Dunhuang)) and Mingsha Shan (鸣沙山 (:zh:鸣沙山 (敦煌)), meaning "Singing-Sand Mountain"), named after the sound of the wind whipping off the dunes, the singing sand phenomenon. Dunhuang commands a strategic position at the crossroads of the ancient Southern Silk Route and the main road leading from India via Lhasa to Mongolia and Southern Siberia, as well as controlling the entrance to the narrow Hexi Corridor, which led straight to the heart of the north Chinese plains and the ancient capitals of Chang'an (today known as Xi'an) and Luoyang. Lovell (2006), pp. 74-75.

Administratively, the county-level city of Dunhuang is part of the prefecture-level city of Jiuquan.

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