Duchy of Milan

What is Duchy of Milan known for?


characters including

in northern Italy, it takes place first in the Marquessate of Montferrat (Montferrat) and later in the Duchy of Milan. Most of its characters, including Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Gian Maria Visconti, Facino Cane, Filippo Maria Visconti, and Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola, were real historical figures; the scheming title character is the notable exception. '''Western Lombard''' is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard (Lombardy) provinces


good education

On 15 May 1702 the Powers of the Grand Alliance (Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)), led by England and the Dutch Republic, declared war on France and Spain. Emperor Leopold I (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) also declared war on the Bourbon powers, but his forces under Prince Eugene (Prince Eugene of Savoy) had already begun hostilities in northern Italy along the Po Valley in an attempt to secure for Austria the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Eugene’s successful 1701 campaign had aroused enthusiasm in England for war against France, and helped Emperor Leopold’s efforts in persuading King William III (William III of England) to send an Allied fleet to the Mediterranean Sea. Count Wratislaw (John Wenceslau Wratislaw von Mitrowitz), the Emperor’s envoy in England, urged that the sight of an Allied fleet in the Mediterranean would effect a revolution in the Spanish province of Naples (Kingdom of Naples); win south Italy from the precarious grip of Philip V (Philip V of Spain); overawe the Francophile Pope Clement XI; and encourage the Duke of Savoy (Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia) – and other Italian princes – to change sides. Trevelyan: ''England Under Queen Anne: Blenheim,'' p. 262 More modestly, Prince Eugene pleaded for a squadron to protect the passage of his supplies from Trieste across the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea).


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in 1529. In 1535, Francesco died without heirs, the question of succession again arose, with both the emperor and the King of France claiming the duchy, leading to more wars. The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from a part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese (Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma), centered on the city of Parma. The emperor held the duchy throughout, eventually investing it on his son

of the Confederation were determined by its relationship with its powerful neighbour, France. Nominally, the Confederation was under the control of the Holy Roman Empire. However, through a succession of wars culminating in the Swabian War, the Confederation had become ''de facto'' independent. As the two continental powers and minor states such as the Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Savoy, and the Papal States competed and fought against each other, there were far-reaching political, economic

, and social consequences for the Confederation. It was during this time that the mercenary pension system (Swiss mercenaries) became a subject of disagreement. The religious factions of Zwingli’s time debated vociferously regarding the merits of sending young Swiss men to fight in foreign wars mainly for the enrichment of the cantonal authorities. Decades of fighting eventually saw Florence (Republic of Florence), Duchy of Milan Milan


italy

–1535 title_leader Duke of Milan currency Milanese scudo, lira and soldo The '''Duchy of Milan''' was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat (Montferrat). During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy (House of Savoy) to the west, Venice (Republic of Venice) to the east, the Old

Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 restored many other states which he had destroyed, but not the Duchy of Milan. Instead, its former territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, with the Emperor of Austria as its king. In 1859, Lombardy was ceded to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which would become the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) in 1861. History


verona

the matter. Officially it was said that she was negotiating her alimony arrangement with the Swedish king. '''Gian Galeazzo Visconti''' (16 October 1351 – 3 September 1402), son of Galeazzo II Visconti and Bianca of Savoy, was the first Duke of Milan (Duchy of Milan) (1395) He was also Signore di Verona, Cremona, Bergamo, Brescia, Belluno, Pieve di Cadore, Feltre, Pavia, Novara, Como, Lodi, Vercelli, Alba, Asti, Pontremoli, Tortona, Alessandria, Valenza, Piacenza, Parma

of warring city-states (Italian city-states), the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between

the states was common, invasion from outside Italy confined to intermittent sorties of Holy Roman Emperors. Renaissance politics developed from this background. Since the 13th century, as armies became primarily composed of mercenaries, prosperous city-states could field considerable forces, despite their low populations. In the course of the 15th century, the most powerful city-states annexed their smaller neighbors. Florence took Pisa in 1406, Venice captured Padua and Verona


book called

Spain Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, which, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings". In 1480, Heinrich von Gundelfingen collected a number of local legends into a book called the ''Herkommen der Schwyzer und Oberhasler'' (Traditions of the Schwyzer and Oberhasler) which claimed that the land had been settled by 6,000 Swedish


military architecture

of the finest examples of 16th century Portuguese military architecture, which has been influenced and changed by both the Omani Arabs and the British. Kirkman, J. 1974. ''Fort Jesus: A Portuguese Fortress on the East African Coast'' Clarendon Press: Oxford The fort quickly became a vital possession for anyone with the intention of controlling Mombasa Island or the surrounding areas of trade. When the United Kingdom British


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the unification of Italy. Under the Visconti and later the Sforza Cremona underwent high cultural and religious development. In 1411 Palazzo Cittanova become the seat of the University of fustian merchants. In 1441 the city hosted the marriage of Francesco I Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti in the temple built by the Benedictines, which today is the church of Saint Sigismund. In that occasion a new sweet was devised, which was later turned into the famous torrone. Ludovico il Moro


running battle

of warring city-states (Italian city-states), the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between

, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between the states was common, invasion from outside Italy confined to intermittent


famous poem

in which to sell their lands. The Duke of Savoy sent an army and on April 24, at 4 a.m., the signal was given for a general massacre so brutal, that it aroused indignation throughout Europe. Oliver Cromwell began petitioning on behalf of the Vaudois, and John Milton wrote his famous poem about this, "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont." In the 1655 campaign, he led an invasion of the Duchy of Milan, though already ill with malaria, and besieged Pavia, where the attack went so badly that he was forced to leave his sick-bed to take direct control of the siege, and even then it had to be raised after nearly two months of fruitless effort. Much of Charles' reign was devoted to the Italian Wars against the French (Early Modern France) king, Francis I (Francis I of France), and his heir, king Henry II (Henry II of France), which although enormously expensive, were militarily successful due to the undefeated Spanish ''tercio'' and the efforts of his prime ministers Mercurino Gattinara and Francisco de los Cobos y Molina. Charles' forces re-captured both Milan (Duchy of Milan) and Franche-Comté from France after the decisive Habsburg victory at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, Blockmans, ''Emperor Charles V'', 60, 68; Guicciardini, ''History of Italy'', 363–364; Oman, ''Art of War'', 211. which pushed Francis to form the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Charles' rival Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the central part of Hungarian Kingdom (Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages) in 1526 after defeating the Christians at the Battle of Mohács. However, the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) advance was halted after they failed to capture Vienna in 1529 (Siege of Vienna). thumb Henry VIII of England Henry VIII (File:Henry VIII with Charles Quint and Pope Leon X circa 1520.jpg) (left) with Charles V (Charles Quint) (right) and Pope Leo X (center), circa 1520. The Crown of Aragon inherited by Charles included the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Sardinia (Sardinia#Modern history). Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France (Early Modern France) after the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Charles succeeded in re-capturing Milan in 1522 when Imperial troops defeated the Franco-Swiss army at Bicocca. Yet in 1524 Francis I of France retook the initiative, crossing into Lombardy where Milan, along with a number of other cities, once again fell to his attack. Pavia alone held out and it was here that on February 24, 1525 (Charles' twenty-fifth birthday), Charles' Imperial forces captured Francis and crushed his army, yet again retaking Milan and Lombardy. Spain successfully held on to all of its Italian territories, though they were invaded again on multiple occasions during the Italian Wars. In addition to this, Habsburg trade in the Mediterranean was consistently disrupted by the Ottoman Empire. A Holy League (Holy League (1538)), which consisted of all the Italian states and Spain, was formed in 1538 to drive the Ottomans back, but was defeated at the Battle of Preveza (Battle of Preveza (1538)). Decisive naval victory eluded Charles; it would not be achieved until after Charles' death, at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. - bgcolor "#87C389" colspan "5" align "center" Occupied by the Duchy of Milan under the governorship of Biagio Assereto from October 3, 1436 to November 1436 - * Archduke of Austria (List of rulers of Austria); * Duke of Burgundy (Duchy of Burgundy), of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), of Milan (Duchy of Milan), and of Neopatra (Duchy of Neopatras) (New Patras); * Count of Habsburg, of Flanders (County of Flanders), of Tyrol (County of Tyrol), of Roussillon (County of Roussillon) and of Barcelona (Counts of Barcelona); In an attempt to take control of the Duchy of Milan, to which he had a claim in right of his paternal grandmother Valentina Visconti, Her marriage contract with Louis, duc d'Orléans (Louis I, Duke of Orléans), stipulated that in failure of male heirs, she would inherit the Visconti (House of Visconti) dominions. Louis embarked on several campaigns in Italy (Italian Wars). In the Italian War of 1499–1504, he successfully secured Milan itself in the year 1499 from his enemy, Ludovico Sforza, and it remained a French stronghold for twelve years. His greatest success came in his war with Venice (War of the League of Cambrai), with the victory at the Battle of Agnadello in 1509. Things became much more difficult for him from 1510 onwards, especially after Julius II, the great warrior Pope, took control of the Vatican and formed the "Holy League (War of the League of Cambrai#Holy League)" to oppose the ambitions of the French in Italy. The French were eventually driven from Milan by the Swiss (Old Swiss Confederacy) in the year 1513. By the Treaty of Noyon, signed on the 13 August 1516 between Francis I of France and emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), France abandoned its claims to the Kingdom of Naples and received the Duchy of Milan in recompense. The treaty brought the War of the League of Cambrai— one stage of the Italian Wars— to a close. Having been ravaged by Habsburg troops in 1552, Noyon was sold to France in 1559, under the conditions of the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis. Near the end of the sixteenth century the town fell under Habsburg control, but Henry IV of France recaptured it. The Concordat of 1801 suppressed its bishopric. The town was occupied by the Germans (Germany) during World War I and World War II and on both occasions suffered heavy damage. * 1432 **18 November-19 – Battle of Delebio – Duchy of Milan and Valtellina against the Republic of Venice. **Battle of San Romano – Florence vs. Siena Titles ''Joseph II, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany (King of the Romans), King of Jerusalem, Hungary (King of Hungary), Bohemia (King of Bohemia), Dalmatia (History of Dalmatia), Croatia (History of Croatia), Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria), etc. etc. Archduke of Austria (List of rulers of Austria), Duke of Burgundy, Lorraine (List of rulers of Lorraine), Styria, Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia), Carniola, Grand Duke of Tuscany (Grand Duchy of Tuscany), Grand Prince of Transylvania, Margrave of Moravia (March of Moravia), Duke of Brabant, Limburg (Duke of Limburg), Luxembourg, Gelderland (Guelders), Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia (Duchy of Silesia), Milan (Duchy of Milan), Mantua (Duchy of Mantua), Parma, Piacenza (Duchy of Parma), Guastalla (County of Guastalla), Auschwitz (Duchy of Oświęcim), Zator (Duchy of Zator), Calabria (Duke of Calabria), Bar (Counts and Dukes of Bar), Montferrat, Teschen, Prince of Swabia, Charleville, Princely Count of Habsburg (Habsburg, Switzerland), Flanders (Count of Flanders), Tyrol (County of Tyrol), Hennegau (County of Hainaut), Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire (Antwerp), Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia (March of Lusatia), Pont-à-Mousson, Nomeny, Count of Namur, Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zutphen (Count of Zutphen), Saarwerden (Sarrewerden), Salm, Falkenstein On 15 May 1702 the Powers of the Grand Alliance (Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)), led by England and the Dutch Republic, declared war on France and Spain. Emperor Leopold I (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) also declared war on the Bourbon powers, but his forces under Prince Eugene (Prince Eugene of Savoy) had already begun hostilities in northern Italy along the Po Valley in an attempt to secure for Austria the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Eugene’s successful 1701 campaign had aroused enthusiasm in England for war against France, and helped Emperor Leopold’s efforts in persuading King William III (William III of England) to send an Allied fleet to the Mediterranean Sea. Count Wratislaw (John Wenceslau Wratislaw von Mitrowitz), the Emperor’s envoy in England, urged that the sight of an Allied fleet in the Mediterranean would effect a revolution in the Spanish province of Naples (Kingdom of Naples); win south Italy from the precarious grip of Philip V (Philip V of Spain); overawe the Francophile Pope Clement XI; and encourage the Duke of Savoy (Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia) – and other Italian princes – to change sides. Trevelyan: ''England Under Queen Anne: Blenheim,'' p. 262 More modestly, Prince Eugene pleaded for a squadron to protect the passage of his supplies from Trieste across the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea).

Duchy of Milan

The '''Duchy of Milan''' was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat (Montferrat). During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy (House of Savoy) to the west, Venice (Republic of Venice) to the east, the Swiss Confederacy (Old Swiss Confederacy) to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa (Republic of Genoa) to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden (1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. The Duchy remained an Austrian possession until 1796, when a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) conquered it, and it ceased to exist a year later as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, when Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic.

After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 restored many other states which he had destroyed, but not the Duchy of Milan. Instead, its former territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, with the Emperor of Austria as its king. In 1859, Lombardy was ceded to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which would become the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) in 1861.

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