Duchy of Limburg

What is Duchy of Limburg known for?


part

common_name Limburg continent Europe region Low Countries country Belgium, Netherlands, Germany era Middle Ages status Vassal status_text State (Imperial State) of the Holy Roman Empire part of the Burgundian Netherlands (1430–1482) part of the Habsburg Netherlands (1482–1581) <

;br part of the Southern Netherlands (1581–1795) government_type Monarchy year_start 1065 year_end 1795 event_start date_start event1 Passed (Battle of Worringen) to Brabant (Duke of Brabant) date_event1 June 5, 1288 event2 Joanna

of Limburg''' or '''Limbourg''' Occasionally formerly "Lambourg", as in the 1584 Treaty of Joinville. was a state (Imperial State) of the Holy Roman Empire. Its main territory including the capital Limbourg is today located within the Belgian (Belgium) province of Liège (Liège (province)), with a small part in the neighbouring province of Belgian Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)), within the east of Voeren. From about 1020, Limburg Castle served


speaking part

. After the defeat of the French empire, the eastern, German-speaking part of Duchy's lands were given to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna along with several other territories along what is today the Belgian-German border, but after the First World War, these lands became Belgian, re-uniting the original parts of the old Duchy. See also *Dukes of Limburg *Duchy of Limburg (1839–1867) *Limburger cheese *Neutral Moresnet References External links

" within the Holy Roman Empire. After centuries of French invasions and occupations, Lorraine was finally ceded to France at the close of the War of the Polish Succession (1737). In 1766 the duchy was inherited by the French crown and became the province of Lorraine (Lorraine (province)). In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, the German-speaking part of Lorraine was merged with Alsace to become the province of Alsace-Lorraine in the German Empire. Today


simple+fact

. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it. In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions also appeared in the arms of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), Holland (County of Holland), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and other territories. It is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was mostly used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle (Reichsadler) in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant also acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas (trans-Meuse (Meuse (river))). In 1354 the Joyous Entry (Joyous Entry of 1356), or charter of liberty was granted to the citizens of Brabant by John III (John III, Duke of Brabant).


strong military

Netherlands . After the French (France) occupation (1794–1815) it became part of the province of Liège (Liège (province)) until 1963 when it was transferred to the province of Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)), and thus became part of Flanders. Limbourg is located on top of a hill which in its turn is surrounded by the river Vesdre. This was a strong military advantage in the Middle Ages and allowed the city to defend itself against foreign invaders. In the Middle Ages, the ruling family came to have the rank of Duke and so the town was the seat of the Duchy of Limburg, which was a part of the Lower Lorraine region of the Holy Roman Empire. In 959 the Lotharingian duke Bruno the Great divided the duchy between ''Lotharingia superior'' (Upper Lorraine) (Upper Lorraine) and ''Lotharingia inferior'' (Lower Lorraine) (Lower Lorraine), giving each to the rule of a margrave. Except for one brief period (1033–44, under Gothelo I (Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine)), the division was never reversed and the margraves had soon raised their separate fiefs into dukedoms. In the twelfth century the ducal authority in Lower Lorraine became fragmented, causing the formation of the Duchy of Limburg and the Duchy of Brabant, whose rulers retained the title Duke of Lothier (derived from "Lotharingia"). With the disappearance of a "lower" Lorraine, the duchy of Upper Lorraine became the primary referent for "Lorraine" within the Holy Roman Empire. After centuries of French invasions and occupations, Lorraine was finally ceded to France at the close of the War of the Polish Succession (1737). In 1766 the duchy was inherited by the French crown and became the province of Lorraine (Lorraine (province)). In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, the German-speaking part of Lorraine was merged with Alsace to become the province of Alsace-Lorraine in the German Empire. Today the greater part of the French side of the Franco-German border belongs to the Lorraine ''région'' (Lorraine (region)). History Archaeological discoveries have dated the first settlement in the Sittard area around 5000 B.C. Present day Sittard is assumed to be founded around 850 A.D. being build around a motte (motte-and-bailey). Sittard was first mentioned in 1157. It was granted city rights (City rights in the Netherlands) by the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in 1243. In 1400 it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, and remained in its possession until 1794. The city was destroyed and rebuild multiple times by fires and in various conflicts during the 15th-17th century. It was a stronghold until a great part of was destroyed in 1677 during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation (First French Empire) (1794-1814), Sittard was part of the Roer (Roer (département)) department. Since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War (World War) it was occupied by the Germans who dissolved several small municipalities, like Broeksittard (Broeksittard), into Sittard. The city was liberated September 18-19 1944 by the 2nd Armored Division (2nd Armored Division (United States)). The historic town was moslty spared destruction despite lying in the frontline for over four months in which over 4000 shells and rockets struck the city. The Prince-electors, perturbed by the steep rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast (Silesian Piasts) dukes of adjacent Silesia (Duchy of Silesia) from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), in 1346 again gained the Imperial crown, the most capable ruler of the Luxembourg dynasty, whose Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia (Lower Lusatia) and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373, then holding two votes in the electoral college. Although Heerlen is only 35&nbsp;km North from Kettenis, transportation in those days wasn't much different from mediaeval times (largely by stage coach or on foot). So the travelling distance was much greater than it is now. But the cultural distance was much smaller. Both Kettenis and Heerlen had been part of the Duchy of Limburg for centuries. The then borders between the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium had only recently been drawn (see Treaty of London, 1839) and regional sentiments were still much stronger than any national feelings. Limburgers (Limburg (Netherlands)) still felt closer to nearby Germans than to Hollanders. The Duchy was even part of the German Confederation from 1839 to 1866 (just 8 years earlier). Arnold never naturalised (Naturalization) and even his grandson Pierre (see #Spin-offs) had German citizenship until shortly before the Second World War. In 1363 the French king John II of Valois (John II of France) enfeoffed his youngest son Philip the Bold with the Duchy of Burgundy (''Bourgogne''). Philip in 1369 married Margaret of Dampierre (Margaret III, Countess of Flanders), only child of Count Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384), whose immense dowry not only comprised Flanders and Artois but also the Imperial County of Burgundy. He thereby became the progenitor of the House of Valois-Burgundy who systematically came into possession of different Imperial fiefs: his grandson Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy from 1419, purchased Namur (County of Namur) in 1429, inherited the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) from his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol (Philip of Saint-Pol, Duke of Brabant) in 1430. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut) to cede him the counties of Hainaut (County of Hainaut) and Holland (County of Holland) with Zeeland (County of Zeeland) according to the Treaty of Delft and finally occupied Luxembourg, exiling Duchess Elisabeth of Görlitz (Elisabeth, Duchess of Luxembourg) in 1443. Middle Ages The city of Geldern was first documented in 812. Several versions of the name have been used: ''Gelre, Gielra, Gellero, Gelera'' and similar. The probable ancestor of the Counts of Guelders was Gerhard Flamens, who received Wassenberg as a fief from Emperor Henry II (Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1020. His great-grandson Gerhard IV of Wassenberg was the first to call himself Count of Guelders (as Gerhard I), from 1096. The title "count" came from other properties, probably in Teisterbant. From 1125 only the title ''of Guelders'' was used. Wassenberg itself was given to the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) (and later to Jülich (Duchy of Jülich)) as a wedding gift in 1107. The counts of Guelders moved their residence to the castle in Geldern, that was built probably around this date at the crossing of the Niers. The castle and the accompanying medieval settlement were the origin of the present city, and also gave its name to the county and later duchy of Guelders. History In 1104, a young priest by the name of Ailbertus of Antoing founded an Augustinian (Augustinians) abbey in the ''Land of Rode'', near the river Wurm. The abbey was called ''Kloosterrade'', which later became '''s-Hertogenrade'' (in French: ''Rode-le-Duc'' or ''Rolduc''), after the ducal castle that was built across the Wurm. Ailbertus died in 1111 and his bones were later interred in the crypt. In 1136 the land of Rode, including the abbey, fell into the hands of the Duchy of Limburg. Kloosterrade was considered to be their family church. Several dukes of Limburg are buried at Rolduc, such as Walram III (Waleran III of Limburg), whose cenotaph can be found in the nave of the church. During the 12th century and 13th century the abbey flourished. Several other communities were founded by Kloosterrade. In 1250 the abbey owned more than 3,000 hectares of land. History before 1795 Historically, those territories have little in common. The Northern part around Eupen was originally part of the Duchy of Limburg, a dependancy of the Duchy of Brabant, and was latterly owned by the Austrian Habsburgs, as part of the Austrian Netherlands. The Southern part (i.e. more or less what is now the district of Sankt Vith) belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The small village of Manderfeld-Schönberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Trier. Malmedy and Waimes, except the village of Faymonville, were part of the abbatial principality (Imperial Abbey) of Stavelot-Malmedy which was — like Luxembourg and Trier — an Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy land, where in 1177 he supposedly conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it. In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions also appeared in the arms of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), Holland (County of Holland), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and other territories. It is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was mostly used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle (Reichsadler) in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant also acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas (trans-Meuse (Meuse (river))). In 1354 the Joyous Entry (Joyous Entry of 1356), or charter of liberty was granted to the citizens of Brabant by John III (John III, Duke of Brabant).


called low

of Ripuarian (Ripuarian (language)), not of Limburgish. According to a more contemporary vision, however, all varieties in a wider half circle some 15 to 20 KM around Aachen, including 2 3 of Dutch South Limburg and also the so-called Low Dietsch area between Voeren and Eupen in Belgium, can be taken as a group of its own, which recently has been named ''Limburgish of the ''Three Countries Area'' (Vaalserberg)'' (Dutch: ''Drielandenlimburgs'', German: ''Dreiländerplatt


quot low

Limburgish (or Limburgish like, depending on definitions) language which is sometimes referred to as &quot;Low Dietsch". Southeast Limburgish (''Zuidoost-Limburgs'') is spoken in and around Kerkrade, Simpelveld, Bocholtz and Vaals in the Netherlands http: www.kgv.nl wiki index.php?title Dialect , Aachen in Germany and Raeren and Eynatten in Belgium. Especially in Germany these dialects are usually considered as variants


cheese

and Germany, at their "tripoint". The eastern part, which includes Eupen, is the administrative capital and northernmost part of the modern Belgian German-speaking Ostkantonen (Eupen-Malmedy). Of the various places known as Limburg, it is the Duchy of Limburg which is the origin of the pungent-smelling soft cheese known as Limburger, and today made in many places. (In modern Belgium, such cheese is known as Herve cheese, after the town of that name within the duchy

. After the defeat of the French empire, the eastern, German-speaking part of Duchy's lands were given to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna along with several other territories along what is today the Belgian-German border, but after the First World War, these lands became Belgian, re-uniting the original parts of the old Duchy. See also *Dukes of Limburg *Duchy of Limburg (1839–1867) *Limburger cheese *Neutral Moresnet References External links

''Provinces wallonnes''." Félix Rousseau, ''La Wallonie, terre romane'', 6th edition, Charleroi, 1993, p.120, DL 1993 0276 1 and the nickname ''Romande'' was commonly used to describe Walloons until the late 19th century. '''Limburger''' is a cheese that originated during the 19th century in the historical Duchy of Limburg, which is now divided among modern-day Belgium (Limburg (Belgium)), County of Limburg Germany


great part'

it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, and remained in its possession until 1794. The city was destroyed and rebuild multiple times by fires and in various conflicts during the 15th-17th century. It was a stronghold until a great part of was destroyed in 1677 during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation (First French Empire) (1794-1814), Sittard was part of the Roer (Roer (département)) department. Since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War (World War) it was occupied by the Germans who dissolved several small municipalities, like Broeksittard (Broeksittard), into Sittard. The city was liberated September 18-19 1944 by the 2nd Armored Division (2nd Armored Division (United States)). The historic town was moslty spared destruction despite lying in the frontline for over four months in which over 4000 shells and rockets struck the city. The Prince-electors, perturbed by the steep rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast (Silesian Piasts) dukes of adjacent Silesia (Duchy of Silesia) from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), in 1346 again gained the Imperial crown, the most capable ruler of the Luxembourg dynasty, whose Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia (Lower Lusatia) and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373, then holding two votes in the electoral college. Although Heerlen is only 35&nbsp;km North from Kettenis, transportation in those days wasn't much different from mediaeval times (largely by stage coach or on foot). So the travelling distance was much greater than it is now. But the cultural distance was much smaller. Both Kettenis and Heerlen had been part of the Duchy of Limburg for centuries. The then borders between the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium had only recently been drawn (see Treaty of London, 1839) and regional sentiments were still much stronger than any national feelings. Limburgers (Limburg (Netherlands)) still felt closer to nearby Germans than to Hollanders. The Duchy was even part of the German Confederation from 1839 to 1866 (just 8 years earlier). Arnold never naturalised (Naturalization) and even his grandson Pierre (see #Spin-offs) had German citizenship until shortly before the Second World War. In 1363 the French king John II of Valois (John II of France) enfeoffed his youngest son Philip the Bold with the Duchy of Burgundy (''Bourgogne''). Philip in 1369 married Margaret of Dampierre (Margaret III, Countess of Flanders), only child of Count Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384), whose immense dowry not only comprised Flanders and Artois but also the Imperial County of Burgundy. He thereby became the progenitor of the House of Valois-Burgundy who systematically came into possession of different Imperial fiefs: his grandson Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy from 1419, purchased Namur (County of Namur) in 1429, inherited the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) from his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol (Philip of Saint-Pol, Duke of Brabant) in 1430. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut) to cede him the counties of Hainaut (County of Hainaut) and Holland (County of Holland) with Zeeland (County of Zeeland) according to the Treaty of Delft and finally occupied Luxembourg, exiling Duchess Elisabeth of Görlitz (Elisabeth, Duchess of Luxembourg) in 1443. Middle Ages The city of Geldern was first documented in 812. Several versions of the name have been used: ''Gelre, Gielra, Gellero, Gelera'' and similar. The probable ancestor of the Counts of Guelders was Gerhard Flamens, who received Wassenberg as a fief from Emperor Henry II (Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1020. His great-grandson Gerhard IV of Wassenberg was the first to call himself Count of Guelders (as Gerhard I), from 1096. The title "count" came from other properties, probably in Teisterbant. From 1125 only the title ''of Guelders'' was used. Wassenberg itself was given to the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) (and later to Jülich (Duchy of Jülich)) as a wedding gift in 1107. The counts of Guelders moved their residence to the castle in Geldern, that was built probably around this date at the crossing of the Niers. The castle and the accompanying medieval settlement were the origin of the present city, and also gave its name to the county and later duchy of Guelders. History In 1104, a young priest by the name of Ailbertus of Antoing founded an Augustinian (Augustinians) abbey in the ''Land of Rode'', near the river Wurm. The abbey was called ''Kloosterrade'', which later became '''s-Hertogenrade'' (in French: ''Rode-le-Duc'' or ''Rolduc''), after the ducal castle that was built across the Wurm. Ailbertus died in 1111 and his bones were later interred in the crypt. In 1136 the land of Rode, including the abbey, fell into the hands of the Duchy of Limburg. Kloosterrade was considered to be their family church. Several dukes of Limburg are buried at Rolduc, such as Walram III (Waleran III of Limburg), whose cenotaph can be found in the nave of the church. During the 12th century and 13th century the abbey flourished. Several other communities were founded by Kloosterrade. In 1250 the abbey owned more than 3,000 hectares of land. History before 1795 Historically, those territories have little in common. The Northern part around Eupen was originally part of the Duchy of Limburg, a dependancy of the Duchy of Brabant, and was latterly owned by the Austrian Habsburgs, as part of the Austrian Netherlands. The Southern part (i.e. more or less what is now the district of Sankt Vith) belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The small village of Manderfeld-Schönberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Trier. Malmedy and Waimes, except the village of Faymonville, were part of the abbatial principality (Imperial Abbey) of Stavelot-Malmedy which was — like Luxembourg and Trier — an Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy land, where in 1177 he supposedly conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it. In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions also appeared in the arms of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), Holland (County of Holland), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and other territories. It is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was mostly used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle (Reichsadler) in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant also acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas (trans-Meuse (Meuse (river))). In 1354 the Joyous Entry (Joyous Entry of 1356), or charter of liberty was granted to the citizens of Brabant by John III (John III, Duke of Brabant).


small part

The '''Duchy of Limburg''' or '''Limbourg''' Occasionally formerly "Lambourg", as in the 1584 Treaty of Joinville. was a state (Imperial State) of the Holy Roman Empire. Its main territory including the capital Limbourg is today located within the Belgian (Belgium) province of Liège (Liège (province)), with a small part in the neighbouring province of Belgian Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)), within the east of Voeren. From about 1020, Limburg Castle served as the residence of the Counts of Limburg (Duke of Limburg), who in 1100 adopted the ducal title (''Herzog'' in German, ''Hertog'' in Dutch) as Dukes of Lower Lorraine, one of the most important and ancient titles in this part of the empire. The extinction of the line in 1283 sparked the War of the Limburg Succession, whereafter Limburg was ruled by the Dukes of Brabant (Duke of Brabant) in personal union, eventually being grouped together with the Brabantian "Overmaas" territories bordering it (including Dalhem, Valkenburg (Valkenburg (city)), and Hertogenrade), to be one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Burgundian Netherlands. Unlike other parts of this province, the lands of the duchy stayed intact within the Southern Netherlands, under Habsburg (Habsburgs) control, after the divisions caused by the Eighty Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession. However finally, after the failed Brabant Revolution in 1789, the duchy's history was terminated with the occupation by French Revolutionary (French First Republic) troops in 1793. These lands were reunited within modern Belgium only after World War I. The duchy was multilingual, being the place where Dutch, French, and German dialects border upon each other and coexist at their geographical extremes, both now and in medieval times. Its northern and eastern borders are the approximate boundaries of the modern state of Belgium with the Netherlands and Germany, at their "tripoint". The eastern part, which includes Eupen, is the administrative capital and northernmost part of the modern Belgian German-speaking Ostkantonen (Eupen-Malmedy). Of the various places known as Limburg, it is the Duchy of Limburg which is the origin of the pungent-smelling soft cheese known as Limburger, and today made in many places. (In modern Belgium, such cheese is known as Herve cheese, after the town of that name within the duchy.) Geography The state's territory was situated in the Low Countries between the river Meuse (Meuse (river)) (Maas) in the west and the Imperial city (Free imperial city) of Aachen in the east. Its most important cities were Limbourg, the capital, and Eupen. The Limburg estates were commonly divided into five legal districts (''Hochbänke''): #the original manor (manorialism) of Baelen in the southeast with the castle and city of Limburg, Eupen, and Welkenraedt; #Herve in the southwest with Dison, Thimister and Clermont (Thimister-Clermont); #Montzen (today part of Plombières) in the northwest with Kelmis, Moresnet (Neutral Moresnet), and Teuven (Voeren); #Walhorn in the northeast with Eynatten, Hauset, and Lontzen; #the southwestern exclave (enclave and exclave) of Sprimont, surrounded by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. In the west and south, Limburg bordered on the territory of the Liège Prince-Bishops, in the north and east on the Rhenish Duchy of Jülich. Linguistically Limburg was situated on the border of Germanic (Germanic languages) with Romance Europe (Romance-speaking Europe). While in the northern and eastern districts Limburgish (Limburgish language) and Ripuarian (Ripuarian language) dialects were spoken, the southwestern part around Herve was dominated by Walloon (Walloon language). History thumb left Basic administrative parts until the French revolution, including detached Sprimont. (File:Limburg fuenf Hochbaenke.JPG) When Julius Caesar first entered this area and took it under Roman control it was inhabited by a group of Belgic Gaulish tribes, the Condrusi, Eburones, Caeraesi, Segni and Paemani, who were referred to collectively as the ''Germani cisrhenani''. They were in contact with both Gaulish and Germanic peoples. The language they spoke is not certain, and it is also not certain to what extent these earlier tribes can be equated to the Tungri, found in this same area only a few generations later. By this time the area had become integrated into the ''Civitas Tungrorum'', with its capital at Tongeren. As part of the Roman empire, the ''civitas'' of the Tungri began as part of the province of ''Gallia Belgica'', but was soon split out to become part of ''Germania Inferior'', which had its capital at Cologne, and was later reorganized as Germania Secunda. This was a frontier area, which took in soldiers and settlers from across the Rhine in Germany and from around the empire. By late Roman times, a new immigration of Germanic people from the north and east, the Franks, came to dominate the whole of ''Germania Secunda'', but the region of the Duchy of Limburg, being south of the military Bavay-Tongeren-Heerlen-Cologne route remained relatively Romanized at first, as reflected still in the modern linguistic situation. The region to the north of the Duchy was dominated by Salian Franks, and the area to the east came under the Ripuarian Franks. Under the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, Frankish rule expanded from the region around Limbourg to cover larger areas, and eventually began to replace Roman imperial rule. By the time of Charlemagne, the first Frank to be called an emperor of Rome (in 800 AD), the kings of the Franks had come to be recognized as heirs to the Western Roman empire. In the time of Charlemagne's grandsons (in 843 AD), the empire came to be divided into three sections, a western Romanized one corresponding very roughly to later France, an eastern part, corresponding very roughly to Germany, and a central one, Lotharingia, later referred to as Lorraine (Lorraine (duchy)), which was eventually absorbed into the eastern empire. The Duchy of Limburg, like most of modern Belgium, was within Lower Lorraine. For a while, Lower Lorraine had its own single Duke. It is from this Duchy that the Duchy of Limbourg derived its Ducal status (as did the Duchy of Brabant, in a competitive claim to succession). thumb This shows the medieval "lands of Overmaas" and the Duchy of Limburg possessed in the Middle Ages by the Dukes of Brabant. Together these formed one province in the Seventeen Provinces (File:Overmaas.png), sometimes referred to as Limburg. The dark lines are modern borders. The territory of the duchy of Limburg was formed in the 11th century around the town of Limbourg in present-day Wallonia. About 1020, Duke Frederick (Frederick, Duke of Lower Lorraine) of Lower Lorraine, a descendant of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia, had Limbourg Castle built on the banks of the Vesdre river. His estates then comprised the districts of Baelen (with Limbourg), Herve, Montzen (since 1975 part of Plombières), Walhorn, and the southwestern exclave of Sprimont. They were inherited by Frederick's son-in-law Count Waleran of Arlon (Waleran I of Limburg), who about 1065 began to call himself a "count of Limburg". Waleran also claimed Frederick's ducal title, which was finally acknowledged by Emperor Henry IV (Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1101 in favour of Waleran's son Henry (Henry, Duke of Lower Lorraine). This meant that Lower Lorraine now had two Duchies, that of Brabant, and that of Limburg, and the title of Duke of Lothier, still held by Brabant, eventually became ineffective. As the Lorrainian ducal dignity was contested by the mighty Counts of Leuven, landgraves of Brabant (Landgraviate of Brabant), Waleran's descendants confined themselves to a "duke of Limburg", and achieved confirmation from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1165. The rise of the Limburg dynasty continued, when Duke Waleran III (Waleran III, Duke of Limburg) in 1214 became Count of Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg) by marriage with the heiress Ermesinde (Ermesinde of Luxembourg) and his son Henry IV (Henry IV, Duke of Limburg) in 1225 became Count of Berg (Berg (state)) as husband of heiress Irmgard (Irmgard of Berg). thumb This shows the two modern provinces called Limburg next to the medieval Duchy they are both named after. The small overlap is Teuven and Remersdaal, in eastern Voeren (File:3limburgen.png), a part of modern Belgian Limburg since 1977. However, upon the death of Henry's son Waleran IV (Waleran IV, Duke of Limburg) in 1279, leaving only one heiress Irmgard, who had married Count Reginald I of Guelders but died childless in 1283, the War of the Limburg Succession broke out. The Duke of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) won the final Battle of Worringen in 1288, thereby gaining control of the Duchy of Limburg with the consent of King Rudolph I of Germany. Though it shared the fate of Brabant, Limburg remained a separate Imperial State, which in 1404 passed from Joanna of Brabant (Joanna, Duchess of Brabant) to Anthony of Valois (Anthony, Duke of Brabant), son of the Burgundian (Duchy of Burgundy) duke Philip the Bold. With the Burgundian heritage of Mary the Rich (Mary of Burgundy), it was bequested to her husband Maximilian I (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor) from the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1482. Combined with the ''Landen van Overmaas'' (the lands beyond the Meuse: Dalhem, Herzogenrath and Valkenburg (Valkenburg aan de Geul)) and Maastricht, the duchy became one of the Seventeen Provinces held by the Habsburgs within the Burgundian Circle established in 1512. Significant towns in Limburg proper were Herve, Montzen, Lontzen, Eupen, Baelen and Esneux. After the abdication of Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1556, the Burgundian fiefs passed to his son King Philip II of Spain. The measures of the Council of Troubles implemented by Philip's stern governor, the Duke of Alba (Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba), sparked the Eighty

) Peasants' War of 1798 . Almost none of the modern Belgian province Limburg was ever part of the nearby Duchy of Limburg, and only a small part of the area of the current Dutch Limburg was. However, Limburg's modern name derives from this Duchy, which originally centred upon the fortified castle town known as Limbourg, situated on the river Vesdre in the Ardennes, now in the Wallonian province (provinces of Belgium) of Liège (Liège (province)). The modern Limburg region, containing the Belgian and Dutch provinces of that name, were first united within one province while under the power of revolutionary France (French revolution), and later the Napoleonic empire, but then under the name of the French department of the Lower Meuse (Maas) (Meuse-Inférieure). Limbourg the town was not in this region, but a small part of its old Duchy was. Following the Napoleonic Era, the great powers (the United Kingdom, Prussia, the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire and France) granted the region to the new United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. A new province was formed and was to receive the name "Maastricht", after its capital. The first king, William I (William I of the Netherlands), who did not want the name Limbourg to be lost, given its high status of being an ancient Duchy, insisted that the name be changed to the "Province of Limburg (Province of Limburg (1815–1839))". It is only in border areas like Voeren that modern Limburg has any areas which were historically politically connected to the old Duchy, in that case through being within the county of Dalhem. #the Duchy of Brabant, including the Margraviate of Antwerp, the counties of Leuven and of Brussels, and the advocacy of the Abbey of Nivelles and of Gembloux #the Duchy of Limburg, including the counties of Dalhem and Valkenburg (Valkenburg aan de Geul) and the Lordship of Herzogenrath #the Duchy of Luxembourg thumb John II: Gros tournois. (File:Brabante John II gros tournois.jpg) '''John II van Brabant''' (September 27, 1275 &ndash; October 27, 1312, Tervuren), also called '''John the Peaceful''', was Duke of Brabant, Lothier (Duke of Lothier) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) (1294&ndash;1312). He was the son of John I of Brabant (John I, Duke of Brabant) and Margaretha of Flanders (Margaret of Flanders (d. 1285)), daughter of Guy of Dampierre. History The colours of the flag of Luxembourg were first adopted around 1830 during the Belgian Revolution. They were probably derived from the counts, dukes and later grand-dukes of Luxembourg (County of Luxembourg)'s coat of arms (Coat of arms of Luxembourg) which in turn was derived from the combination of the dukes of Limbourg (Duchy of Limburg)'s Lion (Lion (heraldry)) and the supposed striped banner of the early counts of Luxembourg. The three-colored horizontal design was fixed on June 12, 1845. During the period of Austrian rule (Austrian_Netherlands#Austrian_Netherlands), a number of different flags were tried, until the Austrian Emperor imposed the Austrian flag (flag of Austria). The population of Brussels was opposed to this, and following the example of France, red, yellow and black cockades began to appear; those being the colours of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant). The colours thus correspond to the red lion of Hainaut (County of Hainaut), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and Luxembourg (Luxembourg (province)), the yellow lion of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), and the black lion of Flanders (County of Flanders) and Namur (Namur (province)). D Damme - Dardenne, Sabine (Sabine Dardenne) - David, Jean-Baptist (Jean-Baptist David) - Day of the Flemish Community - de Clecq, Staf (Staf de Clercq) - Decree (Belgium) - Declaration of Revision of the Constitution - Deerlijk - De Gordel - Degrelle, Léon (Léon Degrelle) - De Haan (De Haan, Belgium) - Dehaene, Jean-Luc - de Haussy, François-Philippe (François-Philippe de Haussy) - Deinze - Delahaye, Gilbert (Gilbert Delahaye) - de Merode, Alexandre (Alexandre de Merode) - Demographics of Belgium - Dender - Denderleeuw - Dendermonde - Dentergem - De Panne - De Pinte - Dessel - Destelbergen - Deux-Nèthes - De Warande (Club) - De Wever, Bart (Bart De Wever) - Dexia - Diepenbeek - Diksmuide - Dilsen-Stokkem - Dioxine affair - Django Reinhardt Jazz Festival - Di Rupo, Elio (Elio Di Rupo) - Di Rupo I Government - Draining law - Duchy of Brabant - Duchy of Limburg - Duchy of Limburg (1839–1867) - Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting - Duffel - Dupuis, Jacques (Jacques Dupuis) - Dutroux, Marc (Marc Dutroux) - Dyle (department) - Jacqueline Dyris During the First French Empire, after the French revolution, Maastricht became the capital of the area that was then called the French Department of the Lower Meuse. This included both modern Belgian Limburg, and also neighbouring Dutch Limburg (Duchy of Limburg). After the defeat of Napoleon, in 1815, this whole area became part of a new United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and it was at this time that the name Limburg was adopted. King William (William I of the Netherlands) wanted to keep the name of the old Duchy of Limburg alive although it had been centred in Limbourg on the Vesdre, and had never encompassed Hasselt. Even when Belgium gained its independence from the Netherlands in 1830, and the province of Limburg was definitively split between the Netherlands and Belgium in 1839, this name was retained and the name ''Loon'' disappeared. After the split, Hasselt became the provisional capital of the Belgian province of Limburg. When Maastricht stayed Dutch in 1839, it became the permanent seat of its provincial government within the Netherlands, also called Limburg. In 1967, Belgian Limburg was detached from the Diocese of Liège and Hasselt became the seat of the Diocese of Hasselt. During the First French Empire, after the French revolution, Maastricht became the capital of the area that was then called the French Department of the Lower Meuse. This included both modern Belgian Limburg, and also neighbouring Dutch Limburg (Duchy of Limburg). After the defeat of Napoleon, in 1815, this whole area became part of a new United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and it was at this time that the name Limburg was adopted. King William (William I of the Netherlands) wanted to keep the name of the old Duchy of Limburg alive although it had been centred in Limbourg on the Vesdre, and had never encompassed Hasselt. Even when Belgium gained its independence from the Netherlands in 1830, and the province of Limburg was definitively split between the Netherlands and Belgium in 1839, this name was retained and the name ''Loon'' disappeared. After the split, Hasselt became the provisional capital of the Belgian province of Limburg. When Maastricht stayed Dutch in 1839, it became the permanent seat of its provincial government within the Netherlands, also called Limburg. In 1967, Belgian Limburg was detached from the Diocese of Liège and Hasselt became the seat of the Diocese of Hasselt. History Since the 11th century, two-thirds of the territory of the present municipality of Voeren was in the county of Dalhem, which was a possession of the Dukes of Brabant, and the remaining one-third in the Duchy of Limburg, which also belonged to Brabant after 1288. As such, it successively became part of the Burgundian Netherlands, the Habsburg Netherlands, and after the Dutch Revolt, part of the Spanish, later Austrian controlled Southern Netherlands. After the French (France) occupation (1794–1815) it became part of the province of Liège (Liège (province)) until 1963 when it was transferred to the province of Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)), and thus became part of Flanders. Limbourg is located on top of a hill which in its turn is surrounded by the river Vesdre. This was a strong military advantage in the Middle Ages and allowed the city to defend itself against foreign invaders. In the Middle Ages, the ruling family came to have the rank of Duke and so the town was the seat of the Duchy of Limburg, which was a part of the Lower Lorraine region of the Holy Roman Empire. In 959 the Lotharingian duke Bruno the Great divided the duchy between ''Lotharingia superior'' (Upper Lorraine) (Upper Lorraine) and ''Lotharingia inferior'' (Lower Lorraine) (Lower Lorraine), giving each to the rule of a margrave. Except for one brief period (1033–44, under Gothelo I (Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine)), the division was never reversed and the margraves had soon raised their separate fiefs into dukedoms. In the twelfth century the ducal authority in Lower Lorraine became fragmented, causing the formation of the Duchy of Limburg and the Duchy of Brabant, whose rulers retained the title Duke of Lothier (derived from "Lotharingia"). With the disappearance of a "lower" Lorraine, the duchy of Upper Lorraine became the primary referent for "Lorraine" within the Holy Roman Empire. After centuries of French invasions and occupations, Lorraine was finally ceded to France at the close of the War of the Polish Succession (1737). In 1766 the duchy was inherited by the French crown and became the province of Lorraine (Lorraine (province)). In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, the German-speaking part of Lorraine was merged with Alsace to become the province of Alsace-Lorraine in the German Empire. Today the greater part of the French side of the Franco-German border belongs to the Lorraine ''région'' (Lorraine (region)). History Archaeological discoveries have dated the first settlement in the Sittard area around 5000 B.C. Present day Sittard is assumed to be founded around 850 A.D. being build around a motte (motte-and-bailey). Sittard was first mentioned in 1157. It was granted city rights (City rights in the Netherlands) by the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in 1243. In 1400 it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, and remained in its possession until 1794. The city was destroyed and rebuild multiple times by fires and in various conflicts during the 15th-17th century. It was a stronghold until a great part of was destroyed in 1677 during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation (First French Empire) (1794-1814), Sittard was part of the Roer (Roer (département)) department. Since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War (World War) it was occupied by the Germans who dissolved several small municipalities, like Broeksittard (Broeksittard), into Sittard. The city was liberated September 18-19 1944 by the 2nd Armored Division (2nd Armored Division (United States)). The historic town was moslty spared destruction despite lying in the frontline for over four months in which over 4000 shells and rockets struck the city. The Prince-electors, perturbed by the steep rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast (Silesian Piasts) dukes of adjacent Silesia (Duchy of Silesia) from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), in 1346 again gained the Imperial crown, the most capable ruler of the Luxembourg dynasty, whose Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia (Lower Lusatia) and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373, then holding two votes in the electoral college. Although Heerlen is only 35&nbsp;km North from Kettenis, transportation in those days wasn't much different from mediaeval times (largely by stage coach or on foot). So the travelling distance was much greater than it is now. But the cultural distance was much smaller. Both Kettenis and Heerlen had been part of the Duchy of Limburg for centuries. The then borders between the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium had only recently been drawn (see Treaty of London, 1839) and regional sentiments were still much stronger than any national feelings. Limburgers (Limburg (Netherlands)) still felt closer to nearby Germans than to Hollanders. The Duchy was even part of the German Confederation from 1839 to 1866 (just 8 years earlier). Arnold never naturalised (Naturalization) and even his grandson Pierre (see #Spin-offs) had German citizenship until shortly before the Second World War. In 1363 the French king John II of Valois (John II of France) enfeoffed his youngest son Philip the Bold with the Duchy of Burgundy (''Bourgogne''). Philip in 1369 married Margaret of Dampierre (Margaret III, Countess of Flanders), only child of Count Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384), whose immense dowry not only comprised Flanders and Artois but also the Imperial County of Burgundy. He thereby became the progenitor of the House of Valois-Burgundy who systematically came into possession of different Imperial fiefs: his grandson Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy from 1419, purchased Namur (County of Namur) in 1429, inherited the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) from his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol (Philip of Saint-Pol, Duke of Brabant) in 1430. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut) to cede him the counties of Hainaut (County of Hainaut) and Holland (County of Holland) with Zeeland (County of Zeeland) according to the Treaty of Delft and finally occupied Luxembourg, exiling Duchess Elisabeth of Görlitz (Elisabeth, Duchess of Luxembourg) in 1443. Middle Ages The city of Geldern was first documented in 812. Several versions of the name have been used: ''Gelre, Gielra, Gellero, Gelera'' and similar. The probable ancestor of the Counts of Guelders was Gerhard Flamens, who received Wassenberg as a fief from Emperor Henry II (Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1020. His great-grandson Gerhard IV of Wassenberg was the first to call himself Count of Guelders (as Gerhard I), from 1096. The title "count" came from other properties, probably in Teisterbant. From 1125 only the title ''of Guelders'' was used. Wassenberg itself was given to the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) (and later to Jülich (Duchy of Jülich)) as a wedding gift in 1107. The counts of Guelders moved their residence to the castle in Geldern, that was built probably around this date at the crossing of the Niers. The castle and the accompanying medieval settlement were the origin of the present city, and also gave its name to the county and later duchy of Guelders. History In 1104, a young priest by the name of Ailbertus of Antoing founded an Augustinian (Augustinians) abbey in the ''Land of Rode'', near the river Wurm. The abbey was called ''Kloosterrade'', which later became '''s-Hertogenrade'' (in French: ''Rode-le-Duc'' or ''Rolduc''), after the ducal castle that was built across the Wurm. Ailbertus died in 1111 and his bones were later interred in the crypt. In 1136 the land of Rode, including the abbey, fell into the hands of the Duchy of Limburg. Kloosterrade was considered to be their family church. Several dukes of Limburg are buried at Rolduc, such as Walram III (Waleran III of Limburg), whose cenotaph can be found in the nave of the church. During the 12th century and 13th century the abbey flourished. Several other communities were founded by Kloosterrade. In 1250 the abbey owned more than 3,000 hectares of land. History before 1795 Historically, those territories have little in common. The Northern part around Eupen was originally part of the Duchy of Limburg, a dependancy of the Duchy of Brabant, and was latterly owned by the Austrian Habsburgs, as part of the Austrian Netherlands. The Southern part (i.e. more or less what is now the district of Sankt Vith) belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The small village of Manderfeld-Schönberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Trier. Malmedy and Waimes, except the village of Faymonville, were part of the abbatial principality (Imperial Abbey) of Stavelot-Malmedy which was — like Luxembourg and Trier — an Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy land, where in 1177 he supposedly conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it. In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions also appeared in the arms of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), Holland (County of Holland), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and other territories. It is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was mostly used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle (Reichsadler) in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant also acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas (trans-Meuse (Meuse (river))). In 1354 the Joyous Entry (Joyous Entry of 1356), or charter of liberty was granted to the citizens of Brabant by John III (John III, Duke of Brabant).


great part

it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, and remained in its possession until 1794. The city was destroyed and rebuild multiple times by fires and in various conflicts during the 15th-17th century. It was a stronghold until a great part of was destroyed in 1677 during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation (First French Empire) (1794-1814), Sittard was part of the Roer (Roer (département)) department. Since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War (World War) it was occupied by the Germans who dissolved several small municipalities, like Broeksittard (Broeksittard), into Sittard. The city was liberated September 18-19 1944 by the 2nd Armored Division (2nd Armored Division (United States)). The historic town was moslty spared destruction despite lying in the frontline for over four months in which over 4000 shells and rockets struck the city. The Prince-electors, perturbed by the steep rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast (Silesian Piasts) dukes of adjacent Silesia (Duchy of Silesia) from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), in 1346 again gained the Imperial crown, the most capable ruler of the Luxembourg dynasty, whose Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia (Lower Lusatia) and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373, then holding two votes in the electoral college. Although Heerlen is only 35&nbsp;km North from Kettenis, transportation in those days wasn't much different from mediaeval times (largely by stage coach or on foot). So the travelling distance was much greater than it is now. But the cultural distance was much smaller. Both Kettenis and Heerlen had been part of the Duchy of Limburg for centuries. The then borders between the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium had only recently been drawn (see Treaty of London, 1839) and regional sentiments were still much stronger than any national feelings. Limburgers (Limburg (Netherlands)) still felt closer to nearby Germans than to Hollanders. The Duchy was even part of the German Confederation from 1839 to 1866 (just 8 years earlier). Arnold never naturalised (Naturalization) and even his grandson Pierre (see #Spin-offs) had German citizenship until shortly before the Second World War. In 1363 the French king John II of Valois (John II of France) enfeoffed his youngest son Philip the Bold with the Duchy of Burgundy (''Bourgogne''). Philip in 1369 married Margaret of Dampierre (Margaret III, Countess of Flanders), only child of Count Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384), whose immense dowry not only comprised Flanders and Artois but also the Imperial County of Burgundy. He thereby became the progenitor of the House of Valois-Burgundy who systematically came into possession of different Imperial fiefs: his grandson Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy from 1419, purchased Namur (County of Namur) in 1429, inherited the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) from his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol (Philip of Saint-Pol, Duke of Brabant) in 1430. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut) to cede him the counties of Hainaut (County of Hainaut) and Holland (County of Holland) with Zeeland (County of Zeeland) according to the Treaty of Delft and finally occupied Luxembourg, exiling Duchess Elisabeth of Görlitz (Elisabeth, Duchess of Luxembourg) in 1443. Middle Ages The city of Geldern was first documented in 812. Several versions of the name have been used: ''Gelre, Gielra, Gellero, Gelera'' and similar. The probable ancestor of the Counts of Guelders was Gerhard Flamens, who received Wassenberg as a fief from Emperor Henry II (Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1020. His great-grandson Gerhard IV of Wassenberg was the first to call himself Count of Guelders (as Gerhard I), from 1096. The title "count" came from other properties, probably in Teisterbant. From 1125 only the title ''of Guelders'' was used. Wassenberg itself was given to the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) (and later to Jülich (Duchy of Jülich)) as a wedding gift in 1107. The counts of Guelders moved their residence to the castle in Geldern, that was built probably around this date at the crossing of the Niers. The castle and the accompanying medieval settlement were the origin of the present city, and also gave its name to the county and later duchy of Guelders. History In 1104, a young priest by the name of Ailbertus of Antoing founded an Augustinian (Augustinians) abbey in the ''Land of Rode'', near the river Wurm. The abbey was called ''Kloosterrade'', which later became '''s-Hertogenrade'' (in French: ''Rode-le-Duc'' or ''Rolduc''), after the ducal castle that was built across the Wurm. Ailbertus died in 1111 and his bones were later interred in the crypt. In 1136 the land of Rode, including the abbey, fell into the hands of the Duchy of Limburg. Kloosterrade was considered to be their family church. Several dukes of Limburg are buried at Rolduc, such as Walram III (Waleran III of Limburg), whose cenotaph can be found in the nave of the church. During the 12th century and 13th century the abbey flourished. Several other communities were founded by Kloosterrade. In 1250 the abbey owned more than 3,000 hectares of land. History before 1795 Historically, those territories have little in common. The Northern part around Eupen was originally part of the Duchy of Limburg, a dependancy of the Duchy of Brabant, and was latterly owned by the Austrian Habsburgs, as part of the Austrian Netherlands. The Southern part (i.e. more or less what is now the district of Sankt Vith) belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The small village of Manderfeld-Schönberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Trier. Malmedy and Waimes, except the village of Faymonville, were part of the abbatial principality (Imperial Abbey) of Stavelot-Malmedy which was — like Luxembourg and Trier — an Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy land, where in 1177 he supposedly conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it. In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions also appeared in the arms of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), Holland (County of Holland), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and other territories. It is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was mostly used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle (Reichsadler) in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant also acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas (trans-Meuse (Meuse (river))). In 1354 the Joyous Entry (Joyous Entry of 1356), or charter of liberty was granted to the citizens of Brabant by John III (John III, Duke of Brabant).

Duchy of Limburg

The '''Duchy of Limburg''' or '''Limbourg''' Occasionally formerly "Lambourg", as in the 1584 Treaty of Joinville. was a state (Imperial State) of the Holy Roman Empire. Its main territory including the capital Limbourg is today located within the Belgian (Belgium) province of Liège (Liège (province)), with a small part in the neighbouring province of Belgian Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)), within the east of Voeren.

From about 1020, Limburg Castle served as the residence of the Counts of Limburg (Duke of Limburg), who in 1100 adopted the ducal title (''Herzog'' in German, ''Hertog'' in Dutch) as Dukes of Lower Lorraine, one of the most important and ancient titles in this part of the empire. The extinction of the line in 1283 sparked the War of the Limburg Succession, whereafter Limburg was ruled by the Dukes of Brabant (Duke of Brabant) in personal union, eventually being grouped together with the Brabantian "Overmaas" territories bordering it (including Dalhem, Valkenburg (Valkenburg (city)), and Hertogenrade), to be one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Burgundian Netherlands. Unlike other parts of this province, the lands of the duchy stayed intact within the Southern Netherlands, under Habsburg (Habsburgs) control, after the divisions caused by the Eighty Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession. However finally, after the failed Brabant Revolution in 1789, the duchy's history was terminated with the occupation by French Revolutionary (French First Republic) troops in 1793. These lands were reunited within modern Belgium only after World War I.

The duchy was multilingual, being the place where Dutch, French, and German dialects border upon each other and coexist at their geographical extremes, both now and in medieval times. Its northern and eastern borders are the approximate boundaries of the modern state of Belgium with the Netherlands and Germany, at their "tripoint". The eastern part, which includes Eupen, is the administrative capital and northernmost part of the modern Belgian German-speaking Ostkantonen (Eupen-Malmedy).

Of the various places known as Limburg, it is the Duchy of Limburg which is the origin of the pungent-smelling soft cheese known as Limburger, and today made in many places. (In modern Belgium, such cheese is known as Herve cheese, after the town of that name within the duchy.)

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