Duchy of Gascony

What is Duchy of Gascony known for?


824

1052 year_leader4 1362 year_leader5 title_leader Duke of Gascony today ) was a duchy in present southwestern France, roughly corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824. The Duchy of Gascony, then known as ''Wasconia

territory. Louis the Pious received the submission of rebel Basque lords in Dax, but things were far from settled. In 824 the second Battle of Roncevaux (Battle of Roncevaux Pass (824)) took place, when counts Eblo (Aeblus) and Aznar Galindo (Aznar Galindez I) (identified as Aznar Sánchez too), Frankish vassals and the latter appointed Duke of Gascony, were captured by the joint Pamplonese and Banu Qasi forces, strengthening the independence of Kingdom of Navarre Pamplona

the Gascon march. It follows that the Duchy of Vasconia comprised Basque areas north and south of the Pyrenees at least until the definite detachment of Pamplona (Pamplona#Early Middle Ages) from the Duchy in 824. The Frankish king Dagobert I made in 628 arrangements for his brother Charibert II to rule over the territories between the Loire and the Pyrenees (''limes Spaniae'') 'in the general area of Vasconia', including Saintes, Charente-Maritime Saintes


818

to Lupus II of Gascony and was handed over to Charlemagne. Dukes of Vasconia vassals of the Franks *Lop II (Lop II of Gascony) (768 or 770-778 or 801) *Sans I (Sans I Lop of Gascony) (778 or 801-812) *Seguin I (Semen I Lop of Gascony) (812-816) *Gassia I (Gassia I Semen of Gascony) (816-818) *Lop III Centullo ''Wasco'' (Lop III Centullo of Gascony) (818-819 or 819-823 ) Dukes of Vasconia and Counts of Bordeaux (Frankish vassals


846

) *Seguin II (Seguin II of Gascony) (??-846), the beginning of his rule is uncertain *William I (William I of Gascony) (846-848 or 852 ) Counts of Vasconia :''Temporarily segregated from the Duchy. See: Northern Basque Country'' *Aznar Sans (Aznar Sánchez) (820-836) *Sans II (Sans II Sancion of Gascony) (836-855 or 864), fought against the Franks since 848 and eventually became Duke of Vasconia. Later Dukes of Vasconia (Frankish vassals


international role

url http: fmg.ac Projects MedLands GASCONY.htm title-date title Medieval Lands Project: Gascony. date August 2012 Category:Basque history Category:Early Middle Ages (Category:Dukes of Gascony) Gascony (Category:Dukedoms of France) Gascony (Category:Lists of dukes) ru:Герцогство Гасконь After the fall of Acre, Edward's international role changed from that of a diplomat to an antagonist. He had


power independent

thumb Duchy of Vasconia and both sides of the Pyrenees (760) In the year 660, Felix of Aquitaine, a patrician from Toulouse of Gallo-Roman stock, received the ducal title of both Vasconia and Aquitaine (Duke of Aquitaine) (located between the Garonne and Loire rivers), effectively ruling independently over Vasconia and at least part of Aquitaine. Under Felix and his successors, Frankish overlordship over these lands became merely nominal, and Vasconia became a prominent regional power

. Independent dukes Lupus (Lupus I of Aquitaine), Odo, Hunald and Waifer (Waifer of Aquitaine) succeeded him respectively, with the last three belonging to the same lineage. Their ethnicity is not certain, since records and their names are not conclusive. But the Umayyad invasion (Muslim conquest of Iberia) of 711 effected a complete shift in trends. Hitherto the duke Odo the Great had been independent, refusing to recognise the authority of either the Merovingian king or his mayor


718

reaches of the Adour river, far short of its extension 300 years before. Within the Duchy of Aquitaine (1053-1453) After Sancho ''the Great'' (Sancho III of Pamplona)'s reign, Gascony distanced again from Pamplona. By 1053, Gascony was inherited and conquered by the Duchy of Aquitania.

, 1914. *Collins, Roger. ''The Basques''. Blackwell Publishing: London, 1990. *Higounet, Charles. ''Bordeaux pendant le haut moyen age''. Bordeaux, 1963. *Lewis, Archibald R. ''The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050''. University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965. *Pertz, G, ed. ''Chronici Fontanellensis fragmentum'' in Mon. Ger. Hist. Scriptores, Vol. II. *Pertz, G, ed. ''Chronicum Aquitanicum'' in Mon. Ger. Hist. Scriptores, Vol. II. *Waitz, E, ed. ''Annales Bertiniani


760

. Collins, R. (1990) From the 589 to 684, the Bishop of Pamplona was absent from the Visigothic Councils of Toledo, which is interpreted by some as the result of this city being under Basque of Frankish control. Personal union with Aquitaine (660 – 769) 250px thumb Duchy of Vasconia after the Battle of Poitiers (734-743) (File:Vasconia wide 740 3 - 80.jpg) File:North and south of the Pyrenees (Year 760).jpg 250px

thumb Duchy of Vasconia and both sides of the Pyrenees (760) In the year 660, Felix of Aquitaine, a patrician from Toulouse of Gallo-Roman stock, received the ducal title of both Vasconia and Aquitaine (Duke of Aquitaine) (located between the Garonne and Loire rivers), effectively ruling independently over Vasconia and at least part of Aquitaine. Under Felix and his successors, Frankish overlordship over these lands became merely nominal, and Vasconia became a prominent regional power

a devastating war on Aquitaine (Pepin the Short#Expansion of the Frankish realm) (Vasconia included) that was to have dire consequences on its population, towns and society. Waifer and his Basque troops confronted Pepin several times but were defeated thrice in 760, 762, and 766, after which Aquitaine and Vasconia pledged loyalty to Pepin and Waifer was eventually murdered by desperate followers, or possibly by someone bribed by Pepin. Carolingian duchy (769-864


816

, on their way north through Roncevaux an ambush was attempted, but resulted in a stalemate as the Franks had taken Basque women and children hostage. Northern Basques, organized in the Duchy of Vasconia, collaborated with Franks during campaigns such as the capture of Barcelona in 799 but after the death of Charlemagne in 814, uprisings started anew. The revolt in Pamplona crossed the Pyrenees north and in 816 Louis the Pious deposed the Basque Duke Semen I Lop of Gascony Seguin

to Lupus II of Gascony and was handed over to Charlemagne. Dukes of Vasconia vassals of the Franks *Lop II (Lop II of Gascony) (768 or 770-778 or 801) *Sans I (Sans I Lop of Gascony) (778 or 801-812) *Seguin I (Semen I Lop of Gascony) (812-816) *Gassia I (Gassia I Semen of Gascony) (816-818) *Lop III Centullo ''Wasco'' (Lop III Centullo of Gascony) (818-819 or 819-823 ) Dukes of Vasconia and Counts of Bordeaux (Frankish vassals


710

of Gascony are listed according to their Gascon names (based on the current spelling of Gascon, not the medieval spelling, which was fluctuating). Dukes of Vasconia (Frankish vassals) *Genial (602-606) *Aeghyna (626-638) *Amandus (636-660) Independent dukes of Vasconia and Aquitaine *Felix (Felix of Aquitaine) (660-670) *Lupus I (Lupus I of Aquitaine) (670-676 or until 710 in Vasconia only

Ducado de Vasconia (Auñamendi Encyclopedia) ) *Odo the Great (Odo of Aquitaine) (or ''Eudes'') (688-735), his reign commenced perhaps as late as 692, 700, 710 or 715, unclear parentage. *Hunald I (Hunald of Aquitaine) (735-748), son of previous, abdicated to monastery, may have returned later (see below). *Waifer (Waifer of Aquitaine) (or ''Gaifier'') (748-767), son of previous. *Hunald II (Hunald of Aquitaine) (767-769), either Hunald I returning or a different Hunald, fled


848

. In the early 9th century the lands around the Adour river were segregated from the Duchy under the name of County of Vasconia. Count Aznar's successor, Sans Sancion (Sancho Sánchez of Gascony), fought against Charles the Bald, as Charles didn't recognize him as legitimate. In 844, Vikings invaded Bordeaux and killed Duke Seguin II (Seguin II of Gascony). His heir William (William I of Gascony) was killed trying to retake Bordeaux in 848, Monlezun, 342. though some

) *Seguin II (Seguin II of Gascony) (??-846), the beginning of his rule is uncertain *William I (William I of Gascony) (846-848 or 852 ) Counts of Vasconia :''Temporarily segregated from the Duchy. See: Northern Basque Country'' *Aznar Sans (Aznar Sánchez) (820-836) *Sans II (Sans II Sancion of Gascony) (836-855 or 864), fought against the Franks since 848 and eventually became Duke of Vasconia. Later Dukes of Vasconia (Frankish vassals

) *Sans II (Sans II Sancion of Gascony) (848 or 852-855 or 864) *Arnold (Arnaut of Gascony) (855-864 or only 864) Independent Dukes of Gascony *Sans III (Sans III Mitarra of Gascony) (864-893) *Gassia II (Gassia II Sans of Gascony) (893-930) *Sans IV (Sans IV Gassia of Gascony) (930-c.950) *Sans V (Sans V Sancion of Gascony) (c.950-c.961) *Guilhem II (Guilhem Sans of Gascony) (c.961-996) *Bernat I (Bernat I Guilhem of Gascony) (996-1009

Duchy of Gascony

The '''Duchy of Gascony''' (also ''Vasconia''; ) was a duchy in present southwestern France, roughly corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824. The Duchy of Gascony, then known as ''Wasconia'', was originally a Frankish (Francia) march formed to hold sway over the Basques (Vascones) (History of the Basque people#Early Middle Ages). However, the Duchy went through different periods, from its early years with its distinctively Basque element to the merge in personal union with the Duchy of Aquitaine to the later period as a dependency of the Plantagenet kings of England.

In the Hundred Years' War, Charles V of France conquered most of Gascony (Guyenne) by 1380, and under Charles VII of France it was incorporated into the kingdom of France in its entirety in 1453.

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