Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne (Djenné) in 1473, building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao. Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge 1988 The most significant of the Mali kings was Mansa Musa (1312–1337) who expanded Mali influence over the large Niger city-states of Timbuktu, Gao
historyanddescr02porygoog#page n138 mode 1up 822–823 Vol. 3 Between the 14th and 17th centuries Djenné and Timbuktu were important entrepôts in a long distance trade network. Salt was mined at Taghaza in the Sahara and transported south via Timbuktu and Djenné. Gold from the Akan goldfields in the forested area between the Komoé (Komoé River) and Volta (Volta River) rivers was traded at the town of Begho (Bitu) and then transported north through Djenné and Timbuktu
who deal in salt from the mine of Taghaza meet there with those who deal in gold from the mine of Bitu. ... This blessed city of Jenne is the reason why caravans come to Timbuktu from all quarters-north, south, east and west. Jenne is situated to the south and west of Timbuktu beyond the two rivers. When the river is in flood, Jenne becomes an island, but when the flood abates the water is far from it. It begins to be surrounded by water in August, and in February the water recedes again.
at the Saadi court. After a march across the Sahara desert, Judar's forces captured, plundered, and razed the salt mines at Taghaza and moved on to Gao. When Emperor Askia Ishaq II (r. 1588-1591) met Judar at the 1591 Battle of Tondibi, Songhai forces, despite vastly superior numbers, were routed by a cattle stampede triggered by the Saadi's gunpowder weapons. http: www.historyfiles.co.uk KingListsAfrica AfricaNiger.htm History Files Judar proceeded to sack Gao
-Louis, Senegal St Louis in modern day Senegal on the west coast. The book describes the unknown interior of Africa near modern day Central African Republic as a desert, when it is actually savanna. The Volta basin has been important for the Wangara in several respects: it comprised some of the main gold-producing areas (Lobi, Banda) while being linked to others (in the Birim (Birim River) and Pra (Pra River (Ghana)) and Offin river basins, and in Ivory Coast); it marks
. It is known also as the city of “Balanzan,” named after the local tree Acacia albida. Ségou has faced numerous conquests and changes of administration, but has always benefited from trade with nearby commercial centres such as Djenné and Timbuktu, and been an administrative center and commercial center for cereal and cattle. Increasing desertification and economic incentive thumb Great Mosque of Djenné The Great Mosque of (Image:Great Mosque of Djenné 1.jpg) Djenné, founded in 800, was an important trading base; now a World Heritage Site The Sahara once had a very different environment. In Libya and Algeria, from at least 7000 BC, there was pastoralism, herding of sheep and goats, large settlements and pottery. Cattle were introduced to the Central Sahara (Ahaggar) from 4000 to 3500 BC. Remarkable rock paintings (dated 3500 to 2500 BC), in places which are currently very dry, portray vegetation and animal presence rather different from modern expectations. Shillington, Kevin (1989, 1995). ''History of Africa, Second Edition''. St. Martin's Press, New York. Page 32. thumb 750px center Saharan trade routes circa 1400, with the modern territory of Niger (Image:Niger saharan medieval trade routes.PNG) highlighted Unlike Ghana, Mali was a Muslim kingdom, and under it, the gold - salt trade continued. Other, less important trade goods were slaves, kola nuts from the south and slave beads and cowry shells from the north (for use as currency). It was under Mali that the great cities of the Niger (River Niger) bend —including Gao and Djenné— prospered, with Timbuktu in particular becoming known across Europe for its great wealth. Important trading centers in southern West Africa developed at the transitional zone between the forest and the savanna; examples include Begho and Bono Manso (in present-day Ghana) and Bondoukou (in present-day Côte d'Ivoire). Western trade routes continued to be important, with Ouadane, Oualata and Chinguetti being the major trade centres in what is now Mauritania, while the Tuareg (Tuareg people) towns of Assodé and later Agadez grew around a more easterly route in what is now Niger. '''Koyra Chiini''' ( Wikipedia:Djenné
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, founded in 800, was an important trading base; now a World Heritage Site The Sahara once had a very different environment. In Libya and Algeria, from at least 7000 BC, there was pastoralism, herding of sheep and goats, large settlements and pottery. Cattle were introduced to the Central Sahara (Ahaggar) from 4000 to 3500 BC. Remarkable rock paintings (dated 3500 to 2500 BC), in places which are currently very dry, portray vegetation and animal presence rather different from
;nbsp;km west of San and 110 km upstream from Djenné.
downstream of Douna and 110 km upstream of Djenné. The dam is located at The environmental impact assessment commissioned by the African Development Bank
place Paris url http: gallica.bnf.fr ark: 12148 bpt6k1667505 language French . * . *
been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule. !2nd century BC '''200 BC''' Djenné settled '''200 BC''' Meroitic script in completed form '''146 BC''' Carthage final defeat, Roman province of Africa '''200 BC''' Zapotec (Zapotec civilization) state develops in Mexico ref
'''Djenné''' (also '''Djénné''', '''Jenné''' and '''Jenne''') is a town and an urban commune (Communes of Mali) in the Inland Niger Delta region of central Mali. The town is the administrative centre of the Djenné Cercle, one of the eight subdivisions of the Mopti Region. The commune includes ten of the surrounding villages and in 2009 had a population of 32,944.
The history of Djenné is closely linked with that of Timbuktu. Between the 15th and 17th centuries much of the trans-Saharan trade in goods such as salt, gold and slaves that moved in and out of Timbuktu passed through Djenné. Both towns became centres of Islamic scholarship. Djenné's prosperity depended on this trade and when the Portuguese (Portugal) established trading posts on the African coast, the importance of the trans-Saharan trade and thus of Djenné declined.
The town is famous for its distinctive adobe architecture, most notably the Great Mosque (Great Mosque of Djenné) which was built in 1907 on the site of an earlier mosque. To the south of the town is Djenné-Djeno (Jenné-Jeno), the site of one of the oldest known towns in sub-Saharan Africa. Djenné together with Djenné-Djeno were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988.