Derbent

What is Derbent known for?


heavy work

foods and teas, were widely suspected by foreigners of being a drugging agent and an aphrodisiac. These fears grew to forewarn travelers to abstain from eating saffron-laced Persian cuisine. Later, Persian saffron was heavily used by Alexander the Great and his forces during


956

, and especially in the proximity of the passes, must have played an important role in absorbing and pushing back the aboriginal inhabitants. Such names as Sharvan, Layzan, Baylaqan, etc., suggest that the Iranian immigration proceeded chiefly from Gilan and other regions on the southern coast of the Caspian''. Minorsky, Vladimir. “A History of Sharvan and Darband in the 10th-11th Centuries”, Cambridge, 1958. Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Al-Masudi (Al-Masudi) (896-956

of Russia Paul I recalled the army back to Russia and had Chaplits dismissed from the military on February 27, 1798. However, on March 27, 1801, on the fourth day after his assumption of the throne Emperor Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia) returned Chaplits to service with a rank of Major General and on November 11, 1803 appointed him to the Imperial Retinue (Retinue). Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Al-Masudi (Al-Masudi) (896-956), the Arab historian states:


current world

is in fact Sassanid in origins, and thus is about 1000 years too late to have been built by Cyrus. Carbon dating however, sets the wall at the Parthian era which is closer to the time of Cyrus. Omrani Rekavandi, H., Sauer, E., Wilkinson, T. & Nokandeh, J. (2008), The enigma of the red snake: revealing one of the world’s greatest frontier walls, Current World Archaeology, No. 27, February March 2008, pp. 12-22 The '''Gates of Alexander''' was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the ''Alexander Romance'' in a version from perhaps the 6th century. The wall has been frequently identified with the '''Caspian Gates''' of Derbent, Russia (see below) and with the Pass of Dariel or Darial. In reality both structures were built by the Persian monarchs. Derbent (in Persian (Persian language) دربند ''Darband'', meaning "closed gates"), was established in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, when the city was refounded by Kavadh I (Kavadh I of Persia) of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia (Persian Empire). The Army of Islam sent the 15th Division to North Caucasus after its reorganization. The 15th Division advanced northwards along the Caspian coast, encountered the local resistance in front of Derbent and spotted advance on October 7. The division restarted attack on Derbent on October 20 and occupied the city on October 26. The division continued to advance northwards and arrived at the gate of Petrovsk (present day: Makhachkala) on October 28 and occupied the city on November 8 . In ancient Persia, saffron (''Crocus sativus'' 'Hausknechtii') was cultivated at Derbena (Derbent) and Isfahan (Isfahan (city)) in the 10th century BC. There, Persian saffron threads have been found interwoven into ancient Persian royal carpets and funeral shrouds. wikipedia:Derbent commons:Derbent


military prowess

reputation for their military prowess. They defeated Kyrgyz (Old Kirghiz), Turgesh, and Karluks, extending the Kaganate territory all the way to the Iron Gates (modern day Derbent in Dagestan). They also subjugated all nine of the Tokuz Oguz (Tokuz-Oguzes) tribes.


building food

title -- Economy and culture The city is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries. It is the center of Russian brandy production. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). About two kilometers ( ) from the city is the vacation


prowess

reputation for their military prowess. They defeated Kyrgyz (Old Kirghiz), Turgesh, and Karluks, extending the Kaganate territory all the way to the Iron Gates (modern day Derbent in Dagestan). They also subjugated all nine of the Tokuz Oguz (Tokuz-Oguzes) tribes.


remarkable poem

fortress of Derbent on 10 May. The event was glorified by the court poet Derzhavin in his famous ode; he was later to comment bitterly on Zubov's inglorious return from the expedition in another remarkable poem. '''Balakishi Arablinski Alibey oglu''' ( Azeri.ru. Interview with great-great-grandson


centuries amp

by a confederation of Dagestani tribes. In the first few centuries AD, Caucasian Albania continued to rule over what is present day Azerbaijan and mountains of Dagestan. It was fought over in classical times by Rome and the Persian (Persian Empire) Sassanids and was early converted to Christianity. In the 5th century AD, the Sassanids gained the upper hand and constructed a strong citadel at Derbent, known henceforward as the Caspian Gates, while


world culture

. - ISBN 5-85733-042-4. cтр. 730-731 Igor Diakonov. The book of memoirs. while the rural population seems to mostly have retained their old Caucasian languages. Up to the nineteenth century, there was still a large number of Tat population (who claim to be descendants of Sassanid era Persian settlers), however due to similar culture and religion with Turkic speaking Azerbaijanis, this population was partly assimilated. Natalia G. Volkova “Tats”in Encyclopedia of World

Culture, Editor: David Publisher, New York: G.K. Hall, Prentice Hall International, 1991-1996).: "In the nineteenth century the Tats were settled in large homogeneous groups. The intensive processes of assimilation by the Turkic-speaking Azerbaijanis cut back the territory and numbers of the Tats. In 1886 they numbered more than 120,000 in Azerbaijan and 3,600 in Daghestan. According to the census of 1926 the number of Tats in Azerbaijan (despite the effect of natural increase) had dropped


centuries strong

including the republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, North Ossetia, Kabardino-Balkariya and other republics and oblasts of the region long formed part of Persia and the Iranian cultural sphere until they were annexed by Imperial Russia over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries. Strong Persian cultural influence can be traced up as far as Tatarstan in central Russia. Fine examples of Iranian architecture in many Caucasus cities like the Sassanid citadel in Derbent bear

Derbent

WHS Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent Image 250px Wall of the Derbent citadel — the only Sassanid fortification in existence (File:Derbent wall.jpg) State Party 22px (File:Flag of Russia.svg) Russia Type Cultural Criteria iii, iv ID 1070 Region Europe (List of World Heritage Sites in Europe) Year 2003 Session 27th Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 1070 '''Derbent''' (

Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Its etymology derives from the Persian (Persian language) ''Darband'' ( and it is often identified with the legendary (Alexander romance) Gates of Alexander, being known in Arabic (Arabic language) as ''Bāb al Abwab'' ("Gate of Gates") and Turkish (Turkish language) as ''Demirkapı'' ("Iron Gate"). Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia (8th century BCE). Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting Since antiquity, the value of the area as the gate to the Caucasus has been understood, and Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic particularity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world. Over the years, different nations gave the city different names, but all connected to the word ''gate''; its name in Persian (Persian language) is ''Darband'', which means "closed gates".

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