they are accused of killing civilians and raping women. This has been the most serious crisis since the end of war in 2003. In mid-July, they threatened to invade Goma to protect the Tutsi population there from "harassment"; the UN peacekeeping mission quickly responded that they would reposition 19,000 peacekeepers to protect Goma & nearby refugee camps. How serious the threat of fighting in Goma remains to be seen BBC report) The only safe areas
history thumb 240px Village attacked by Arab-Swahili slavers near Nyangwe (File:Nyangwe.jpg), end of 19th century The area now known as the DR Congo was populated as early as 80,000 years ago, as shown by the 1988 discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katanda, one of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, and which is believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish. http: humanorigins.si.edu evidence behavior katanda-bone-harpoon
and social organization are formed largely from Goodall's ongoing 50-year Gombe research study. The area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 80,000 years ago
, was a member of the Bateke. Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Brennan Christian Today Democratic Republic of Congo The capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, has long been a major home for pan-African styles of popular music like rumba (African Rumba), soukous and kwassa kwassa. Long-time performers on the Kinsasha scene include Profetzion
are found in the tin mines of Bolivia, where it is found in hydrothermal veins. Rwanda has a nascent cassiterite mining industry. Fighting over cassiterite deposits (particularly in Walikale) is a major cause of the conflict waged in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
-12-22 language and in March 2010, Affleck announced the formation of the Eastern Congo Initiative, which he founded as "the first U.S. based advocacy and grant-making initiative wholly focused on working with and for the people of eastern Congo." <
, MPLA, and UNITA) - and their guerrilla armies. For most of the conflict, the three rebel groups spent as much time fighting each other as they did fighting the Portuguese. For example, during the 1961 ''Ferreira Incident'', a UPA patrol captured 21 MPLA insurgents as prisoners, then summarily executed them on 9 October, sparking open confrontation between the two insurgent groups. Strategy also played a role, as a successful hearts and minds campaign led by Francisco da Costa
. It is still expanding in the vast continent of Africa. * Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, ''Pan troglodytes vellerosus'' (now also known as ''Pan troglodytes ellioti''), in Nigeria and Cameroon; * Eastern chimpanzee, ''Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii'', in the Central African Republic, the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Zambia. Field study Jane Goodall undertook the first long-term field study of the common chimpanzee, begun in Tanzania at Gombe Stream National Park in 1960. Other long-term study sites begun in 1960 include A. Kortlandt in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and Junichiro Itani in Mahale Mountains National Park in Tanzania. Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the
capital, Brazzaville. The regional capital is Kinkala. Principal towns include Boko (Boko, Republic of the Congo), Kindamba and Mindouli (Mindouli, Pool). The Pool region is currently the home of a low-level insurgency led by Pasteur Ntumi. The region is named after the Pool Malebo (formerly Stanley Pool), which is a particularly wide stretch of the Congo River. The 464th received the Mackay Trophy for the dramatic RED DRAGON DRAGON ROUGE and BLACK DRAGON DRAGON
in a controversial human zoo exhibit at New York City's Bronx Zoo in 1906. Benga had been freed from slave traders in the Congo by the missionary Samuel Phillips Verner, who had taken him to Missouri. At the Bronx Zoo, Benga had free run of the grounds before and after he was "exhibited" in the zoo's Monkey House. The display was intended to promote the contemporary concepts of human evolution and scientific racism. ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION Congolese (Democratic Republic of the Congo) pygmy (pygmies) DATE OF BIRTH c. 1883 Early career Makélelé was born in Kinshasa, Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). "Makelele" means "noises" in Lingala, Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the
title Languages list
(Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo) Category:Countries in Africa Category:Bantu countries and territories Category:French-speaking countries and territories Category:Member states of La Francophonie Category:Member states of the African Union Category:Least developed countries Category:Republics Category:Swahili-speaking countries and territories Category:Member states of the United Nations Category:Central African countries Category:States and territories established in 1997 '''Angola''', officially the '''Republic of Angola''' ( ; This is the pronunciation in Portugal; in Angola it is pronounced as it is written Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in southern Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city. The exclave (Enclave and exclave) province of Cabinda (Cabinda Province) has borders with the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
During this period of time, the Bantu established a number of political units ("kingdoms", "empires") in most parts of what today is Angola. The best known of these is the Kingdom of the Kongo that had its centre in the northwest of contemporary Angola, but included important regions in the west of present day Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo as well as in southern Gabon. It established trade routes with other trading cities and civilizations up and down the coast of southwestern and West Africa and even with the Great Zimbabwe Mutapa Empire, but engaged in little or no transoceanic trade.
The Angolan Armed Forces (AAF) is headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. There are three divisions—the Army (Exército), Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MGA), and National Air Force (National Air Force of Angola) (Força Aérea Nacional, FAN). Total manpower is about 110,000. Its equipment includes Russian-manufactured fighters, bombers, and transport planes. There are also Brazilian-made EMB-312 Tucano for training role, Czech-made L-39 for training and bombing role, Czech Zlin for training role and a variety of western made aircraft such as C-212\Aviocar, Sud Aviation Alouette III, etc. A small number of AAF personnel are stationed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville).
Angola is bordered by Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north-east, and the South Atlantic Ocean to the west. The exclave of Cabinda (Cabinda (province)) also borders the Republic of the Congo to the north. Angola's capital, Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the northwest of the country.
It is estimated that Angola was host to 12,100 refugees and 2,900 asylum seekers by the end of 2007. 11,400 of those refugees were originally from the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) who arrived in the 1970s. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. "World Refugee Survey 2008". Available Online at: http: www.refugees.org countryreports.aspx?id 2117. pp.37 As of 2008 there were an estimated 400,000 DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo) migrant workers, World Refugee Survey 2008 – Angola, UNHCR. NB: This figure is highly doubtful, as it makes no clear distinction between migrant workers, refugees, and immigrants. at least 30,000 Portuguese (Portuguese people), Angola, U.S. Department of State. NB: Estimations in 2011 put that number at 100,000, and add about 150,000 to 200,000 other Europeans and Latin Americans. and more than 20,000 Chinese (Overseas Chinese) living in Angola. ANGOLA and reconstructing the country: Prevention made in China, PlusNews, 12 November 2008 Prior to independence in 1975, Angola had a community of approximately 350,000 Portuguese; See the carefully researched article by Gerald Bender & Stanley Yoder, ''Whites in Angola on the Eve of Independence. The Poitics of Numbers'', in: ''Africa Today'', 21 (4), 1974, pp. 23–27. Flight from Angola, ''The Economist '', 16 August 1975 puts the number at 500,000, but this is an estimate lacking appropriate sources. currently, there are just under 100,000 who are registered with the consulates, and increasing due to the debt crisis in Portugal.
A small number of FAA personnel are stationed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville). A presence during the unrest in the Ivory Coast, 2010 2011, were not officially confirmed. Angola is basically interested in the participation of the FAA operations of the African Union and has formed special units for this purpose.
From 1975 to 1989, Angola was aligned with the Eastern bloc, in particular the Soviet Union, Libya, and Cuba. Since then, it has focused on improving relationships with Western countries (Western world), cultivating links with other Portuguese-speaking countries, and asserting its own national interests in Central Africa through military and diplomatic intervention. In 1993, it established formal diplomatic relations with the United States. It has entered the Southern African Development Community as a vehicle for improving ties with its largely Anglophone neighbors to the south. Zimbabwe and Namibia joined Angola in its military intervention in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where Angolan troops remain in support of the Joseph Kabila government. It also has intervened in the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) to support the existing government in that country.