What is Damascus known for?

fiction novels

), Maaber Publisher, Damascus, 2009, translated by Mohamed Ali Abdel Jalil; Stewart is the bestselling author of many romantic suspense and historical fiction novels, which were well received by critics due to her skillful story telling and enchanting prose. Her novels are also known for their well-crafted settings, many in England but also in such exotic locations as Damascus and the Greek islands, as well as Spain, France, Austria, etc. ref>


and on to Amman, Maan, Medina and to Mecca. Built by the Ottomans with German assistance for the transportation of pilgrims, the railway was an important element in the Ottoman Army's lines of communication, as well as a strategically important support for both defensive and offensive operations; the station buildings being solidly built of stone and capable of being strong defensive positions. Southern Palestine Campaign begins Popularly known as the Palestine campaign, the term refers

powerful presence

the major Muslim cities (Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, and Baghdad), many Balkan (Balkan peninsula) provinces (reaching present day Croatia and Austria), and most of North Africa. His expansion into Europe had given the Ottoman Turks a powerful presence in the European balance of power. Indeed, such was the perceived threat of the Ottoman Empire under the reign of Suleiman that ambassador Busbecq (Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq) warned of Europe's imminent conquest: "On the Turks' side are the resources of a mighty empire, strength unimpaired, habituation to victory, endurance of toil, unity, discipline, frugality and watchfulness... Can we doubt what the result will be?...When the Turks have settled with Persia, they will fly at our throats supported by the might of the whole East; how unprepared we are I dare not say." Lewis, 10. The Middle Ages Despite its spiritual importance, in political terms Arabia soon became a peripheral region of the Islamic world, in which the most important medieval Islamic states (Caliphate) were based at various times in such far away cities as Damascus, Baghdad, and Cairo. Most of what was to become Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule soon after the initial Muslim conquests, and remained a shifting patchwork of tribes and tribal emirates and confederations of varying durability. Encyclopædia Britannica Online: History of Arabia retrieved 18 Jan. 2011 Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Saudi Arabia History Syria is divided into fourteen governorates, or ''muhafazat'' (singular: ''muhafazah''). The governorates are divided into a total of sixty districts, or ''manatiq'' (sing. ''mintaqah''), which are further divided into sub-districts, or ''nawahi'' (sing. ''nahiya''). The capital Damascus is the second largest city in Syria, and the metropolitan area is a governorate (Damascus Governorate) on its own. Aleppo (population 2,301,570) in northern Syria is the largest city. Latakia along with Tartus are Syria's main ports on the Mediterranean sea. WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق

century political

in Paris. During his stay Aflaq was influenced by the works of Henri Bergson, and met his longtime collaborator Salah al-Din al-Bitar, a fellow Syrian nationalist. Aflaq founded an Arab Student

regular presence

by the sovereign was not so strong as to prevent frequent local rebellions and inter-city struggles. Under Thutmose III (1479–1426 BC) and Amenhotep II (1427–1400 BC), the regular presence of the strong hand of the Egyptian ruler and his armies kept the Amorites and Canaanites sufficiently loyal. Nevertheless, Thutmose III reported a new and troubling element in the population. Habiru or (in Egyptian) 'Apiru, are reported for the first time. These seem to have been mercenaries (mercenary), brigands (brigandage) or outlaws, who may have at one time led a settled life, but with bad-luck or due to the force of circumstances, contributed a rootless element of the population, prepared to hire themselves to whichever local mayor, king or princeling prepared to undertake their support. Although Habiru WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق


, take the stairs beside the police station and follow the sign) serves excellent mezze No alcohol during Ramadan. *'''Nadi al Sharq''', close to hotel Four seasons, this is the best Indian in Damascus. They do an excellent set meal for 600 S.P. *'''Rotana Cafe''', a theme cafe built at the end of Damascus Boulevard by the Four Seasons. It is part of the Rotana Audio Visuals company which is probably the most famous music records company in the Arabic world. The head of Rotana is Prince Walid bin Talal. The food is good, as well as the hookah The view from this cafe is great, Mount Kassyoun is visible and the rest of Beirut Street. There is also a souviner shop and a music store located on the first level. *'''Cafe Trattoria''' is located right by the United Colors of Benneton in Abu Rummaneh. It is a beautiful pavement cafe that offers Italian food, hookas, and western coffees, as well as the traditional Turkish Coffee. * WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق

movie role

, is run by the Jackal. Geoffrey goes to the encampment seeking help but is killed by the Jackal as the remaining duo takes a rest in a nearby enclave on their westerly direction toward civilization. ''Paradise (1982) An Awakening in the Desert, New York Times, By Vincent Canby, Published May 10, 1982'' Retrieved 7 5 08 Image:PhoebeWillieParadise1982.JPG 120px left thumb Phoebe Cates (first movie role) & Willie Aames headline the main cast in ''Paradise'' (1982

scale campaign

and entered a dark age. Nonetheless, it remained the economic and cultural center of the Near East as well as the Arameaen resistance. In 727, a revolt took place in the city, but was put down by Assyrian forces. After Assyria went on a wide-scale campaign of quelling revolts throughout Syria, Damascus became totally subjugated by their rule. A positive effect of this was stability for the city and benefits from the spice and incense trade with Arabia. However, Assyrian authority was dwindling

frequent criticism

. 2. He joined the Committee of Union and Progress, with membership number 322, although in later years he became known for his opposition to, and frequent criticism of, the policies pursued by the CUP leadership. On 22 June 1908, he was appointed the Inspector of the Ottoman Railways in Eastern Rumelia (''Doğu Rumeli Bölgesi Demiryolları Müfettişi''). In July 1908, he played a role in the Young Turk Revolution which seized power from Sultan Abdülhamid II and restored the constitutional monarchy (Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)). He was only eleven years old when his father died in 1174. As-Salih came under the protection of the eunuch (Eunuch (court official)) Gumushtugin and was taken to Aleppo, while Nur ad-Din's officers competed for supremacy. In Egypt, Saladin recognized as-Salih as his lord, although he in fact was eager to unite Egypt and Syria under his own personal rule. Saladin entered Damascus in 1174 and declared himself to be the true regent for as-Salih, and in 1176 he defeated the Zengids (Zengid dynasty) outside the city, married Nur ad-Din's widow Ismat ad-Din Khatun, and was recognized as ruler of Syria. As-Salih died in 1181. http: islamiccoins.ancients.info Zangids ZangidsHistory.htm The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades, Extracted and Translated from the Chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisi. H.A.R. Gibb, 1932 (reprint, Dover Publications, 2002) Biography In 1221 he became a hostage at the end of the Fifth Crusade, while John of Brienne became a hostage of as-Salih's father Al-Kamil, until Damietta was reconstructed and restored to Egypt. In 1232 he was given Hisn Khayfa (Hasankeyf) in the Jazirah (al Jazira, Mesopotamia) (now part of Turkey), which his father had captured from the Ortoqids. In 1234 his father sent him to rule Damascus, removing him from the succession in Egypt after suspecting him of conspiring against him with the Mamluks. His uncle as-Salih Ismail soon expelled him from Damascus, and he fled to the Jazirah, where he allied with the Khwarezmians. In 1238 al-Kamil died and was succeeded by his son Al-Adil II, as-Salih's brother; by 1240 as-Salih had overthrown him and taken control of Egypt. In 1244 the Khwarezmians sacked Jerusalem, which had been handed over to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor by al-Kamil during the Sixth Crusade. Later that year as-Salih and the Khwarezmians defeated as-Salih's uncle in Syria, who had allied with the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, at the Battle of La Forbie. In 1245 as-Salih captured Damascus, and was awarded the title of sultan by the caliph al-Musta'sim in Baghdad. The next year the combined forces of the Ayyubids defeated the unruly Khwarezmians, who no longer recognized as-Salih as their lord. Auda’s tribesmen were reputedly the finest fighters in the desert WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق

numerous contributions

WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق


'''Damascus''' ( ''). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities (List of cities by time of continuous habitation) in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 (2009 est.).

Located in southwestern Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people (2004). Central Bureau of Statistics Syria Syria census 2004 Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range above sea-level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate due to the rain shadow effect. The Barada River (Barada) flows through Damascus.

First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. During Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule, the city decayed completely while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Today, it is the seat of the central government and all of the government ministries.

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