Czechoslovakia

What is Czechoslovakia known for?


record books

made its first step on the football scene, with the friendly match against selection of Zemun that ended 4–2. Florijan Matekalo entered the record books as the first goal scorer in the history of Partizan, while Franjo Glazer was the first manager. Just three weeks later, Partizan went on the first of many international tours, travelling to Czechoslovakia where they beat the selection of Slovak Army (Military of Slovakia) with 3–1. At the time, just months after the WWII in Yugoslavia ended, no organized football competition was yet restored, so Partizan played only friendly games and tournaments both home and abroad. Foundation The Comecon was founded in 1949 by the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. The primary factors in Comecon's formation appear to have been Joseph Stalin's desire to cooperate and strengthen the international socialist relationship at an economic level with the lesser states of Central Europe, and which were now, increasingly, cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe. Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 536. Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland had remained interested in Marshall aid despite the requirements for a convertible currency and market economies (market economy). These requirements, which would inevitably have resulted in stronger economic ties to Western Europe than to the Soviet Union, were absolutely unacceptable to Stalin, who in July 1947, ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme. This has been described as "the moment of truth" in the post-World War II division of Europe. Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 534–5. thumb right 200px Serbian officers in the company of a British nurse on the Salonika front (File:Mihailovic at the Thessaloniki Front.jpg). Second lieutenant Draža Mihailović (kneeling). Born in Ivanjica, Kingdom of Serbia, Mihailović was the son of a Court clerk. Orphaned at seven, he was raised by his paternal uncle in Belgrade. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), p. 13 Both his uncles were military officers and he himself joined the Serbian military academy in October 1910. He fought as a cadet in the Balkan Wars 1912–1913. At the end of the First Balkan War, he was awarded the Silver Medal of valor. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 26-27 At the end of the Second Balkan War, during which he mainly led operations along the Albanian (Provisional Government of Albania) border, he was given the rank of Second Lieutenant as the top soldier in his class, ranked sixth at the Serbian military academy. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 26-27 He served in World War I and together with the Serbian Army marched through Albania (Principality of Albania) in 1915 during the long retreat (Serbian Campaign (World War I)). He later received several decorations for his achievements on the Salonica front (Salonika front). He was appointed to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes' Royal guard but had to leave his position in 1920 after taking part in a public argument between Communist and nationalist sympathizers. He was sent to Skopje. In 1921, he was admitted to the Superior Military Academy of Belgrade. In 1923, having finished his studies, he was promoted as an assistant to the military staff (Staff (military)), along with the fifteen other best alumni of his promotion. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 45-49 In 1930, he was made a Lieutenant Colonel: that same year, he spent three months in Paris, following classes at the École Militaire. Some authors have asserted that he met and befriended Charles de Gaulle during his stay, although there is no proof of this. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 55-56 He was appointed in 1935 in Sofia, as a military attaché to the Kingdom of Bulgaria. On September 6, 1935, he achieved the rank of Colonel. Mihailović then came in contact with members of Zveno and considered taking part in a plot aiming to provoke Boris III (Boris III of Bulgaria)'s abdication and set up an alliance between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, but, being untrained as a spy, he was soon identified by Bulgarian authorities and was asked to leave the country. He was then appointed as an attaché in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 63-65 After the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945, the town was placed under Polish administration according to the Potsdam Conference. Since then it remains as part of Poland. The German (Germans) inhabitants of the town were expelled (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) and replaced with Poles, many of whom had themselves been expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Other Polish settlers came from war-devastated central Poland. In May 1945 Czechoslovakia tried to annex the area on behalf of Czech (Czechs) minority (living especially in the western part of the land, called Czech Corner) and historical claims, but on pressure of Soviet union ceased military operations and Czech minority was expelled to Germany and Czechoslovakia. After end of World War II, in June 1945, army of Czechoslovakia briefly entered into the then-German Ratibor and Czechoslovakia officially claimed the area of Racibórz and Głubczyce (''Ratibořsko'' and ''Hlubčicko'') because of having a substantial Czech minority. (See border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia.) At the same time the expulsion of Germans (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) by both Czech and Polish militias started and the region was virtually ethnically cleansed from Germans, as the town, came to lie far into the territory of the post-war Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland) as defined at the Potsdam Conference. The German (Germans) CDU (Christian Democratic Union (Germany)) politician Herbert Hupka at the end of his life promoted reconciliation between the former German inhabitants, including himself, and the new Polish settlers and administration of Racibórz (Ratibor). '''Stanislav Grof''' (born July 1, 1931 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a psychiatrist, one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a pioneering researcher into the use of non-ordinary states of consciousness (Altered state of consciousness) for purposes of exploring, healing, and obtaining growth and insights into the human psyche (Psyche (psychology)). Grof received the VISION 97 award granted by the Foundation of Dagmar and Václav Havel in Prague on October 5, 2007. *July 18–August 9 – Canada Post workers represented by the Canadian Union of Postal Workers go on strike *August 20 – Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia to end the "Prague Spring" of political liberalization. Thousands of refugees flee to Canada. *September 26 – Daniel Johnson, Sr, Premier of Quebec, dies in office birth_date


brilliant play


accurate+scholarship

was in default. The association of the city with Hitler's childhood warranted an allusion in a poem by W.H. Auden, September 1, 1939: "Accurate scholarship can Unearth the whole offense From Luther until now That has driven a culture mad, Find what occurred at Linz...." To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his "home town", Kershaw, Ian (Ian Kershaw). ''Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris''. New York: Norton, 1998. p.15 and envisioned


title hard

as '''Zdenka''', '''Zdeňka Popová''' or '''Zdenka Novotna'''. She was ''Penthouse'' (Penthouse magazine)'s Pet of the Year (List of Penthouse Pets of the Year) for 2001.


played role

: www.haaretz.com news montenegro-air-base-that-played-role-in-israel-s-birth-under-threat-1.236959 Montenegro air base that played role in Israel's birth under threat During the SFRY era, the airport was a notable parachuting training center. Also interested in the cosmic work were Tomáš Masaryk (who became the first President of Czechoslovakia), the poets Helene Vacaresco and Anna de Noailles, Dr Serge Voronoff, the occultist Edouard Schure, the psychologist


years playing

1982 1983, playing for HC České Budějovice, when he was only 16. During an army duty spent two years playing for Slovakian club HC Dukla Trenčín. He played on 1992 Bronze Medal winning Olympic ice hockey (Ice hockey at the Olympic Games) team for Czechoslovakia and also on Bronze Medal winning 1993 World Championships (1993 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships). Drafted 6th round draft choice of the Edmonton Oilers in 1987. Radek earned a university degree

and is qualified to be a teacher. He left professional ice hockey in 2000. '''Radek Ťoupal''' (born August 16, 1966 in Písek, Czechoslovakia) is a former ice hockey player. His debut in Czechoslovak ice hockey league came in season 1982 1983, playing for HC České Budějovice, when he was only 16. During an army duty spent two years playing for Slovakian club HC Dukla Trenčín. He played on 1992 Bronze Medal winning Olympic ice hockey (Ice hockey at the Olympic Games) team

the next two years playing with the Canadian National Team. He was a member of the Canadian Olympic Hockey team in the 1988 Winter Olympics held in Calgary, Alberta. Canada would end up missing the medal podium and finished in 4th place. Although Canada lost their first game in the medal round, Zalapski played a key role in the team's victories over West Germany and Czechoslovakia. He is most well known for his 11 year career in the NHL (National Hockey League) playing for the Pittsburgh Penguins, Hartford Whalers, Calgary Flames, Montreal Canadiens, and Philadelphia Flyers. He has since played for teams in hockey leagues in Germany, Italy, and most recently Switzerland. Sokol attended the private schools of Eugen Krón in Košice and Gustáv Mallý in Bratislava, as well as the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague, where he studied under Max Švabinský and Tavik Frantisek Simon. In Czechoslovakia, he became a member in the SČUG Hollar, an association of Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) graphic artist. Following a brief period of study with František Kupka in Paris, he accepted an invitation from the Mexican Ministry of Culture and Education to teach his work. He became a professor of graphic techniques at the Escuela de las Artes del Libro and at the University of Mexico City from 1937 to 1941. birth_date


performance skills

reluctant performance skills. Whelan recalls that while touring Jordan in 1987 "we played a great big theatre in Amman in front of the Crown Prince. We’d been a shambolic indie band, turning our back to the audience. Suddenly we found we had to put on a show." http: www.ft.com cms s 2 1ffb0056-6a59-11dd-83e8-0000779fd18c.html#axzz1NSkirvMu "Fathers of fusion" - article on Transglobal Underground by David Honigman, published in ''The Financial


study military

in Czechoslovakia After arriving in Czechoslovakia in early 1920, Gajda was given a pension and the rank of General, but was not assigned a command. In November 1920 he was sent to study military theory at the ''École supérieure de guerre'' in France. He also studied agriculture at the ''Institute technique de practique agricole''. 1928-1939 Straż Graniczna was founded in 1928. During the times of the Second Polish Republic, it was responsible for northern, western and southern border of Poland (with Germany, Free City of Gdańsk, sea border, Czechoslovakia and Romania). Eastern border, often raided by military bands supported by Soviet Union was under the jurisdiction of a separate, military formation (Border Defence Corps, ''Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza'' - KOP). Plot summary A secret meeting is held in order to determine the method by which the Nazi government (Nazi Germany) is to implement Adolf Hitler's policy — that the German (Germany) sphere of influence should be free of Jews, including those in the occupied terrorities of Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Czechoslovakia and France. As the film opens, various officials from different German agencies arrive and mingle at a lakeside villa in Wannsee, where SS-Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel) Adolf Eichmann, SS Officer for Jewish Affairs, has meticulously planned the meeting. Among those present: * '''Wilhelm Stuckart''', a lawyer representing the Interior Ministry and co-author of the anti-semitic Nuremberg laws Václav Havel Last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic - Piłsudski next contemplated a federation or alliance with the Baltic (Baltic states) and Balkan states. This plan envisioned a Central European union including Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Scandinavia, the Baltic states, Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Greece — thus stretching not only west-east from the Baltic (Baltic Sea) to the Black Sea, but north-south from the Arctic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. This project also failed: Poland was distrusted by Czechoslovakia and Lithuania; and while it had relatively good relations with the other countries, they had tensions with their neighbors, making it virtually impossible to create in Central Europe a large block of countries that all had good relations with each other. In the end, in place of a large federation, only a Polish-Romanian alliance was established, beginning in 1921. Hugh Ragsdale, ''The Soviets, the Munich Crisis, and the Coming of World War II'', Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ISBN 0-521-83030-3 As Germany annexed Austria and moved against Czechoslovakia, Italy saw itself becoming a second-rate member of the Axis. The imminent birth of an Albanian royal child meanwhile threatened to give King Zog a lasting dynasty. After Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia (March 15, 1939) without notifying Mussolini in advance, the Italian dictator decided to proceed with his own annexation of Albania. Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III criticized the plan to take Albania as an unnecessary risk. On April 7, 1939 Italy invaded Albania (Italian invasion of Albania), in a short campaign the country was occupied and joined Italy in personal union. In 1944, upon completing his final year at Bard, Hecht was drafted into the 97th Infantry Division (97th Infantry Division (United States)) and was sent to the battlefields in Europe (European Theatre of World War II). He saw a great deal of combat in Germany, France, and Czechoslovakia. However, his most significant experience occurred on April 23, 1945. On this day Hecht's division helped liberate Flossenbürg concentration camp. Hecht was ordered to interview French prisoners in the hope of gathering evidence on the camp's commanders. Years later, Hecht said of this experience, The place, the suffering, the prisoners' accounts were beyond comprehension. For years after I would wake shrieking. '''Nicholas Goldschmidt''',


annual national

name "Warhola" One reflection

on Pražský hrad at about 570 metres in length and an average of about 130 metres wide. '''Karel Gott''' (born July 14, 1939 in Plzeň) is a Czech (Czech Republic) Schlager singer (Singing), and an amateur painter. He is considered as the most successful male singer in former Czechoslovakia and currently in the Czech Republic; he has being voted the Most Favorite Male Singer in the annual national pool Český slavík ( ) in total thirty-six

, to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, and to support Soviet garrisons. The Hungarian National Bank in 1946 estimated the cost of reparations as "between 19 and 22 per cent of the annual national income." In spite of this, after the highest historical rate of inflation in world history, the new, stable currency was successfully in August 1946 on the basis of the plans of the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party. While consumer goods production was still


album track

of the album track "How Can You Expect to Be Taken Seriously?" by Brothers in Rhythm. This was followed by the duo's first world tour. Named ''Performance'', the tour kicked off in Tokyo, on 11 March 1991. The tour also visited the United States, Canada, France, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. The shows were designed by David Alden and David

Czechoslovakia

'''Czechoslovakia''' (or '''Czecho-Slovakia'''; ) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary), until its peaceful dissolution (Dissolution of Czechoslovakia) into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not ''de facto'' exist but its government-in-exile (Czechoslovak government-in-exile) continued to operate. On 29 June 1945, a treaty was signed between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Ukraine to the USSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic).

From 1948 to 1990 Czechoslovakia was part of the communist Warsaw Pact and had a command or planned economy (command economy). A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when several other Warsaw Pact countries invaded (Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia). In 1989, as communism was ending all over Europe, Czechoslovakians peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; socialist price controls were removed after a period of preparation. A few years afterwards, in 1993 the country was separated into two sovereign states, again peacefully.

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