scolding of communist parties by the Cominform at Szklarska Poręba in September 1947, Rudolf Slánský returned to Prague with a plan for the final seizure of power, including the StB's elimination of party enemies and purging of dissidents. Thereafter, Soviet Ambassador Valerian Zorin arranged the Czechoslovak coup d'état (Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948), followed by the occupation
election anywhere in Europe during the Cold War era, but it was of only two free elections ever held in the Soviet bloc. Klement Gottwald, leader of the KSČ, became Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia. However, thereafter, the Soviet Union was disappointed that the government failed to eliminate "bourgeois" influence in the army, expropriate industrialists and large landowners and eliminate parties outside of the "National Front".
. On 11 July 1960, the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia was promulgated, changing the name of the country from the "''Czechoslovak Republic''" to the "''Czechoslovak Socialist Republic''". History :''Main articles: History of Czechoslovakia, History of Czechoslovakia 1948–1989 (History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989)) and 1989–1992 (History of Czechoslovakia (1989–1992))'' thumb left 200px Czechoslovakia in 1969. (File:Czechoslovakia.png) With the exception
). Private ownership of any publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden, although churches and other organizations published small periodicals and newspapers. Even with this informational monopoly in the hands of organizations under KSČ control, all publications were reviewed (Censorship) by the government's ''Office for Press and Information''. Heads of state and government *List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia *List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia
-Moravians from Tišňov. On (Mount) Křížová hora arouse a military training ground, (1960 demolition of the devasted small wooden pilgrimage church was carried out), used by the Red Army 1969-1990, which maintained a military foothold in all of the Warsaw Pact states (Warsaw Pact), such as the ČSSR (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic). By the administrative reform of 1960 Červená Voda was greatly enlarged by affiliating its surrounding villages. Since 2003 the town is part of the newly formed
personnel who interrogated him already knew this, and it becomes clear to Smiley that the operation was a trap set by Moscow Center to discredit Control and remove the threat to their mole 'Gerald'. The original stadium dates from the First Republic (Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)) between the World Wars and served as a venue for Sokol displays of synchronized gymnastics on a massive scale. It was later used for large displays during the communist era (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic). Performances with several hundred gymnasts making various complex formations and exercising identically while accompanied by tunes from traditional folk music attracted the attention of many visitors. Each time, among the widely popular shows were those of young well-trained recruits who wore only boxer shorts while on the display or women dancing in miniskirts. The groups of gymnasts (unlike the soldiers, who were ordered to practise and participate) were put together from keen local athletic association members who regularly trained for the show throughout the year prior to the event, which repeated every five years. The name of the performance, Spartakiáda, referred to the power and strength of the slave uprising led by Spartacus (Third Servile War).
eliminated. A number of ministries, such as Education, were formally transferred to the two republics. However, the centralized political control by the Communist Party severely limited the effects of federalization. The 1970s saw the rise of the dissident movement in Czechoslovakia, represented (among others) by Václav Havel. The movement sought greater political participation and expression in the face of official disapproval, making itself felt by limits on work activities (up to a ban
eliminated. A number of ministries, such as Education, were formally transferred to the two republics. However, the centralized political control by the Communist Party severely limited the effects of federalization. The 1970s saw the rise of the dissident movement in Czechoslovakia, represented (among others) by Václav Havel. The movement sought greater political participation and expression in the face of official disapproval, making itself felt by limits on work activities (up to a ban on any professional employment and refusal of higher education to the dissident's children), police harassment and even prison time. In late 1989, the country became a democratic country again through the Velvet Revolution. In 1992, the federal parliament decided to dissolve (Dissolution of Czechoslovakia) the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as of 1 January 1993. Geography The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was bounded on the West by West Germany and East Germany, on the North by the People's Republic of Poland, on the East by the Soviet Union and on the South by the People's Republic of Hungary and Austria. Administrative divisions
JL title Political abuse of psychiatry journal Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum year 2000 issue 399 pages 13–15 pmid 10794019 url http: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov pubmed 10794019 volume 399 From the 1960s up to 1986, political abuse of psychiatry was reported to be systematic in the Soviet Union, and to surface on occasion in other Eastern European countries such as Romania (Communist Romania), Hungary (People's Republic of Hungary), Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic), and Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia).
also Communist Party of Czechoslovakia#Leaders International agreements and membership Active participant in Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), Warsaw Pact, UN and its specialized agencies, and Non-Aligned Movement; signatory of conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe See also * Communist Czechoslovakia's Government structure (Government structure of Communist Czechoslovakia)
The '''Czechoslovak Socialist Republic''' (Czech (Czech language) Slovak (Slovak language): ''Československá socialistická republika'') was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until shortly after the Velvet Revolution in 1989. It has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Rao, B. V. (2006), ''History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002: A.D. 1789-2002'', Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Following the coup d'état of February 1948 (Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948), when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the backing of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The traditional name ''Československá republika'' (''Czechoslovak Republic'') was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia. Several other state symbols were changed in 1960.