Congress Poland

What is Congress Poland known for?


historical landscapes

to travel throughout the partitioned Republic of Both Nations (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and document its historical landmarks and architecture. During his summer trips throughout the country he made more than 1000 sketches depicting various towns, cities and historical landscapes. He also depicted landscapes, urban and rural architecture, churches and palaces of partitioned Commonwealth (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) - regions of today's Belarus, Lithuania, Poland

to Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)), Greater Poland and Royal Prussia and finally in 1880 he portrayed the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland). Approximately 260 of his sketches were turned into lithographies by Alojzy Misierowicz and published in Warsaw by Maksymilian Fajans in a series of 8 albums under the collective title ''Album of Polish Historical Landscapes'' ( '''Bruno Jasieński''' (


historic view

;pg PA116&dq ban+on+the+use+of+Polish+language+Russian+Empire&as_brr 3&ei LIpYR9PSIoboiQHj6ajICA&sig yHaaJ4jL_4t2glCTTULoeDSUSRE Google Print, p.116 This however did not stop the Polonization effort undertaken by the Polish patriotic leadership of the Vilna educational district even within the Russian Empire. Tomas Venclova, Four Centuries of Enlightenment. A Historic View of the University of Vilnius, 1579–1979, ''Lituanus'', Volume 27, No.1 — Summer 1981 Rev. Stasys Yla, The Clash of Nationalities at the University of Vilnius, ''Lituanus'', Volume 27, No.1 — Summer 1981 From January 6-January 11, 1919 a Polish attack by 5,000 newly recruited forces from formerly Russian Poland (Congress Poland) commanded by Jan Romer was repulsed by Western Ukrainian forces near Rava-Ruska, north of Lviv. Only a small number of troops together with Romer were able to break through to Lviv after suffering heavy losses. Between January 11 and January 13, Polish forces attempted to dislodge Ukrainian troops besieging Lviv from the south while at the same time Ukrainian troops attempted another general assault on Lviv. Both efforts failed. In February 1919, Polish troops attempting to capture Sambir were defeated by the Ukrainian defenders with heavy losses, although the poor mobility of the Ukrainian troops prevented them from taking advantage of this victory. thumb left 200px Dinezon and Peretz (Image:Dinezon and Peretz.jpg) Born in the ''shtetl'' of Zamość, Lublin Governorate, Congress Poland, and raised in an Orthodox Jewish (Orthodox Judaism) home he gave his allegiance at age fifteen to the Haskalah, the Jewish enlightenment. He began a deliberate plan of secular learning, reading books in Polish, Russian (Russian language), German (German language), and French (French language). He planned to go to the theologically liberal Rabbinical school at Zhytomyr, but concern for his mother's feelings got him to stay on in Zamość. He married, through an arranged marriage, the daughter of Gabriel Judah Lichtenfeld, whom Liptzin describes as a "minor poet and philosopher". Peretz died in the city of Warsaw, Congress Poland, in 1915. There are streets in Zamość and in Warsaw named after him ('ulica Icchaka Lejba Pereca', in Polish). He was buried at the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery, a huge crowd attending the burial ceremony. death_date 3 January 1986 (aged 70) birth_place Ursynów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire death_place France '''Jan Eugeniusz Ludwig Zumbach''' (14 April 1915, Ursynów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire – 3 January 1986, France) was a Polish (Poland) fighter pilot who became an ace (fighter ace) during the Second World War (World War II). DATE OF BIRTH 14 April 1915 PLACE OF BIRTH Ursynów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire DATE OF DEATH 3 January 1986 thumb Three partitions of Poland (Image:Rzeczpospolita Rozbiory 3.png) '''Western Krai''' ( , who is 'making a mess' and 'forcing dozens of editors to fix it' at articles such as Congress Poland, History of Poland (1939–1945), Silesian Uprisings, August II the Strong or Polish contribution to World War II, just to name the few. Should we block him for 'general disruption' too? Blocking policy states that disruption is controversial reason to block (Wikipedia:Blocking_policy#Controversial_blocks) and should be avoided. I repeat again: if you want a block longer than 24h, than go to arbcom, who is definetly more neutral than any of us here.--Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus (User:Piotrus) Talk (User_talk:Piotrus) 04:08, 30 March 2006 (UTC) Polish Jacobins formed during the Great Sejm as an offshoot of the "Kołłątaj's Forge" (''Kuźnia Kołłątajska'') of Hugo Kołłątaj (hence their alternate name - Hugenots (''Hugoniści'') and later the Patriotic Party (''Stronnictwo Patriotyczne''). Polish Jacobins played a significant part in the preparation of the Warsaw Uprising (Warsaw Uprising (1794)) and Wilno Uprising (Wilno Uprising (1794)) during the Kościuszko Uprising. Under the name of Association of Citizens Offering Help and Assistance to National Magistrate for Good of the Homeland (''Zgromadzenie Obywateli Ofiarujących Pomoc i Posługę Magistraturom Narodowym w Celu Dobra Ojczyzny'') they formed a political club (based on French Jacobin Club) which became part of the provisional government of Poland (Temporary Provisional Council, ''Radza Zastępcza Tymczasowa''). For their support for lynching of supporters of the Targowica Confederation they have been abolished by Tadeusz Kościuszko, but as the Uprising neared its defeat they were reactivated under the name of Association for Supporting the Revolution and the Cracow Act (''Zgromadzenie dla Utrzymania Rewolucji i Aktu Krakowskiego''). After the third partition of Poland, many Jacobins emigrated and joined the Polish Legions in Italy. Many of those who remained in Poland took part in various conspirational organisations (Association of Polish Republicans, ''Towarzystwo Republikanów Polskich''). Eventually some prominent Jacobins (like Józef Zajączek) became part of the government of the Duchy of Warsaw and later Congress Poland). During the November Uprising they were reactivated as Patriotic Society (''Towarzystwo Patriotyczne''), founded by Joachim Lelewel. Polish Jacobins slowly became absorbed into other groups of the Great Emigration, although traces of their ideas were visible not only in the January Uprising but also in the Józef Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party (''Polska Partia Socjalistyczna''). Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society To meet the needs of Jewish pioneers living in Denver, Jewish Family Services, History. (#JFS) in 1872 Jacobs organized, and was president of, the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society. At that time, there were 300 Jewish pioneers in Denver, from Germany, Lithuania, Belorussia (Belarus), the Ukraine and Russian Poland (Congress Poland). They came to Colorado to cure their tuberculosis or to pursue opportunities and freedom previously been denied to them. Abrams (#Abrams), 7-8, 71. Historical background The novel was written by Sienkiewicz at the time of the Partitions of Poland between Russian, Austrian and German empires, with the majority of Poles living in the Russian (Russian Empire) occupation zone named Vistula Land, formerly Congress Poland. One of Sienkiewicz's goals in writing ''The Knights of the Cross'' was to encourage and strengthen Polish national confidence against the occupying powers. In order to circumvent the Russian censorship, he placed the plot in the Middle ages, around Prussia (region) and the State of the Teutonic Order. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949.


century nearby/

increased in number: in 1850 it equalled 4195 people, while in 1896 it reached 7391 people. In Comparison with nearby Koło (in 1896 population was 8800 inhabitants) or Turek (in 1896 population was 9900) Konin was still one of the smallest towns. Fastly developing branch of industry in Królestwo Kongresowe (Congress Poland) was undoubtedly textile industry. In the 19th century nearby Łódź became one of the most significant textile


national song

Warsaw national_motto ''Z nami Bóg!'' Съ нами Богъ! "God is with us!" national_anthem ''Pieśń narodowa za pomyślność króla (Polish national songs)'' "National Song to the King's Well-being" common_languages Polish (Polish language), Russian (Russian language) religion Roman Catholic (Roman Catholic Church), Eastern Catholic (Eastern Catholic Churches), Reformed (Polish Reformed Church), Evangelical (Evangelical Church of Augsburg Confession in Poland), Russian Orthodox (Russian Orthodox Church), Judaism currency Polish złoty, (1815–1841) Polish rubel (1841–1915) latd 52 latm 14 latNS N longd 21 longm 1 longEW E stat_area1 128500 stat_pop1 3300000 stat_year1 Varied , who is 'making a mess' and 'forcing dozens of editors to fix it' at articles such as Congress Poland, History of Poland (1939–1945), Silesian Uprisings, August II the Strong or Polish contribution to World War II, just to name the few. Should we block him for 'general disruption' too? Blocking policy states that disruption is controversial reason to block (Wikipedia:Blocking_policy#Controversial_blocks) and should be avoided. I repeat again: if you want a block longer than 24h, than go to arbcom, who is definetly more neutral than any of us here.--Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus (User:Piotrus) Talk (User_talk:Piotrus) 04:08, 30 March 2006 (UTC) Polish Jacobins formed during the Great Sejm as an offshoot of the "Kołłątaj's Forge" (''Kuźnia Kołłątajska'') of Hugo Kołłątaj (hence their alternate name - Hugenots (''Hugoniści'') and later the Patriotic Party (''Stronnictwo Patriotyczne''). Polish Jacobins played a significant part in the preparation of the Warsaw Uprising (Warsaw Uprising (1794)) and Wilno Uprising (Wilno Uprising (1794)) during the Kościuszko Uprising. Under the name of Association of Citizens Offering Help and Assistance to National Magistrate for Good of the Homeland (''Zgromadzenie Obywateli Ofiarujących Pomoc i Posługę Magistraturom Narodowym w Celu Dobra Ojczyzny'') they formed a political club (based on French Jacobin Club) which became part of the provisional government of Poland (Temporary Provisional Council, ''Radza Zastępcza Tymczasowa''). For their support for lynching of supporters of the Targowica Confederation they have been abolished by Tadeusz Kościuszko, but as the Uprising neared its defeat they were reactivated under the name of Association for Supporting the Revolution and the Cracow Act (''Zgromadzenie dla Utrzymania Rewolucji i Aktu Krakowskiego''). After the third partition of Poland, many Jacobins emigrated and joined the Polish Legions in Italy. Many of those who remained in Poland took part in various conspirational organisations (Association of Polish Republicans, ''Towarzystwo Republikanów Polskich''). Eventually some prominent Jacobins (like Józef Zajączek) became part of the government of the Duchy of Warsaw and later Congress Poland). During the November Uprising they were reactivated as Patriotic Society (''Towarzystwo Patriotyczne''), founded by Joachim Lelewel. Polish Jacobins slowly became absorbed into other groups of the Great Emigration, although traces of their ideas were visible not only in the January Uprising but also in the Józef Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party (''Polska Partia Socjalistyczna''). Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society To meet the needs of Jewish pioneers living in Denver, Jewish Family Services, History. (#JFS) in 1872 Jacobs organized, and was president of, the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society. At that time, there were 300 Jewish pioneers in Denver, from Germany, Lithuania, Belorussia (Belarus), the Ukraine and Russian Poland (Congress Poland). They came to Colorado to cure their tuberculosis or to pursue opportunities and freedom previously been denied to them. Abrams (#Abrams), 7-8, 71. Historical background The novel was written by Sienkiewicz at the time of the Partitions of Poland between Russian, Austrian and German empires, with the majority of Poles living in the Russian (Russian Empire) occupation zone named Vistula Land, formerly Congress Poland. One of Sienkiewicz's goals in writing ''The Knights of the Cross'' was to encourage and strengthen Polish national confidence against the occupying powers. In order to circumvent the Russian censorship, he placed the plot in the Middle ages, around Prussia (region) and the State of the Teutonic Order. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949.


special role

Alexander I's successor, Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia) was crowned King of Poland on 24 May 1829 in Warsaw, but he declined to swear to abide by the Constitution and continued to limit the independence of the Polish Kingdom. Nicholas' rule promoted the idea of Official Nationality, consisting of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality. In relation to Poles, those ideas meant assimilation: turning them into loyal Orthodox Russians. The principle of Orthodoxy was the result of the special role it played in Russian Empire, as the Church was in fact becoming a department of state, and other religions discriminated against; for instance, Papal bulls could not be read in the Kingdom of Poland without agreement from the Russian government. The rule of Nicholas also meant end


century nearby

increased in number: in 1850 it equalled 4195 people, while in 1896 it reached 7391 people. In Comparison with nearby Koło (in 1896 population was 8800 inhabitants) or Turek (in 1896 population was 9900) Konin was still one of the smallest towns. Fastly developing branch of industry in Królestwo Kongresowe (Congress Poland) was undoubtedly textile industry. In the 19th century nearby Łódź became one of the most significant textile


dark line

flag_type Merchant Ensign image_coat Grerat Coat of Arms of Congress Poland.svg symbol Coat of arms of Congress Poland image_map Karte kongresspolen.png image_map_caption Map of Congress Poland (in German (German language)), coloured in light green. Dark line shows borders of pre-partition Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. government_type Constitutional monarchy legislature Sejm (Sejm of Congress Poland) house1 Senate (Senate of Poland) house2 Chamber of Deputies capital


liberal early

aimed at weakening and destroying it had a significant impact on weakening Polonization of those regions. This was particularly visible in Russian-occupied Poland, where the Polish culture fared worst, as Russian administration gradually became strongly anti-Polish. After a brief and relatively liberal early period in the early 19th century, where Poland was allowed to retain some autonomy as the Congress Poland puppet state, Harold Nicolson, ''The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812-1822 '', Grove Press, 2001, ISBN 080213744X, Google Print, p.171 the situation for Polish culture steadily worsened. rank Generał broni birth_place Garbów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire death_place Batorowo, Poland DATE OF BIRTH October 25, 1867 PLACE OF BIRTH Garbów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire DATE OF DEATH October 26, 1937 1830-1848 Intensification of anti-Polish policies starts from 1830 onwards. As the November Uprising in Russian held Congress Poland begun Prussians closely worked with Russia in regards to stopping any Polish independence drive. A state of emergency was introduced in the Duchy, police surveillance started on large scale and 80.000 soldiers were moved into the area. The Prussian Foreign Minister openly declared that Prussia will oppose independence of Poland as it would mean territories taken in Partitions of Poland could be claimed by it. Russians soldiers fighting Poles received food supplies from Prussia, equipment and intelligence. While Prussian generals even wanted to march into Congress Poland, the threat of French intervention stopped those plans. The administrator of the region became Eduard Heinrich Flotwell a self-declared enemy of Poles, who openly called for Germanization and superiority of German culture over Polish people. Supported by Karl Grolman a Prussian general, a program was presented that envisioned removing Poles from all offices, courts, judiciary system, local administration, controlling the clergy, and making peasants loyal through enforced military service. Schools were to be Germanized as well. Those plans were supported by such prominent public figures such as Clauswitz, Gneisenau, Theodor von Schon, Wilhelm von Humbold. Volunteers from Berlin tried to join this legion and support the Polish struggle for liberty as it was expected, the Legion would fight against the Russian rule in Congress Poland, but these volunteers were rejected. , who is 'making a mess' and 'forcing dozens of editors to fix it' at articles such as Congress Poland , History of Poland (1939–1945), Silesian Uprisings, August II the Strong or Polish contribution to World War II, just to name the few. Should we block him for 'general disruption' too? Blocking policy states that disruption is controversial reason to block (Wikipedia:Blocking_policy#Controversial_blocks) and should be avoided. I repeat again: if you want a block longer than 24h, than go to arbcom, who is definetly more neutral than any of us here.--Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus (User:Piotrus) Talk (User_talk:Piotrus) 04:08, 30 March 2006 (UTC) Polish Jacobins formed during the Great Sejm as an offshoot of the "Kołłątaj's Forge" (''Kuźnia Kołłątajska'') of Hugo Kołłątaj (hence their alternate name - Hugenots (''Hugoniści'') and later the Patriotic Party (''Stronnictwo Patriotyczne''). Polish Jacobins played a significant part in the preparation of the Warsaw Uprising (Warsaw Uprising (1794)) and Wilno Uprising (Wilno Uprising (1794)) during the Kościuszko Uprising. Under the name of Association of Citizens Offering Help and Assistance to National Magistrate for Good of the Homeland (''Zgromadzenie Obywateli Ofiarujących Pomoc i Posługę Magistraturom Narodowym w Celu Dobra Ojczyzny'') they formed a political club (based on French Jacobin Club) which became part of the provisional government of Poland (Temporary Provisional Council, ''Radza Zastępcza Tymczasowa''). For their support for lynching of supporters of the Targowica Confederation they have been abolished by Tadeusz Kościuszko, but as the Uprising neared its defeat they were reactivated under the name of Association for Supporting the Revolution and the Cracow Act (''Zgromadzenie dla Utrzymania Rewolucji i Aktu Krakowskiego''). After the third partition of Poland, many Jacobins emigrated and joined the Polish Legions in Italy. Many of those who remained in Poland took part in various conspirational organisations (Association of Polish Republicans, ''Towarzystwo Republikanów Polskich''). Eventually some prominent Jacobins (like Józef Zajączek) became part of the government of the Duchy of Warsaw and later Congress Poland). During the November Uprising they were reactivated as Patriotic Society (''Towarzystwo Patriotyczne''), founded by Joachim Lelewel. Polish Jacobins slowly became absorbed into other groups of the Great Emigration, although traces of their ideas were visible not only in the January Uprising but also in the Józef Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party (''Polska Partia Socjalistyczna''). Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society To meet the needs of Jewish pioneers living in Denver, Jewish Family Services, History. (#JFS) in 1872 Jacobs organized, and was president of, the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society. At that time, there were 300 Jewish pioneers in Denver, from Germany, Lithuania, Belorussia (Belarus), the Ukraine and Russian Poland (Congress Poland). They came to Colorado to cure their tuberculosis or to pursue opportunities and freedom previously been denied to them. Abrams (#Abrams), 7-8, 71. Historical background The novel was written by Sienkiewicz at the time of the Partitions of Poland between Russian, Austrian and German empires, with the majority of Poles living in the Russian (Russian Empire) occupation zone named Vistula Land, formerly Congress Poland. One of Sienkiewicz's goals in writing ''The Knights of the Cross'' was to encourage and strengthen Polish national confidence against the occupying powers. In order to circumvent the Russian censorship, he placed the plot in the Middle ages, around Prussia (region) and the State of the Teutonic Order. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949.


experimental+artistic

modernists , Leśmian returned to Warsaw, where he became one of the founders of an experimental ''Artistic Theatre''. There he also met one of his closest friends, Zenon Przesmycki, with whom he became involved in the publication of ''Chimera'', an art newspaper. birth_date , who is 'making a mess' and 'forcing dozens of editors to fix it' at articles such as Congress Poland, History of Poland (1939–1945), Silesian Uprisings, August II the Strong or Polish contribution to World War II, just to name the few. Should we block him for 'general disruption' too? Blocking policy states that disruption is controversial reason to block (Wikipedia:Blocking_policy#Controversial_blocks) and should be avoided. I repeat again: if you want a block longer than 24h, than go to arbcom, who is definetly more neutral than any of us here.--Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus (User:Piotrus) Talk (User_talk:Piotrus) 04:08, 30 March 2006 (UTC) Polish Jacobins formed during the Great Sejm as an offshoot of the "Kołłątaj's Forge" (''Kuźnia Kołłątajska'') of Hugo Kołłątaj (hence their alternate name - Hugenots (''Hugoniści'') and later the Patriotic Party (''Stronnictwo Patriotyczne''). Polish Jacobins played a significant part in the preparation of the Warsaw Uprising (Warsaw Uprising (1794)) and Wilno Uprising (Wilno Uprising (1794)) during the Kościuszko Uprising. Under the name of Association of Citizens Offering Help and Assistance to National Magistrate for Good of the Homeland (''Zgromadzenie Obywateli Ofiarujących Pomoc i Posługę Magistraturom Narodowym w Celu Dobra Ojczyzny'') they formed a political club (based on French Jacobin Club) which became part of the provisional government of Poland (Temporary Provisional Council, ''Radza Zastępcza Tymczasowa''). For their support for lynching of supporters of the Targowica Confederation they have been abolished by Tadeusz Kościuszko, but as the Uprising neared its defeat they were reactivated under the name of Association for Supporting the Revolution and the Cracow Act (''Zgromadzenie dla Utrzymania Rewolucji i Aktu Krakowskiego''). After the third partition of Poland, many Jacobins emigrated and joined the Polish Legions in Italy. Many of those who remained in Poland took part in various conspirational organisations (Association of Polish Republicans, ''Towarzystwo Republikanów Polskich''). Eventually some prominent Jacobins (like Józef Zajączek) became part of the government of the Duchy of Warsaw and later Congress Poland). During the November Uprising they were reactivated as Patriotic Society (''Towarzystwo Patriotyczne''), founded by Joachim Lelewel. Polish Jacobins slowly became absorbed into other groups of the Great Emigration, although traces of their ideas were visible not only in the January Uprising but also in the Józef Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party (''Polska Partia Socjalistyczna''). Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society To meet the needs of Jewish pioneers living in Denver, Jewish Family Services, History. (#JFS) in 1872 Jacobs organized, and was president of, the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society. At that time, there were 300 Jewish pioneers in Denver, from Germany, Lithuania, Belorussia (Belarus), the Ukraine and Russian Poland (Congress Poland). They came to Colorado to cure their tuberculosis or to pursue opportunities and freedom previously been denied to them. Abrams (#Abrams), 7-8, 71. Historical background The novel was written by Sienkiewicz at the time of the Partitions of Poland between Russian, Austrian and German empires, with the majority of Poles living in the Russian (Russian Empire) occupation zone named Vistula Land, formerly Congress Poland. One of Sienkiewicz's goals in writing ''The Knights of the Cross'' was to encourage and strengthen Polish national confidence against the occupying powers. In order to circumvent the Russian censorship, he placed the plot in the Middle ages, around Prussia (region) and the State of the Teutonic Order. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949.


drawings depicting

considered them evidence of callousness, and, in December, they were used by J. J. Grandville (Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard) as title for a cartoon showing the effects of repression in Congress Poland. Another of Grandville's drawings, depicting the authorities' violent response to public manifestations of support for Polish revolutionaries, was titled ''Public Order Reigns Also in Paris'' (sold together, the two works caused the artist to be censored (Censorship) and his house to be raided

Congress Poland

thumb right 300px Kingdom of Poland, 1815-1830 (File:KingdomofPoland1815.jpg) thumb 250px right Administrative division of the Kingdom of Poland, 1831. This map represents the period 1816-1844. (Image:Congress Poland 1831.jpg) 166px thumb right Eagle of officer of the Army of Congress Poland (File:Eagle of officer of 2nd Infantry Regiment of Congress Poland.PNG) thumb right 250px Map (in Polish) from 1902 (File:Gubernie zachodnie krolestwo polskie 1902.jpg)

The '''Kingdom of Poland''' (

Though officially the Kingdom of Poland was a state with considerable political autonomy guaranteed by a liberal constitution (Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland), its rulers (List of Polish monarchs#Tsars of the Tsardom of Poland), the Russian Emperors (Emperor of Russia), generally disregarded any restrictions on their power. Thus effectively it was little more than a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The autonomy was severely curtailed following uprisings in 1830–31 (November Uprising) and 1863 (January Uprising), as the country became governed by ''namestnik (Viceroy#Russian Empire)s'', and later divided into guberniya (provinces). Thus from the start, Polish autonomy remained little more than fiction. Agnieszka Barbara Nance, ''Nation without a State: Imagining Poland in the Nineteenth Century'', Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Texas at Austin, pp. 169-188

The territory of the Kingdom of Poland roughly corresponds to the Kalisz Region and the Lublin (Lublin Voivodeship), Łódź (Łódź Voivodeship), Masovia (Masovian Voivodeship), Podlasia (Podlasie Voivodeship) and Świętokrzyskie (Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship) voivodeships of Poland.

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