Confederate Ireland

What is Confederate Ireland known for?


radical political

gentry stood to lose their land under the Adventurers Act; it galvanised their efforts and they realised that it could only be repealed by taking a loyal stance. However, while the moderate Confederates were anxious to come to an agreement with Charles I and did not press for radical political and religious reforms, others wished to force the King to accept a self-governing Catholic Ireland before they came to terms with him. Failing that, they advocated an independent alliance with France


religious articles

plantations, or colonisation, in Ulster and Munster. Moreover, regarding the religious articles of the treaty, all churches taken over by Catholics in the war would have to be returned to Protestant hands and the public practice of Catholicism was not guaranteed. In return for the concessions that were made Irish troops would be sent to England to fight for the royalists in the English Civil War. However, the terms agreed were not acceptable to either the Catholic clergy, the Irish military commanders – notably Owen Roe O'Neill and Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara) – or the majority of the General Assembly. Nor was Rinuccini the papal nuncio party to the treaty, which left untouched the objects of his mission; he had induced nine of the Irish bishops to sign a protest against any arrangement with Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde) or the king that would not guarantee the maintenance of the Catholic religion. Many believed the Supreme Council were unreliable, since many of them were related to Ormonde or otherwise bound to him. Besides, it was pointed out that the English Civil War had already been decided in the English Parliament's favour and that sending Irish troops to the royalists would be a futile sacrifice. On the other hand, many felt after O'Neill's (Owen Roe O'Neill) Ulster army defeated the Scots at the battle of Benburb in June 1646 that the Confederates were in a position to re-conquer all of Ireland. Furthermore, those who opposed the peace were backed, both spiritually and financially, by Rinuccini, who threatened to excommunicate the "peace party". The Supreme Council were arrested and the General Assembly voted to reject the deal. Military defeat and a new Ormonde peace After the Confederates rejected the peace deal, Ormonde handed Dublin over to a parliamentarian army under Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)). The Confederates now tried to eliminate the remaining parliamentarian outposts in Dublin and Cork (Cork (city)), but in 1647 suffered a series of military disasters. First, Thomas Preston's Leinster army was destroyed by Jones's parliamentarians at the Battle of Dungan's Hill in County Meath. Then, less than three months later, the Confederates' Munster army met a similar fate at the hands of Inchiquin's parliamentarian forces at the battle of Knocknanauss. These setbacks made most Confederates much more eager to come to reach an agreement with the royalists and negotiations were re-opened. The Supreme Council received generous terms from Charles I and Ormonde, including toleration of the Catholic religion, a commitment to repealing Poyning's Law (and therefore to Irish self-government), recognition of lands taken by Irish Catholics during the war, and a commitment to a partial reversal of the Plantation of Ulster. In addition, there was to be an Act of Oblivion, or amnesty for all acts committed during the 1641 rebellion and Confederate wars (Irish Confederate Wars) – in particular the killings of British Protestant settlers in 1641 – combined with no disbanding of the Confederate armies. However Charles granted these terms only out of desperation and later repudiated them. Under the terms of the agreement, the Confederation was to dissolve itself, place its troops under royalist commanders and accept English royalist troops. Inchiquin also defected from the Parliament and rejoined the royalists in Ireland. Civil War within the Confederation However, many of the Irish Catholics continued to reject a deal with the royalists. Owen Roe O'Neill refused to join the new royalist alliance and fought a brief internal civil war with the royalists and Confederates in the summer of 1648. So alienated was O'Neill by what he considered to be a betrayal of Catholic war aims that he tried to make a separate peace with the English Parliament and was for a short time effectively an ally of the English parliamentary armies in Ireland. This was disastrous for the wider aims of the Confederacy, as it coincided with the outbreak of the second civil war (English Civil War#The Second English Civil War) in England. The Papal Nuncio, Rinuccini, endeavoured to uphold Owen Roe O'Neill by excommunicating (excommunication) all who in May 1648 took part in the Inchiquin Truce with the Royalists; but he could not get the Irish Catholic Bishops to agree on the matter. On 23 February 1649, he embarked at Galway, in his own frigate, to return to Rome. It is often argued that this split within the Confederate ranks represented a split between Gaelic Irish and Old English (Old English (Ireland)). It is suggested that a particular reason for this was that Gaelic Irish had lost much land and power since the English conquest of Ireland and hence had become radical in their demands. The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was held by Irish Confederate Catholic (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalist troops under general Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara). It was besieged by English Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell, Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) and Henry Ireton. The English Parliamentarians were commanded by Charles Coote, an English settler who had commanded Parliamentarian forces in the northwest of Ireland throughout the Irish Confederate Wars. Galway was garrisoned by Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) soldiers under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, many of whom had reached the city after an unsuccessful defence of Waterford.


field battle

. O’Neill remarked of the devastation that Ulster looked, "not only like a desert, but like hell". While the three armies continued to raid into each other’s territory, none of them could organise enough supplies to hold any captured territory. Benburb was the only time in which an Irish Confederate army won a major field battle between 1641 and 1653. O’Neill’s Ulster army showed a discipline and training that was lacking in the Confederate disasters at battle of Dungans Hill Dungans Hill


quot tradition

Revolution " of 1688. Following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which pitted the "green" tradition of the republican (Irish republicanism) United Irishmen against the "orange" tradition of Anglican Protestant Ascendancy loyal to the British Crown, the ideal of a later nationalist (Irish nationalism) generation in the mid-19th century was to make peace between the two traditions and, if possible, to found a self-governing Ireland on such peace and union. * '''Kingdom of Ireland''' (1541–1800) :* Confederate Ireland was an Irish government that controlled much of Ireland between during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. * Part of the '''United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland''' (1801–1922) In spring 1642 the Irish Catholics formed their own government, the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), with its capital at Kilkenny, and began to raise their own regular troops, more organized and capable than the irregular militia of the 1641 rebellion. Also in early 1642 the king sent in troop reinforcements from England and Scotland. Ormonde was faced with a difficult task in reconciling all the different factions in Ireland. The Old (native) Irish and Catholic Irish of English descent ("Old English (Old English (Ireland))") were represented in Confederate Ireland—essentially an independent Catholic government based in Kilkenny—who wanted to come to terms with King Charles I of England (Charles I of England) in return for religious toleration and self-government. On the other side, any concession that Ormonde made to the Confederates weakened his support among English and Scottish Protestants in Ireland. But jealousy between the kinsmen was complicated by differences between Eoghan Ruadh and the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland) which met at Kilkenny in October 1642. Owen Roe professed to be acting in the interest of Charles I (Charles I of England); but his real aim was the complete Independence of Ireland as a Roman Catholic country, while the Old English (Old English (Ireland)) Catholics represented by the council desired to secure religious liberty and an Irish constitution under the crown of England. More concretely, O'Neill wanted the Plantation of Ulster overturned and the recovery of the O'Neill clan's ancestral lands. Moreover, he was unhappy that the majority of Confederate military resources were directed to Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara)'s Leinster Army. Preston was also a Spanish veteran but he and O'Neill had an intense personal dislike of each other. In May 1650 Cromwell was recalled to England to command a Parliamentary force preparing to invade Scotland, and Ireton assumed command of the New Model Army in Ireland with the title and powers of lord-deputy (Lord Deputy of Ireland) to complete the conquest of the country. This he proceeded to do with his usual energy, becoming noted as much by the severity of his methods of punishment as for his military skill. By the middle of 1650 Ireton and his commanders faced two problems. One was the capture of the remaining cities held by the Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) and Royalists forces. The other was an escalating guerrilla war in the countryside as Irish fighters called tories (rapparees) attacked his supply lines. Ireton appealed to the English Parliament to publish lenient surrender terms for Irish Catholics, in order to end their resistance, but when this was refused he began the laborious process of subduing the Catholic forces. The Tribes distinguished themselves from the Gaelic (Gaels) peoples who lived in the hinterland of the city. However the feared suppression of their common faith joined both sides together as Irish Catholics after the Irish Rebellion of 1641 (indeed for many Irish was a second or even first language). During the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–1653), Galway took the side of the Confederate Catholics of Ireland (Confederate Ireland), and as a result the Tribes were punished following the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was besieged (Siege of Galway) and after the surrender of Galway in April 1652, the Tribes had to face the confiscation of their property by the New Model Army. Campaign In 1643, King Charles had signed a "cessation" with the Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland). This allowed him to recall several English regiments which had been sent to Ireland after the Irish Rebellion of 1641, to reinforce his armies. Rogers (1968), p.112 In November 1643, several of these regiments were sent to Cheshire where a new field army was being raised, commanded at first by Lord Capell (Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham). Capell was replaced in December by Lord John Byron (John Byron, 1st Baron Byron), who had been a successful cavalry brigade commander in the King's main "Oxford Army". On 23 October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland, and Co. Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army arrived 1649 in the county and captured it. The lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. At Duncannon, in the south-west of the county, James II (James II of England), after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and then to exile in France. County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland during the 1640s. A fleet of Confederate privateers was based in Wexford town, consisting of sailors from Flanders and Spain as well as local men. Their vessels raided English (England) Parliamentarian shipping, giving some of the proceeds to the Confederate government in Kilkenny. As a result, the town was sacked (Sack of Wexford) by the English Parliamentarians (Roundhead) during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. Many of its inhabitants were killed and much of the town was burned. Poynings' Law was a major rallying point for groups seeking self government for Ireland, particularly the Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland) in the 1640s. It was also a major grievance for Henry Grattan's Patriot Party (Irish Patriot Party) in the late 18th century, who consistently sought a repeal of Poynings' Law. The Act remained in place until the Constitution of 1782 gave the Irish parliament legislative independence. thumb right The flag of the Republic of Ireland (File:Flag of Ireland.svg), representing the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, formally adopted as the national flag by Bunreacht na hEireann (1937). thumb right The green harp flag (File:Green harp flag of Ireland 17th century.svg) was first used by Irish Confederate troops (Confederate Ireland) in the Eleven Years War (Irish Confederate Wars), and became the main symbol of Irish nationalism from the 17th century to the early 20th century. A more significant movement came in the 1640s, after the Irish Rebellion of 1641, when a coalition of Gaelic Irish and Hiberno-Norman Catholics set up a ''de facto'' independent Irish state to fight the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (see Confederate Ireland). The Confederate Catholics of Ireland, also known as the Confederation of Kilkenny, emphasised that Ireland was a Kingdom independent from England, though under the same monarch. They demanded autonomy for the Irish Parliament, full rights for Catholics and an end to the confiscation of Catholic owned land. The Confederate cause was destroyed in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649–53) and the old Catholic landowning class was dispossessed permanently. The Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) troops abandoned the tower house during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, and Hamlet Obins (who had survived its capture) repossessed it in 1652. It was then passed to his son Anthony Obins. thumb left upright A souvenir of Montrose's hanging: His right arm (seen front and back) and sword. (Image:Arms of Montrose.png) Highlanders had never before been known to combine together, but Montrose knew that many of the West Highland clans, who were largely Catholic (Roman Catholic), detested Argyll and his Campbell (Clan Campbell) clansmen, none more so than the MacDonalds (Clan Donald) who with many of the other clans rallied to his summons. The Royalist allied Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland) sent 2000 disciplined Irish soldiers led by Alasdair MacColla across the sea to assist him. In two campaigns, distinguished by rapidity of movement, he met and defeated his opponents in six battles. At Tippermuir (battle of Tippermuir) and Aberdeen (battle of Aberdeen) he routed Covenanting levies; at Inverlochy (Battle of Inverlochy (1645)) he crushed the Campbells, at Auldearn (Battle of Auldearn), Alford (battle of Alford) and Kilsyth (battle of Kilsyth) his victories were obtained over well-led and disciplined armies. George Wishart, ''Memoirs of the Most Renowned James Graham, Marquis of Montrose'', 1819, A. Constable, 530 pages Confederate Ireland In the 17th century, the castle came into the hands of Elizabeth Preston, wife of then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, another James Butler (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde), also 12th Earl and 1st Duke of Ormonde. Butler, unlike most of his family, was a Protestant and throughout the Irish Confederate Wars of the 1640s was the representative of Charles I (Charles I of England) in Ireland. However, his castle became the capital of a Catholic rebel movement, Confederate Ireland, whose parliament or "Supreme Council" met in Kilkenny Castle from 1642-48. Ormonde himself was based in Dublin at this time. The east wall and the northeast tower of the Castle were damaged in 1650 during the siege of Kilkenny by Oliver Cromwell during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. They were later torn down. Then, in 1661, Butler remodelled the castle as a “modern” château after his return from exile. A new entrance gateway in the south wall was built around this time. thumb left Trim Castle (File:Trim Castle 6.jpg) built by Hugh de Lacy The town is home to Western Europe's largest Norman (Norman architecture) castle, Trim Castle (or King John's Castle), which was built in the late 12th century following the Norman invasion of Ireland's eastern seaboard. Trim and the surrounding lands were granted to Hugh de Lacy (Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath), a Norman knight. Richard II of England stayed there before being ousted from power. Once a candidate to be the country's capital, the town has also occupied a role as one of the outposts of the Pale. It was also designated by Elizabeth I of England as the planned location for a Protestant Dublin University (known as Trinity College, Dublin). The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was held by Irish Confederate Catholic (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalist troops under general Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara). It was besieged by English Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell, Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) and Henry Ireton. The English Parliamentarians were commanded by Charles Coote, an English settler who had commanded Parliamentarian forces in the northwest of Ireland throughout the Irish Confederate Wars. Galway was garrisoned by Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) soldiers under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, many of whom had reached the city after an unsuccessful defence of Waterford.


intense personal

directed to Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara)'s Leinster Army. Preston was also a Spanish veteran but he and O'Neill had an intense personal dislike of each other. In May 1650 Cromwell was recalled to England to command a Parliamentary force preparing to invade Scotland, and Ireton assumed command of the New Model Army in Ireland with the title and powers of lord-deputy (Lord Deputy of Ireland) to complete the conquest of the country. This he proceeded to do with his usual energy, becoming noted as much by the severity of his methods of punishment as for his military skill. By the middle of 1650 Ireton and his commanders faced two problems. One was the capture of the remaining cities held by the Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) and Royalists forces. The other was an escalating guerrilla war in the countryside as Irish fighters called tories (rapparees) attacked his supply lines. Ireton appealed to the English Parliament to publish lenient surrender terms for Irish Catholics, in order to end their resistance, but when this was refused he began the laborious process of subduing the Catholic forces. The Tribes distinguished themselves from the Gaelic (Gaels) peoples who lived in the hinterland of the city. However the feared suppression of their common faith joined both sides together as Irish Catholics after the Irish Rebellion of 1641 (indeed for many Irish was a second or even first language). During the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–1653), Galway took the side of the Confederate Catholics of Ireland (Confederate Ireland), and as a result the Tribes were punished following the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was besieged (Siege of Galway) and after the surrender of Galway in April 1652, the Tribes had to face the confiscation of their property by the New Model Army. Campaign In 1643, King Charles had signed a "cessation" with the Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland). This allowed him to recall several English regiments which had been sent to Ireland after the Irish Rebellion of 1641, to reinforce his armies. Rogers (1968), p.112 In November 1643, several of these regiments were sent to Cheshire where a new field army was being raised, commanded at first by Lord Capell (Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham). Capell was replaced in December by Lord John Byron (John Byron, 1st Baron Byron), who had been a successful cavalry brigade commander in the King's main "Oxford Army". On 23 October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland, and Co. Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army arrived 1649 in the county and captured it. The lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. At Duncannon, in the south-west of the county, James II (James II of England), after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and then to exile in France. County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland during the 1640s. A fleet of Confederate privateers was based in Wexford town, consisting of sailors from Flanders and Spain as well as local men. Their vessels raided English (England) Parliamentarian shipping, giving some of the proceeds to the Confederate government in Kilkenny. As a result, the town was sacked (Sack of Wexford) by the English Parliamentarians (Roundhead) during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. Many of its inhabitants were killed and much of the town was burned. Poynings' Law was a major rallying point for groups seeking self government for Ireland, particularly the Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland) in the 1640s. It was also a major grievance for Henry Grattan's Patriot Party (Irish Patriot Party) in the late 18th century, who consistently sought a repeal of Poynings' Law. The Act remained in place until the Constitution of 1782 gave the Irish parliament legislative independence. thumb right The flag of the Republic of Ireland (File:Flag of Ireland.svg), representing the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, formally adopted as the national flag by Bunreacht na hEireann (1937). thumb right The green harp flag (File:Green harp flag of Ireland 17th century.svg) was first used by Irish Confederate troops (Confederate Ireland) in the Eleven Years War (Irish Confederate Wars), and became the main symbol of Irish nationalism from the 17th century to the early 20th century. A more significant movement came in the 1640s, after the Irish Rebellion of 1641, when a coalition of Gaelic Irish and Hiberno-Norman Catholics set up a ''de facto'' independent Irish state to fight the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (see Confederate Ireland). The Confederate Catholics of Ireland, also known as the Confederation of Kilkenny, emphasised that Ireland was a Kingdom independent from England, though under the same monarch. They demanded autonomy for the Irish Parliament, full rights for Catholics and an end to the confiscation of Catholic owned land. The Confederate cause was destroyed in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649–53) and the old Catholic landowning class was dispossessed permanently. The Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) troops abandoned the tower house during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, and Hamlet Obins (who had survived its capture) repossessed it in 1652. It was then passed to his son Anthony Obins. thumb left upright A souvenir of Montrose's hanging: His right arm (seen front and back) and sword. (Image:Arms of Montrose.png) Highlanders had never before been known to combine together, but Montrose knew that many of the West Highland clans, who were largely Catholic (Roman Catholic), detested Argyll and his Campbell (Clan Campbell) clansmen, none more so than the MacDonalds (Clan Donald) who with many of the other clans rallied to his summons. The Royalist allied Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland) sent 2000 disciplined Irish soldiers led by Alasdair MacColla across the sea to assist him. In two campaigns, distinguished by rapidity of movement, he met and defeated his opponents in six battles. At Tippermuir (battle of Tippermuir) and Aberdeen (battle of Aberdeen) he routed Covenanting levies; at Inverlochy (Battle of Inverlochy (1645)) he crushed the Campbells, at Auldearn (Battle of Auldearn), Alford (battle of Alford) and Kilsyth (battle of Kilsyth) his victories were obtained over well-led and disciplined armies. George Wishart, ''Memoirs of the Most Renowned James Graham, Marquis of Montrose'', 1819, A. Constable, 530 pages Confederate Ireland In the 17th century, the castle came into the hands of Elizabeth Preston, wife of then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, another James Butler (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde), also 12th Earl and 1st Duke of Ormonde. Butler, unlike most of his family, was a Protestant and throughout the Irish Confederate Wars of the 1640s was the representative of Charles I (Charles I of England) in Ireland. However, his castle became the capital of a Catholic rebel movement, Confederate Ireland, whose parliament or "Supreme Council" met in Kilkenny Castle from 1642-48. Ormonde himself was based in Dublin at this time. The east wall and the northeast tower of the Castle were damaged in 1650 during the siege of Kilkenny by Oliver Cromwell during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. They were later torn down. Then, in 1661, Butler remodelled the castle as a “modern” château after his return from exile. A new entrance gateway in the south wall was built around this time. thumb left Trim Castle (File:Trim Castle 6.jpg) built by Hugh de Lacy The town is home to Western Europe's largest Norman (Norman architecture) castle, Trim Castle (or King John's Castle), which was built in the late 12th century following the Norman invasion of Ireland's eastern seaboard. Trim and the surrounding lands were granted to Hugh de Lacy (Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath), a Norman knight. Richard II of England stayed there before being ousted from power. Once a candidate to be the country's capital, the town has also occupied a role as one of the outposts of the Pale. It was also designated by Elizabeth I of England as the planned location for a Protestant Dublin University (known as Trinity College, Dublin). The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was held by Irish Confederate Catholic (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalist troops under general Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara). It was besieged by English Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell, Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) and Henry Ireton. The English Parliamentarians were commanded by Charles Coote, an English settler who had commanded Parliamentarian forces in the northwest of Ireland throughout the Irish Confederate Wars. Galway was garrisoned by Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) soldiers under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, many of whom had reached the city after an unsuccessful defence of Waterford.


political term

;''', from the Irish word ''tóraidhe'' (modern ''tóraí'') meaning "pursuer"; Patrick Weston Joyce,The origin and history of Irish names of places,p50 this is also the origin of the political term Tory "traditionalist, conservative". The tories were usually Confederate soldiers whose units had broken up and who regrouped in small bands in rugged country such as the Wicklow Mountains or the Bog of Allen. However, Waterford's Roman Catholic


famous member

Loughcrew became the seat of a branch of the Norman-Irish (Hiberno-Norman) Plunkett family, whose most famous member became the martyred St Oliver Plunkett. The family church stands in the grounds of Loughcrew Gardens. With its barren isolated location Sliabh na Caillí became a critical meeting point throughout the Penal Laws (Penal Laws (Ireland)) for Roman Catholics. Even though the woods are now gone an excellent example of a Mass Rock (Penal Laws (Ireland)#Stuart and Cromwellian rule) can still be seen on the top of Sliabh na Caillí today. The Plunketts were involved in running the Irish Confederacy (Confederate Ireland) of the 1640s and were dispossessed in the Cromwellian Settlement of 1652. Their estate at Loughcrew was assigned by Sir William Petty to the Naper Family c.1655 (1655 in Ireland). The Napers are descended from Sir Robert Napier (Robert Napier (judge)) who was Chief Baron of the Exchequer of Ireland (List of Chief Barons of the Irish Exchequer) in 1593. http: www.turtlebunbury.com published published_interiors ireland pub_int_loughc.htm territory result founding of the Irish Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland) and beginning of the Confederate War (Irish Confederate Wars#The Confederates' war - 1642-48) combatant1 Irish Catholics The Irish rebellion broke out in October 1641 (1641 in Ireland) and was followed by several months of violent chaos before the Irish Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland) in the summer of 1642 (1642 in Ireland). The Confederation became a de facto government of most of Ireland, free from the control of the English administration and loosely aligned with the Royalist (Cavalier) side in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The subsequent war (Irish Confederate Wars) continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists, and re-conquered (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) the country. Civil war and Confederation ''See also: Confederate Ireland and Irish Confederate Wars'' The war in England gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), which would run the Irish war effort. This was instigated by the Catholic clergy and by landed magnates such as Viscount Gormanstown and Lord Mountgarret. By the summer of 1642, the rebellion proper was over and was superseded by a conventional war between the Irish, who controlled more than two thirds of the country, and the British-controlled enclaves in Ulster, Dublin and around Cork (Cork (city)) in Munster. The following period is known as Confederate Ireland. The Confederation eventually sided with the Royalists (Cavalier) in return for the promise of self-government and full rights for Catholics after the war. They were finally defeated (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) by regiments of the English Parliament's New Model Army from 1649 (1649 in Ireland) through to 1653 and land ownership in Ireland passed largely to Protestant settlers. Canny 562-566 The war in England gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), which would run the Irish war effort. This was instigated by the Catholic clergy and by landed magnates such as Viscount Gormanstown and Lord Mountgarret. By the summer of 1642, the rebellion proper was over and was superseded by a conventional war between the Irish, who controlled more than two thirds of the country, and the British-controlled enclaves in Ulster, Dublin and around Cork (Cork (city)) in Munster. The following period is known as Confederate Ireland. The Confederation eventually sided with the Royalists (Cavalier) in return for the promise of self-government and full rights for Catholics after the war. They were finally defeated (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) by regiments of the English Parliament's New Model Army from 1649 (1649 in Ireland) through to 1653 and land ownership in Ireland passed largely to Protestant settlers. Canny 562-566 Having old English ancestry, Keating's political view was that Ireland's nobility and natural leadership derived from the surviving Gaelic clan chiefs and Old English landed families who had remained Roman Catholic. He also accepted the Stuart dynasty as legitimate because of its part-Gaelic ancestry. This had a continuing influence on the politics of the Confederate (Confederate Ireland) and Jacobite (Jacobitism) supporters in Ireland until Papal recognition of the Stuarts ended in 1766. Keating continued to have an influence on Irish genealogical writers such as O'Hart (John O'Hart) into the 1800s. English Parliamentarian (Roundhead) New Model Army, Protestant colonists (Plantations of Ireland) Irish Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), English Royalists (Cavalier) - place Ireland casus Alliance between Irish Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalists to restore Charles II (Charles II of England) -threat to English Commonwealth regime. Also retribution for the Irish Rebellion of 1641. result English Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland, defeat of Royalist alliance and crushing of Irish Catholic power result English Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland, defeat of Royalist alliance and crushing of Irish Catholic power combatant1 Irish Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), English Royalists (Cavalier) combatant2 English Parliamentarian (Roundhead) New Model Army, Protestant colonists (Plantations of Ireland) Since the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Ireland had been mainly under the control of the Irish Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland), who in 1649, signed an alliance with the English Royalist (Cavalier) party, which had been defeated in the English Civil War. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country - bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. He passed a series of Penal laws against Roman Catholics (the vast majority of the population) and confiscated large amounts of their land. The English Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, had several reasons for sending an army to Ireland in 1649. * An alliance was signed in 1649 between the Irish Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland) and Charles II (Charles II of England) (the exiled son of the executed Charles I (Charles I of England)) and the English Royalists. This allowed for Royalist troops to be sent to Ireland and put the Irish Confederate Catholic troops under the command of Royalist officers led by James Butler, Earl of Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde). Their aim was to invade England and restore the monarchy there. This was a threat which the new English Commonwealth could not afford to ignore. * Even if the Confederates had not allied themselves with the Royalists, it is likely that the English Parliament would have eventually tried to reconquer Ireland. They had sent Parliamentary forces to Ireland throughout the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (most of them under Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) in 1647). They viewed Ireland as part of the territory governed by right by the Kingdom of England and only temporarily out of its control since the Irish Rebellion of 1641. By the end of the period, known as Confederate Ireland, in 1649 the only remaining Parliamentarian outpost in Ireland was in Dublin, under the command of Colonel Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)). A combined Royalist (Cavalier) and Confederate (Confederate Ireland) force under the Marquess of Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde) gathered at Rathmines, south of Dublin, in order to take the city and deprive the Parliamentarians (Parliament of England) of a port in which they could land. Jones however launched a surprise attack (battle of Rathmines) on the Royalists while they were deploying on August 2, putting them to flight. Jones claimed to have killed around 4000 Royalist or Confederate soldiers and taken 2,517 prisoners. McKeiver, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign, page.59 By the end of the period, known as Confederate Ireland, in 1649 the only remaining Parliamentarian outpost in Ireland was in Dublin, under the command of Colonel Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)). A combined Royalist (Cavalier) and Confederate (Confederate Ireland) force under the Marquess of Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde) gathered at Rathmines, south of Dublin, in order to take the city and deprive the Parliamentarians (Parliament of England) of a port in which they could land. Jones however launched a surprise attack (battle of Rathmines) on the Royalists while they were deploying on August 2, putting them to flight. Jones claimed to have killed around 4000 Royalist or Confederate soldiers and taken 2,517 prisoners. McKeiver, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign, page.59 right thumb Henry Ireton. Cromwell passed the command of Parliamentarian forces in Ireland to Ireton in 1650. He died of disease at the siege of Limerick in 1651 (File:Henry Ireton.jpg) The following spring, Cromwell mopped up the remaining walled towns in Ireland’s south east – notably the Confederate (Confederate Ireland) Capital of Kilkenny, which surrendered on terms. The New Model Army met its only serious reverse in Ireland at the siege of Clonmel, where its attacks on the towns walls were repulsed at a cost of up to 2,000 men. The town nevertheless surrendered the following day. Cromwell's behaviour at Kilkenny and Clonmel may be contrasted with his conduct at Drogheda and Wexford. Ormonde’s Royalists still held most of Munster, but were outflanked by a mutiny of their own garrison in Cork (Cork (city)). The British (United Kingdom) Protestant troops there had been fighting for the Parliament up to 1648 and resented fighting with the Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland). Their mutiny handed Cork and most of Munster to Cromwell (Oliver Cromwell) and they defeated the local Irish garrison at the battle of Macroom. The Irish and Royalist forces retreated behind the Shannon (River Shannon) river into Connaught (Connacht) or (in the case of the remaining Munster forces) into the fastness of Kerry (County Kerry). The Parliamentarians crossed the Shannon (River Shannon) into the western province of Connaught (Connacht) in October 1650. An Irish army under Clanricarde (Ulick Burke, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde) had attempted to stop them but this was surprised and routed at the battle of Meelick Island. Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde) was discredited by the constant stream of defeats for the Irish and Royalist forces and no longer had the confidence of the men he commanded, particularly the Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland). He fled for France in December 1650 and was replaced by an Irish nobleman Ulick Burke of Clanricarde as commander. The Irish and Royalist forces were penned into the area west of the river Shannon and placed their last hope on defending the strongly walled cities of Limerick and Galway on Ireland's west coast. These cities had built extensive modern defences and could not be taken by a straightforward assault like Drogheda or Wexford. Ireton besieged Limerick while Charles Coote surrounded Galway, but they were unable to take the strongly fortified cities and instead blockaded them until a combination of hunger and disease forced them to surrender. An Irish force from Kerry attempted to relieve Limerick from the south but this was intercepted and routed at the battle of Knocknaclashy. Limerick fell in 1651 and Galway the following year. Disease however killed indiscriminately and Ireton along with thousands of Parliamentarian troops, died of plague (pandemic) outside Limerick in 1651. Micheal O Siochru, God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell and Conquest of Ireland, p.187 Anyone implicated in the rebellion of 1641 (Irish Rebellion of 1641) was executed. Those who participated in Confederate Ireland had all their land confiscated and thousands were transported to the West Indies as indentured labourers. Those Catholic landowners who had not taken part in the wars still had their land confiscated, although they were entitled to claim land in Connaught (Connacht) as compensation. In addition, no Catholics were allowed to live in towns. Irish soldiers who had fought in the Confederate and Royalist (Cavalier) armies left the country in large numbers to find service in the armies of France and Spain - William Petty estimated their number at 54,000 men. The practice of Catholicism was banned and bounties were offered for the capture of priests, who were executed when found. The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was held by Irish Confederate Catholic (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalist troops under general Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara). It was besieged by English Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell, Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) and Henry Ireton. The English Parliamentarians were commanded by Charles Coote, an English settler who had commanded Parliamentarian forces in the northwest of Ireland throughout the Irish Confederate Wars. Galway was garrisoned by Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) soldiers under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, many of whom had reached the city after an unsuccessful defence of Waterford.


made supporting

in Ireland. The Confederates believed that their aspirations were best served by alliance with the royalist cause and therefore made supporting the King a central part of their strategy. This was because some English MPs and Scottish Covenanters had threatened before the war to invade Ireland and destroy the Catholic religion and Irish land-owning class, but the threat was never official policy. The King, by contrast, had repeatedly promised them some concessions. The difficulty for Charles


leading roles

;Sean J. Connolly ''Oxford Companion to Irish History'', entry on Tory p498 During the 17th century representatives from Connacht played leading roles in Confederate Ireland and during the Williamite War in Ireland. Its main town, Galway, endured several sieges (see Sieges of Galway), while warfare, plague (plague (disease)), famine and sectarian massacres killed about a third of the population by 1655. During the 16th and 17th centuries Galway remained loyal


history including

is known to exist for the Kingdom of Ireland. Numerous unofficial flags were used throughout its history, including: 1. ''Azure, a harp Or, stringed Argent'', based on the coat of arms (Coat of arms of Ireland) adopted in 1541 and much later to become the presidential standard (President of Ireland); 2. ''Vert, a harp Or, stringed Argent'', the Leinster flag, used from the mid-17th century; and 3. ''Argent a saltire Gules'', Saint Patrick's Flag, W. G. Perrin and Herbert S

Confederate Ireland

'''Confederate Ireland''' refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War (Irish Confederate Wars). During this time, two-thirds of Ireland was governed by the '''Irish Catholic Confederation''', also known as the "Confederation of Kilkenny", which was based in Kilkenny. This was formed by Irish Catholic nobles, clergy and military leaders after the Irish Rebellion of 1641. The Confederation had what were effectively a parliament (called the General Assembly), an executive (called the Supreme Council), and a military. It pledged allegiance to Charles I (Charles I of England).

The remaining Protestant-controlled enclaves in Ulster, Munster and Leinster were held by armies loyal to the royalist (Cavalier)s, parliamentarians (Roundhead) or Scottish Covenanters. Throughout its existence, the Confederation waged war against the parliamentarians. In 1648, it allied itself with the royalists. However, in 1649 a parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland). It defeated the Confederates and royalists and brought the Confederation to an end.

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