Colchis

What is Colchis known for?


title classical

Biography and Mythology" It was said to never sleep, rest, or lower its vigilance. According to Ovid's ''Metamorphoses'', the monster had a crest and three tongues. When Jason went to retrieve the Fleece, the witch Medea put the dragon to sleep with her magic and drugs, ref


modern black

the Stymphalian Birds at that time. thumb right 250px Jason and the Snake (File:Douris cup Jason Vatican crop.jpg) Jason arrived in Colchis (modern Black Sea coast of Georgia (Georgia (country))) to claim the fleece as his own. It was owned by King Aeetes of Colchis. The fleece was given to him by Phrixus. Aeetes promised to give it to Jason only if he could perform three certain tasks. Presented with the tasks, Jason became

statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). His interpretation of anthropological data (such as the role of matriarchy) and archeological data led him to conclude that Egyptian culture was a Black African culture. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof (Wolof language) language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. C Catholicos


562

) would later contribute significantly to the development of medieval Georgian statehood (kingdom of Georgia), alongside Iberia (Principate of Iberia). David Braund, Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, Oxford University Press, USA (September 8, 1994) W.E.D. Allen, A history of the Georgian people (1932), p. 123 Colchis is also an important land in Greco-Roman mythology, most notably

in Greco-Roman ethnography. Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, David Braund Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. Pp. 359 According to the scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff:

, but a Georgian (West Georgian) kingdom. . . .It would seem natural to seek the beginnings of Georgian social history in Colchis, the earliest Georgian formation. A second South Caucasian tribal union emerged in the 13th century BC on the Black Sea coast. D. Braund, ''Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC–562 AD'', Oxford University Press, 1996. James Stuart Olson


culture+related

width6 230 alt6 caption6 Colchian coin of Dioscurias (Sukhumi#History), Late 2nd Century BC. Obverse: Two pilei (Pileus (hat)) surmounted by stars Reverse: Thyrsos, ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΑΔΟΣ Prehistory and earliest references The eastern Black Sea region in antiquity was home to the well-developed Bronze Age culture known as the Colchian culture, related to the neighboring Koban culture, that emerged towards the Middle Bronze Age. In at least some parts of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the 2nd millennium BC, centuries before Greek (Ancient Greece) settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th century BC) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and fertile, well-watered lowlands and a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques. Colchis was inhabited by a number of related but distinct tribes whose settlements lay along the shore of the Black Sea. Chief among those were the Machelones, Heniochi, Zydretae, Lazi (Egrisi), Chalybes, Tabal Tibareni Tubal, Mossynoeci, Macrones, Moschi (Meskheti), Marres, Apsilae, Abasci (Kingdom of Abkhazia), According to some scholars, ancient tribes such as the Absilae (mentioned by Pliny, 1st century CE) and Abasgoi (mentioned by Arrian, 2nd century CE) correspond to the modern Abkhazians (Chirikba, V., "On the etymology of the ethnonym 'apswa' "Abkhaz", in ''The Annual of the Society for the Study of Caucasia'', 3, 13-18, Chicago, 1991; Hewitt, B. G., "The valid and non-valid application of philology to history", in ''Revue des Etudes Georgiennes et Caucasiennes'', 6-7, 1990-1991, 247-263; Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Larousse, tome 1, 1985, p. 20). However, this claim is controversial and no academic consensus has yet been reached. Other scholars suggest that these ethnonyms instead reflect a common regional origin, rather than emphasizing a distinct and separate ethnic and cultural identity in antiquity. For example, Tariel Putkaradze, a Georgian scholar, suggests, "In the 3rd-2nd millennia BC the Kartvelian, Abhaz-Abaza, Circassian-Adyghe and Vaynakh tribes must have been part of a great Ibero-Caucasian ethnos. Therefore, it is natural that several tribes or ethnoses descending from them have the names derived from a single stem. The Kartvelian Aphaz, Apsil, Apšil and north Caucasian Apsua, Abazaha, Abaza, existing in the 1st millennium, were the names denoting different tribes of a common origin. Some of these tribes (Apsils, Apshils) disappeared, others mingled with kindred tribes, and still others have survived to the present day." (Putkaradze, T. ''The Kartvelians'', 2005, translated by Irene Kutsia) Sanigae (Sanigs), Coraxi, Coli (Coli (tribe)), Melanchlaeni, Geloni (Gelonians) and Soani (Suani) (Svaneti). These Kartvelian (Georgian people) tribes differed so completely in language and appearance from the surrounding Indo-European nations that the ancients provided various wild theories to account for the phenomenon. Herodotus regarded the Colchians as Ancient Egyptian Approaching Chaos: Could an Ancient Archetype Save 21st Century Civilization? Lucy Wyatt p208 The Blessing of Africa: The Bible and African Christianity, Keith Augustus Burton p73 African Presence in Early Asia, Runoko Rashidi, Ivan Van Sertima p59 Letters of certain Jews to Monsieur Voltaire, containing an apology for their own people, and for the Old Testament: Antoine Guénée p464 race. Herodotus states that the Colchians, with the Ancient Egyptians and the Ethiopians, were the first to practice circumcision, a custom which he claims (without historical proof) that the Colchians inherited from remnants of the army of Pharaoh Sesostris. Apollonius of Rhodes states that the Egyptians of Colchis preserved as heirlooms a number of wooden tablets, which show, with considerable accuracy, seas and highways. According to Pliny the Elder: , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


called small

) belong defensive walls, the so-called small gate, sanctuaries and cultic buildings (temples, altars sacrificial platforms), and the remains of a foundry for casting bronze statues. It is assumed that in the 3rd-1st centuries BC. Vani was a templar city. According to the archaeological data, the city was destroyed in the mid-1st century BC. Subsequently, Vani declined to a village and was officially granted a status of a town only in 1981. Early history The history of the region goes back


research works

of the Georgian people and other Iberian-Caucasian peoples, genesis of the feudalism in Georgia and the Caucasus, history of ancient Georgia, archaeology of ancient Georgia, history of the Kingdoms of Kolkheti (Colchis) and Iberia (Transcaucasian Iberia), history of Christianity in Georgia, source studies of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus. He was author of more than 100 scientific-research works (among them about 10 monographs). In 1949-1968 in Tbilisi were published


century show

Turkey, James Bainbridge, 2009, page 33 Eastern Turkey: The Bradt Travel Guide, Diana Darke, 2011, page 77 The Turks: Early ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002 The words of Lermioglu “today peasants love trees as their children.There were several events which people kill someone for a tree” and a story from 19th century show us that this love comes from very old days. A hunter from Mersin village cut a tree called kragen which was idol of Akcaabat society (Since 1940). Then the peasants called the police and said that the hunter cut the Evliya Turkish (Turkish language) and Arabic (Arabic language) Evliya “Saint”).This event can only be explained with the “paganist” beliefs comes from “Caucasia (Caucasus)”. At first the police understood that the hunter killed a man called Evliya (Saint) but later they saw that the “saint” was a tree so they let the hunter go.It was an example of Colchis culture that can be seen today which was mixed with Islam in Trabzon under the name of saint and common before one God religions that people used to believe in nature. As Apollonius of Rhodes narrates it, when the Argo was driven ashore on the Lesser Syrtes by a fierce storm while returning from Colchis, the Argonauts found themselves in "an area surrounded by sands". They portaged their ship twelve days to Lake Tritonis, but the lake water was salty and undrinkable. Since they could find no outlet from Lake Tritonis to the sea, they could do nothing. Then they propitiated the deities with a golden tripod (sacrificial tripod) on the shore and Triton, the local deity, appeared to them in the form of a youth, to show them a hidden channel to the sea. Apollonius of Rhodes, iv. 1552. - Jason Son of King Aeson of Iolcus (Iolcos), Thessaly. Jason was sent to Colchis to get the golden fleece by his uncle Pelias, who had usurped the throne from Aeson. For this expedition Jason collected a large number of heroes, the Argonauts, and let the ship Argo build. VII: 5-397, VIII: 302-349 , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


literary criticism

Rustaveli State Prize in 1962. Gamsakhurdia also wrote a biographical novel about Goethe, and literary criticism of Georgian and foreign authors. Publication of his memoirs, ''Flirting with Ghosts'' (ლანდებთან ლაციცი, 1963) and of his testament (1959) was aborted at that time. He died in 1975 and was interred at his mansion which he called a "Colchian (Colchis) Tower", refusing to be buried in the Mtatsminda Pantheon because he detested that Jesus and Judas Iscariot


legendary

several times, although it was never able to hold the region. thumb Etchmiadzin Cathedral (File:Ejmiadzin Cathedral2.jpg) in Armenia, completed in 303 AD, a religious centre of Armenia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. *c. 1230 BC (1230s BC): Aegeus, legendary King of Athens, receives a false message that his designated heir Theseus, his son by Aethra of Troezena (Troezen), is dead. Theseus had been sent to his overlord Minos of Crete

as an offering to the Minotaur. Medus, Aegeus' only other son (by Medea of Colchis), had been exiled in Asia and would become legendary ancestor to the Medes. Believing himself without heirs the King (monarch) commits suicide after a reign of 48 years. He is succeeded by Theseus, who actually still lives. The Aegean Sea is reportedly named in his honor. Capital King Dachi I Ujarmeli (Dachi of Iberia), who was the successor of Vakhtang I

, 1870s.png thumb right Kutaisi in 1870 thumb Kutaisi in 1885 (File:View of Kutaisi (1885).JPG)Kutaisi was the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Colchis. Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis as early as the second millennium BC. It is widely believed by historians that when Apollonius Rhodius was writing about Jason and the Argonauts and their legendary journey to Colchis, Kutaisi Aia was the final


powerful people

, "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."

Colchis

thumb Colchis and Caucasian Iberia Iberia (File:Colchis and Iberia, VI-III centuries B.C..jpg) in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC thumb Central and southern parts of Colchis, 3rd to 1st centuries BC - 1st century AD (File:Central and southern parts of Colchis and part of Iberia.jpg) thumb Colchis between the Black Sea Black (File:Colchis between the Black and Caspian Seas.jpg) and Caspian Seas (Caspian Sea). London, 1529

In Greco-Roman geography, '''Colchis''' ( ''Kolkhis'', presumably from Kartvelian (Kartvelian languages) ''ḳolkheti'' or ''ḳolkha'') was the name for a region in the Southern Caucasus. Colchis was located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, centered on present-day western Georgia (Georgia (country)). Around the 1st centuries BC and AD the land south of the Greater Caucasus and north of the Lesser Caucasus was divided between Kolchis in the west, Caucasian Iberia in the center and Caucasian Albania in the east. To the southwest was Armenia and to the southeast Atropatene.

The '''Colchians''' were the population native to Colchis. They are assumed to have been early Kartvelian-speaking (Kartvelian languages) tribes, ancestral to the contemporary groups of Svans, Mingrelians and Lazs. Antiquity 1994. p. 359. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia:Значение слова "Колхи" в Большой Советской Энциклопедии; ''The Cambridge Ancient History'', John Anthony Crook, Elizabeth Rawson, p. 255 Ancestors of the Colchians were probably established on the Black Sea coast from as early as the Middle Bronze Age. David Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59

For centuries, until its annexation by Pontus in 164 BC, Colchis was an independent kingdom. This kingdom has been described in modern scholarship as "the earliest Georgian (political) formation". CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84 Colchis (also known in late Antiquity as Lazica, or Egrisi) would later contribute significantly to the development of medieval Georgian statehood (kingdom of Georgia), alongside Iberia (Principate of Iberia). David Braund, Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, Oxford University Press, USA (September 8, 1994) W.E.D. Allen, A history of the Georgian people (1932), p. 123

Colchis is also an important land in Greco-Roman mythology, most notably as the kingdom of Medea and the Golden fleece, destination of the Argonauts.

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