Colchis

What is Colchis known for?


strong position

ancient town at Pichvnari near the present day town of Kobuleti. In the 2nd century AD, Bathus was an important military base for Roman (Ancient Rome) legions. Apsaros was famous for its theatre. Near the town are the ruins of a fortress, mentioned as ''Sarapana'' by Strabo and ''Sarapanis'' by Procopius as a strong position on the road that led from Colchis to Iberia (Caucasian Iberia). **Encountered by Dante in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 141'''. * Circe: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Helios, god of the Sun, and sister of Aeetis, king of Colchis. She was an enchantress who lived near the Gulf of Gaeta, who turned the crew of '''Odysseus (#Ulysses)''' into pigs on their journey home from the '''Trojan war (#Troy)'''. But Odysseus, with the help of Hermes, forced her to release his men from her spell (Ovid, ''Met''. XIV, 435–40). She fell in love with Odysseus and he stayed with her for another year and in some accounts, she had a son Telegonus with Odysseus, who was to accidentally kill him. **It is said, by Ulysses (Odysseus), that she "beguiled" him. '''Inf. XXVI, 90–2'''. **One of a group of classical poets (see '''Homer (#Homer)''') encountered in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 89'''. * Hypsipyle: Queen of Lemnos, she was seduced and abandoned by '''Jason (#Jason)''' while in route to the Colchis with the Argonauts. **Pitied by '''Virgil (#Virgil)''' for Jason's actions. '''Inf. XVIII, 88–95'''. **One of two spendthrifts (the other called "Lano" is probably '''Arcolano of Siena (#Lano)''') whose punishment consists of being hunted by female hounds. '''Inf. XIII, 115–29'''. * Jason: Greek mythological (Greek mythology) hero who led the Argonauts to Colchis in search of the Golden Fleece. **Found among the Seducers, for his seduction and abandonment of '''Hypsipyle (#Hypsipyle)''' and '''Medea (#Medea)'''. '''Inf. XVIII, 83–99'''. **How he became an apostle is contrasted with the '''Simoniacs (#Simony)'''. '''Inf. XIX, 94–6'''. * Medea: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis, she helped '''Jason (#Jason)''' get the Golden Fleece, but was abandoned by him. She took revenge by killing their two children. **For her also is Jason punished. '''Inf. XVIII, 96'''. Importance of ancient civilizations Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian (Colchis) people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair" Herodotus, ''History'', Book II. Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). His interpretation of anthropological data (such as the role of matriarchy) and archeological data led him to conclude that Egyptian culture was a Black African culture. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof (Wolof language) language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. C Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia – Caucasian Iberia - Caucasian Iberians – Caucasus Airlines – Chalybes – Chanturia, Giorgi (Giorgi Chanturia) – Chiaberashvili, Zurab (Zurab Chiaberashvili) – Chiatura – Chibirov, Ludwig (Ludwig Chibirov) – Chiburdanidze, Maia (Maia Chiburdanidze) – Chikobava, Arnold (Arnold Chikobava) – Chikvaidze, Aleksandr (Aleksandr Chikvaidze) – Chilashvili, Levan (Levan Chilashvili) – Cholokashvili, Kakutsa (Kakutsa Cholokashvili) – Choloki River – Chuburkhindji – Coat of Arms of Georgia – Colchis - Colchians – Commonwealth of Independent States – Communist Party of Abkhazia – Communist Party of Georgia – Constantine I of Imereti – Culture of Georgia (Culture of Georgia (country)) '''Anicetus''' was the leader of an unsuccessful anti-Roman (Roman Empire) uprising in Polemonia in 69. Formerly a freedman of King Polemon II of Pontus (Polemon (Cilicia)), Anicetus commanded the royal fleet until Pontus was converted into a Roman province under Emperor Nero in 63. During the civil war (Year of the four emperors#Vitellius to Vespasian) following Nero’s death, Anicetus sided with Vitellius and led a general insurrection against Vespasian in Pontus and Colchis 69. The rebels destroyed the Roman fleet (Roman Navy) (''Classis Pontica'') in a sudden attack on Trapezus and then turned to piracy using a type of boat known as ''camarae''. Pompey in Command On the approach of Pompey, Mithridates retreated towards Armenia (Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)) but was defeated. As Tigranes the Great now refused to receive him into his dominions, Mithridates resolved to plunge into the heart of Colchis, and thence make his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosporus. Pompey now marched against Tigranes, whose kingdom and authority were now severely weakened. Tigranes then sued for peace and met with Pompey to plead a cessation of hostilities. The Armenian Kingdom now became an allied client state of Rome. Mythology In Hellenistic astrology, the sign of the ram was mythologically associated with the golden winged ram that rescued Phrixos and his sister Helle (Helle (mythology)) from the altar where they were to be offered as a sacrifice to Zeus. The golden ram carried them to the land of Colchis but on the way Helle fell into the sea and drowned. When Phrixos arrived at Colchis he sacrificed the ram to Zeus and presented the golden fleece to his father-in-law, the King of Colchis. The fleece was then hung upon a sacred oak and guarded by a dragon until rescued by Jason and the Argonauts. The myth recounts that Zeus was so moved by the ram's fate that he gave it the greatest honour of being moved to the heavens. Marilyn Reid, ''Mythical Star Signs'', p.15. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 9781847536235. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. In the 1st century BC, after his defeat by Pompey in 63 BC, Mithradates VI (Mithradates VI of Pontus), King of Pontus, fled with a small army from Colchis (modern Georgia) over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares, viceroy of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father. Mithradates had Machares killed, and took the throne of the Bosporan Kingdom. Mithradates then ordered conscription and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces II, his younger son, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates' Pontic army. Mithradates withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide the same year. Pompey the Great buried Mithradates in the rock-cut tombs of his ancestors in Amasya, the old capital of Pontus. thumb 200px ''Heracles and Ladon'', Roman relief plate, late era. (Image:Herakles Ladon Staatliche Antikensammlungen SL89.jpg) '''Ladon''' (Greek (Greek language): Λάδων; gen (Genitive case).: Λάδωνος) was the serpent-like dragon that twined and twisted around the tree in the Garden of the Hesperides (Hesperides) and guarded the golden apples (Golden apple). He was overcome by Heracles. Fifteen long years later, Jason and the Argonauts passed by on their chthonic return journey from Colchis and heard the lament of "shining" Aigle (Aegle (mythology)), one of the three Hesperides, and viewed the still-twitching Ladon. ''Argonautica'', Book IV. , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


wild theories

, Geloni (Gelonians) and Soani (Suani) (Svaneti). These Kartvelian (Georgian people) tribes differed so completely in language and appearance from the surrounding Indo-European nations that the ancients provided various wild theories to account for the phenomenon. Herodotus regarded the Colchians as Ancient Egyptian Approaching Chaos: Could an Ancient Archetype Save 21st Century Civilization? Lucy Wyatt p208 The Blessing of Africa: The Bible


rich ancient

of Colchis in the 7th-3rd cent. BC (Anno Domini). Part of the area formed a county (saeristavo) within the Kingdom of Iberia (Caucasian Iberia) in the late 4th century BC. Colonized by Greek (Greeks) merchants in the 5th and 4th cent. B.C., the coastal Adjara later came under Roman (Rome) rule. Bathus (Bathys) (the present day Batumi) and Apsaros (Apsaruntos) (modern Gonio) were the key cities and fortresses at that time. Archeological excavations have revealed ruins of a rich

ancient town at Pichvnari near the present day town of Kobuleti. In the 2nd century AD, Bathus was an important military base for Roman (Ancient Rome) legions. Apsaros was famous for its theatre. Near the town are the ruins of a fortress, mentioned as ''Sarapana'' by Strabo and ''Sarapanis'' by Procopius as a strong position on the road that led from Colchis to Iberia (Caucasian Iberia). **Encountered by Dante in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 141'''. * Circe: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Helios, god of the Sun, and sister of Aeetis, king of Colchis. She was an enchantress who lived near the Gulf of Gaeta, who turned the crew of '''Odysseus (#Ulysses)''' into pigs on their journey home from the '''Trojan war (#Troy)'''. But Odysseus, with the help of Hermes, forced her to release his men from her spell (Ovid, ''Met''. XIV, 435–40). She fell in love with Odysseus and he stayed with her for another year and in some accounts, she had a son Telegonus with Odysseus, who was to accidentally kill him. **It is said, by Ulysses (Odysseus), that she "beguiled" him. '''Inf. XXVI, 90–2'''. **One of a group of classical poets (see '''Homer (#Homer)''') encountered in '''Limbo (#Limbo)'''. '''Inf. IV, 89'''. * Hypsipyle: Queen of Lemnos, she was seduced and abandoned by '''Jason (#Jason)''' while in route to the Colchis with the Argonauts. **Pitied by '''Virgil (#Virgil)''' for Jason's actions. '''Inf. XVIII, 88–95'''. **One of two spendthrifts (the other called "Lano" is probably '''Arcolano of Siena (#Lano)''') whose punishment consists of being hunted by female hounds. '''Inf. XIII, 115–29'''. * Jason: Greek mythological (Greek mythology) hero who led the Argonauts to Colchis in search of the Golden Fleece. **Found among the Seducers, for his seduction and abandonment of '''Hypsipyle (#Hypsipyle)''' and '''Medea (#Medea)'''. '''Inf. XVIII, 83–99'''. **How he became an apostle is contrasted with the '''Simoniacs (#Simony)'''. '''Inf. XIX, 94–6'''. * Medea: Mythical (Greek mythology) daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis, she helped '''Jason (#Jason)''' get the Golden Fleece, but was abandoned by him. She took revenge by killing their two children. **For her also is Jason punished. '''Inf. XVIII, 96'''. Importance of ancient civilizations Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian (Colchis) people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair" Herodotus, ''History'', Book II. Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). His interpretation of anthropological data (such as the role of matriarchy) and archeological data led him to conclude that Egyptian culture was a Black African culture. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof (Wolof language) language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. C Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia – Caucasian Iberia - Caucasian Iberians – Caucasus Airlines – Chalybes – Chanturia, Giorgi (Giorgi Chanturia) – Chiaberashvili, Zurab (Zurab Chiaberashvili) – Chiatura – Chibirov, Ludwig (Ludwig Chibirov) – Chiburdanidze, Maia (Maia Chiburdanidze) – Chikobava, Arnold (Arnold Chikobava) – Chikvaidze, Aleksandr (Aleksandr Chikvaidze) – Chilashvili, Levan (Levan Chilashvili) – Cholokashvili, Kakutsa (Kakutsa Cholokashvili) – Choloki River – Chuburkhindji – Coat of Arms of Georgia – Colchis - Colchians – Commonwealth of Independent States – Communist Party of Abkhazia – Communist Party of Georgia – Constantine I of Imereti – Culture of Georgia (Culture of Georgia (country)) '''Anicetus''' was the leader of an unsuccessful anti-Roman (Roman Empire) uprising in Polemonia in 69. Formerly a freedman of King Polemon II of Pontus (Polemon (Cilicia)), Anicetus commanded the royal fleet until Pontus was converted into a Roman province under Emperor Nero in 63. During the civil war (Year of the four emperors#Vitellius to Vespasian) following Nero’s death, Anicetus sided with Vitellius and led a general insurrection against Vespasian in Pontus and Colchis 69. The rebels destroyed the Roman fleet (Roman Navy) (''Classis Pontica'') in a sudden attack on Trapezus and then turned to piracy using a type of boat known as ''camarae''. Pompey in Command On the approach of Pompey, Mithridates retreated towards Armenia (Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)) but was defeated. As Tigranes the Great now refused to receive him into his dominions, Mithridates resolved to plunge into the heart of Colchis, and thence make his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosporus. Pompey now marched against Tigranes, whose kingdom and authority were now severely weakened. Tigranes then sued for peace and met with Pompey to plead a cessation of hostilities. The Armenian Kingdom now became an allied client state of Rome. Mythology In Hellenistic astrology, the sign of the ram was mythologically associated with the golden winged ram that rescued Phrixos and his sister Helle (Helle (mythology)) from the altar where they were to be offered as a sacrifice to Zeus. The golden ram carried them to the land of Colchis but on the way Helle fell into the sea and drowned. When Phrixos arrived at Colchis he sacrificed the ram to Zeus and presented the golden fleece to his father-in-law, the King of Colchis. The fleece was then hung upon a sacred oak and guarded by a dragon until rescued by Jason and the Argonauts. The myth recounts that Zeus was so moved by the ram's fate that he gave it the greatest honour of being moved to the heavens. Marilyn Reid, ''Mythical Star Signs'', p.15. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 9781847536235. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. thumb 250px left Mingrelian lady (right) negotiating with the invading Turks. 1856 (File:Merr Zuther Del'. Interview between Omer Pacha & A Mingrelian lady. Head quarters choloni. Laurence Oliphant. The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha. 1856.P.188.jpg) The Mingrelians are descendants of several Colchian (Colchis) tribes (Such as: Manraloi, Heniochi, Machelones, Macrones, Mossynoeci, Drilae, Zydretae) and constitute one of the building blocks of the unified Georgian nation that emerged after the kingdoms of the west (Colchis) and east (Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)) were united under Christianity in the middle of the first millennium AD. Early in the Middle Ages, Mingrelian aristocracy and clergy, later followed by laymen, adopted the national Georgian tongue as a language of literacy and culture. After the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Mingrelia was an autonomous principality until being annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. In the 1st century BC, after his defeat by Pompey in 63 BC, Mithradates VI (Mithradates VI of Pontus), King of Pontus, fled with a small army from Colchis (modern Georgia) over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares, viceroy of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father. Mithradates had Machares killed, and took the throne of the Bosporan Kingdom. Mithradates then ordered conscription and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces II, his younger son, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates' Pontic army. Mithradates withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide the same year. Pompey the Great buried Mithradates in the rock-cut tombs of his ancestors in Amasya, the old capital of Pontus. thumb 200px ''Heracles and Ladon'', Roman relief plate, late era. (Image:Herakles Ladon Staatliche Antikensammlungen SL89.jpg) '''Ladon''' (Greek (Greek language): Λάδων; gen (Genitive case).: Λάδωνος) was the serpent-like dragon that twined and twisted around the tree in the Garden of the Hesperides (Hesperides) and guarded the golden apples (Golden apple). He was overcome by Heracles. Fifteen long years later, Jason and the Argonauts passed by on their chthonic return journey from Colchis and heard the lament of "shining" Aigle (Aegle (mythology)), one of the three Hesperides, and viewed the still-twitching Ladon. ''Argonautica'', Book IV. , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


century show

Turkey, James Bainbridge, 2009, page 33 Eastern Turkey: The Bradt Travel Guide, Diana Darke, 2011, page 77 The Turks: Early ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002 The words of Lermioglu “today peasants love trees as their children.There were several events which people kill someone for a tree” and a story from 19th century show us that this love comes from very old days. A hunter from Mersin village cut a tree called kragen which was idol of Akcaabat society (Since 1940). Then the peasants called the police and said that the hunter cut the Evliya Turkish (Turkish language) and Arabic (Arabic language) Evliya “Saint”).This event can only be explained with the “paganist” beliefs comes from “Caucasia (Caucasus)”. At first the police understood that the hunter killed a man called Evliya (Saint) but later they saw that the “saint” was a tree so they let the hunter go.It was an example of Colchis culture that can be seen today which was mixed with Islam in Trabzon under the name of saint and common before one God religions that people used to believe in nature. As Apollonius of Rhodes narrates it, when the Argo was driven ashore on the Lesser Syrtes by a fierce storm while returning from Colchis, the Argonauts found themselves in "an area surrounded by sands". They portaged their ship twelve days to Lake Tritonis, but the lake water was salty and undrinkable. Since they could find no outlet from Lake Tritonis to the sea, they could do nothing. Then they propitiated the deities with a golden tripod (sacrificial tripod) on the shore and Triton, the local deity, appeared to them in the form of a youth, to show them a hidden channel to the sea. Apollonius of Rhodes, iv. 1552. - Jason Son of King Aeson of Iolcus (Iolcos), Thessaly. Jason was sent to Colchis to get the golden fleece by his uncle Pelias, who had usurped the throne from Aeson. For this expedition Jason collected a large number of heroes, the Argonauts, and let the ship Argo build. VII: 5-397, VIII: 302-349 , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


presence ancient

: penelope.uchicago.edu holland pliny3.html Pliny on Colchis * Golden graves, archeological evidences * Colchis (Category:Colchis) Category:Former countries in Asia Category:Former monarchies


Circumcision

and African Christianity, Keith Augustus Burton p73 African Presence in Early Asia, Runoko Rashidi, Ivan Van Sertima p59 Letters of certain Jews to Monsieur Voltaire, containing an apology for their own people, and for the Old Testament: Antoine Guénée p464 race. Herodotus states that the Colchians, with the Ancient Egyptians and the Ethiopians, were the first to practice circumcision, a custom which he claims (without historical

(country) Georgia (official, English) '''Iberia (Caucasian Iberia)''' (former, English, East Georgia), '''Colchis''' (former, English, West Georgia), '''Iveria''' (usually used as Christian name), '''Republic of Georgia''' (former, before the 1995 Constitution), '''Sakartvelo''' (in their own language) - The oldest documentary evidence for circumcision comes from ancient Egypt. Tomb artwork from the Sixth Dynasty (2345–2181 BCE) shows men

with circumcised penises, and one relief from this period shows the rite being performed on a standing adult male. The Egyptian hieroglyph for "penis" depicts either a circumcised or an erect organ. The examination of Egyptian mummies has found some with foreskins and others who were circumcised. Circumcision was common, although not universal, among ancient Semitic peoples. The book of Genesis records circumcision as God's covenant command to Abraham


phrase+books

, the Guidebook contains information on lost treasure, a complete survival guide (Survival skills), extensive historical and technical information and phrase books for various more or less common languages (like a minimal lizard phrase book), and many more. However, it does not contain information that a Junior Woodchuck is already supposed to know, such as the location of Cape of Good Hope nor does it contain information on allegedly non-existent things. (In one episode of Duck Tales, the three


people speaking

. Under him, the realm of Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia but also the seaboard from the Bithynian (Bithynia) frontier to Colchis, part of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia. Hereafter the simple name Pontus without qualification was regularly employed to denote the half of this dual province, especially by Romans and people speaking from the Roman point of view; it is so used almost always in the New Testament. The eastern half of the old kingdom was administered as a client kingdom together with Colchis. Its last king was Polemon II (Polemon (Cilicia)). , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


progressive agricultural

of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the 2nd millennium BC, centuries before Greek (Ancient Greece) settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th century BC) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and fertile, well-watered lowlands and a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques. Colchis was inhabited by a number


ancient power

; Systematic archaeological (archaeology) studies (N.Khoshtaria, O.Lordkipanidze) carried out in the Vani environs since 1947 revealed the remnants of a rich city of the ancient power of Colchis. The name of this ancient settlement is still unknown but four distinct stages of uninterrupted occupation have been identified. The first phase is dated to the 8th-7th centuries BC. In this period Vani is presumed to have been a major cultic centre. The second phase - end of the 7th and beginning

Colchis

thumb Colchis and Caucasian Iberia Iberia (File:Colchis and Iberia, VI-III centuries B.C..jpg) in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC thumb Central and southern parts of Colchis, 3rd to 1st centuries BC - 1st century AD (File:Central and southern parts of Colchis and part of Iberia.jpg) thumb Colchis between the Black Sea Black (File:Colchis between the Black and Caspian Seas.jpg) and Caspian Seas (Caspian Sea). London, 1529

In Greco-Roman geography, '''Colchis''' ( ''Kolkhis'', presumably from Kartvelian (Kartvelian languages) ''ḳolkheti'' or ''ḳolkha'') was the name for a region in the Southern Caucasus. Colchis was located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, centered on present-day western Georgia (Georgia (country)). Around the 1st centuries BC and AD the land south of the Greater Caucasus and north of the Lesser Caucasus was divided between Kolchis in the west, Caucasian Iberia in the center and Caucasian Albania in the east. To the southwest was Armenia and to the southeast Atropatene.

The '''Colchians''' were the population native to Colchis. They are assumed to have been early Kartvelian-speaking (Kartvelian languages) tribes, ancestral to the contemporary groups of Svans, Mingrelians and Lazs. Antiquity 1994. p. 359. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia:Значение слова "Колхи" в Большой Советской Энциклопедии; ''The Cambridge Ancient History'', John Anthony Crook, Elizabeth Rawson, p. 255 Ancestors of the Colchians were probably established on the Black Sea coast from as early as the Middle Bronze Age. David Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59

For centuries, until its annexation by Pontus in 164 BC, Colchis was an independent kingdom. This kingdom has been described in modern scholarship as "the earliest Georgian (political) formation". CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84 Colchis (also known in late Antiquity as Lazica, or Egrisi) would later contribute significantly to the development of medieval Georgian statehood (kingdom of Georgia), alongside Iberia (Principate of Iberia). David Braund, Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, Oxford University Press, USA (September 8, 1994) W.E.D. Allen, A history of the Georgian people (1932), p. 123

Colchis is also an important land in Greco-Roman mythology, most notably as the kingdom of Medea and the Golden fleece, destination of the Argonauts.

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