Cluj-Napoca

What is Cluj-Napoca known for?


academic life

-etnie-2011" with an active cultural and academic life: the city features a Hungarian state theatre and opera (Cluj-Napoca Hungarian Theatre), as well as Hungarian research institutions, like ''Erdélyi Múzeumi Egyesület'' (EME), ''Erdélyi Magyar Műszaki Tudományos Társaság'' and ''Bolyai Társaság''.


providing coverage

infrastructure) since the deregulation of the market in 2003. Currently, cable TV is available in most of the country, including most rural areas (where roughly 40% of the population lives). Satellite digital TV appeared in 2004, providing coverage for the rest of the country, with both RCS&RDS and UPC-Astral having a stake in these companies. IPTV (over DSL) is also planned by Romtelecom through its TV service (Dolce), after offering Satellite digital DTH TV. However, IPTV will not be much of a competition, since the other two big ISPs are also the two biggest CATV providers. Some proposals have been made about building a metro networks in some of the other largest cities in the country, such as one in Cluj-Napoca, http: infrastructura.info ?articol Metrou_pe_sub_Cluj_si_troleibuz_pana_la_Gilau_articol886.html and in Brașov. http: www.metrou.ro brasov.php * Romania has an embassy in Paris, 3 general consulates (in Lyon, Marseille and Strasbourg) and 4 honorary consulates (in Bordeaux, Brest (Brest, France), Nantes and Nice). * France has an embassy in Bucharest and 3 honorary consulates (in Constanţa, Cluj-Napoca and Timişoara). * Romania has an embassy in Budapest, 2 general consulates (in Gyula (Gyula, Hungary) and Szeged) and the Romanian Cultural Institute in Budapest. * Hungary has an embassy in Bucharest, 2 general consulates (in Cluj-Napoca and Miercurea-Ciuc) and 2 honorary consulates (in Constanţa and Iaşi). * Romania has an embassy in Rome, 4 general consulates (in Bologna, Milan, Turin and Trieste), 6 honorary consulates (in Ancona, Florence, Genoa, Napoli, Trento, Treviso) and 2 Romanian Cultural Institutes (in Rome and Venice) * Italy has an embassy in Bucharest, a general consulate in Timişoara and 4 honorary consulates (in Cluj-Napoca, Constanţa, Craiova and Piatra Neamţ). * Romania has an embassy in Ankara, 2 consulates-general in Istanbul and İzmir., Romanian embassies in Turkey 4 honorary consulates (in Antalya, Bursa, Edirne and Konya) and Romanian Cultural Institute "Dimitrie Cantemir" in Istanbul. * Turkey has an embassy in Bucharest, a consulate-general in Constanţa and 2 honorary consulates (in Cluj-Napoca and Iaşi). * Transylvania was first referred to in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ''ultra silvam'', meaning "beyond the forest" (''ultra'' (+accusative) meaning "beyond" or "on the far side of" and the accusative case of ''sylva'' (sylvam) meaning "wood or forest"). Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form ''Ultrasylvania'', later ''Transylvania'', was a direct translation from the Hungarian (Hungarian language) form ''Erdő-elve'' (rather than the Hungarian being derived from the Latin). Engel, Pál (2001). ''Realm of St. Stephen: History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526 (International Library of Historical Studies)'', page 24, London: I.B. Taurus. ISBN 1-86064-061-3 That also was used as an alternative name in Ukrainian (Ukrainian language) Залісся (''Zalissya''). * The German (German language) name ''Siebenbürgen'' means "seven fortresses", after the seven (ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region. The order in which they were settled in Transylvania being as follows : — Mediasch (Mediaş), 1142 ; Muhlenbach (Sebeș), 1150 ; Hermannstadt (Sibiu), the capital, 1160 ; Klausenburg (Cluj-Napoca), 1178; Schässburg (Sighișoara), 1178 ; Reussmarkt (Miercurea Sibiului), 1198 ; Broos (Orăştie), 1200. To these seven were subsequently added two others, Bistritz (Bistriţa), 1206 ; and Kronstadt (Braşov), 1208. Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic by Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Transylvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria-Brockhaus page 61 This is also the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Polish (Polish language) ''Siedmiogród'' and the Ukrainian Семигород (''Semyhorod''). * The Hungarian form ''Erdély'' was first mentioned in the 12th century Gesta Hungarorum as "Erdeuleu". ''Erdel'', the Turkish (Turkish language) equivalent originates from this form, too. thumb left 200px Porta Praetoria at Porolissum (File:Gate Porolissum.jpg), Dacia (Roman Dacia) (modern Transylvania, Romania) In 101-102 and 105-106 AD, Roman (Roman Empire) armies under the Emperor Trajan fought a series of military campaigns (Trajan's Dacian Wars) to subjugate the wealthy Dacian Kingdom. By 106, under Trajan they succeeded in subduing the southern and central regions of Dacia. After the conquest, the Romans seized an enormous amount of wealth (the Dacian Wars were commemorated on Trajan's Column in Rome) and immediately started to exploit the Dacian gold (Alburnus Maior) and salt mines located in today's territory of Transylvania. Roman influence was broadened by the construction of modern roads and some existing major cities such as Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa and Dierna (today Orşova) became Roman colonies (Colonia (Roman)). The new province was divided under Hadrian: ''Dacia Superior'', corresponding roughly to Transylvania and ''Dacia Inferior'', similar to the region of South Romania (Walachia). WikiPedia:Cluj-Napoca Commons:Category:Cluj-Napoca


world film

name "Wakeman" Wakeman, John. World Film Directors, Volume 2. The H. W. Wilson Company. 1988. 465-472. After graduation he studied law in Pécs, receiving his degree in Kolozsvár (Cluj (Cluj-Napoca)) in 1944. He also took courses in art history and ethnography, which he continued to study in Transylvania. After graduating, Jancsó served in World War II and was briefly a prisoner of war. He registered with the legal Bar


largest variety

Noapte alt url http: www.umbradenoapte.com email address str. Georges Clemenceau 7 lat long directions phone tollfree fax hours price content It's a place where you can meet with friends or relax and read dark literature or international magazines. Enjoy varieties of coffee and tea specialties, soft drinks, beer, wine, spirits; Romania's largest variety of absinthe; nonalcoholic, alcoholic and absinthe-cocktails as well as season-specials like iced coffee


productions set

of the motion picture. Documentary and mockumentary productions set in the city include Irshad Ashraf's ''St. Richard of Austin'', a tribute to the American film director Richard Linklater, WikiPedia:Cluj-Napoca Commons:Category:Cluj-Napoca


national program

* National Caricaturist Network, a cartoonists' trade association * Napoca Cable Network, a local television from Cluj-Napoca, Romania '''Solomon Stramer''', was the leader of a Yiddish theater troupe founded in Vienna, Austria, but based in Cluj (Cluj-Napoca), Romania from 1919 at least until the late 1920s. For a time, his troupe had the exclusive right to perform Yiddish-language theater in Transylvania, an area which at that time was home to about 300,000 Jews. Hungarian order of battle Bem had returned to Transylvania after a sally to Moldavia against Russian forces under the command of General Ustrugov. He prepared an offensive against the Russian army group under General Grotenhjelm. He had to cancel this offensive because he got information that the Lüders, having captured the Vöröstorony pass (now Turnu Roşu Pass, Romania) and the city of Nagyszeben (now Sibiu, Romania), was advancing towards him. Bem knew that a battle against Lüders would be decisive for the campaign in Transylvania so he decided to concentrate his forces. He sent orders to Colonel Kemény, commander of the Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) (now Cluj-Napoca) Division, that it was to go to Segesvár (now Sighisoara, Romania) and support the main Hungarian forces in the fight against the Russian V corps. Hungarian order of battle Bem had returned to Transylvania after a sally to Moldavia against Russian forces under the command of General Ustrugov. He prepared an offensive against the Russian army group under General Grotenhjelm. He had to cancel this offensive because he got information that the Lüders, having captured the Vöröstorony pass (now Turnu Roşu Pass, Romania) and the city of Nagyszeben (now Sibiu, Romania), was advancing towards him. Bem knew that a battle against Lüders would be decisive for the campaign in Transylvania so he decided to concentrate his forces. He sent orders to Colonel Kemény, commander of the Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) (now Cluj-Napoca) Division, that it was to go to Segesvár (now Sighisoara, Romania) and support the main Hungarian forces in the fight against the Russian V corps. ''Hungarians'' are seen as proud, but naive. The stereotypical Hungarian is called Ianoş (János) and usually is accompanied by a Romanian named Ion (Ion (name)). :The Cluj (Cluj-Napoca) local administration discusses erecting of a statue of Avram Iancu. A councilor says "The statue should have


largest technical

, and econometrics, and founded the field of statistical sequential analysis. WikiPedia:Cluj-Napoca Commons:Category:Cluj-Napoca


film characters

straightforward of his film characters, and indicates that working with screenwriter Cristi Puiu impressed him. In 2004, he and Puiu collaborated on the short film ''Cigarettes and Coffee (Cigarettes and Coffee (2004 short film))'', which received the Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival. Rebengiuc, who portrayed one of three characters (The Father


military publishing

, at the time, covered the larger part of the Romanian population in Transylvania). Ioan N. Ciolan, Constantin Voicu, Mihai Racovițan, "Transylvania:Romanian history and perpetuation, or, what official Hungarian documents say", Military Publishing House, 1993 The followers of the first theory emphasize that the Magyars must have been engaged with their internal affairs after the conquest of the eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin, because they did not intervene


title technical

WikiPedia:Cluj-Napoca Commons:Category:Cluj-Napoca

Cluj-Napoca

'''Cluj-Napoca''' ( ). Located in the Someșul Mic River valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province (Historical regions of Romania) of Transylvania. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.

As of 2011, 324,576 inhabitants live within the city limits, marking a slight increase from the figure recorded at the 2002 census.

The city spreads out from St. Michael's Church (St. Michael's Church, Cluj-Napoca) in Unirii Square (Unirii Square, Cluj-Napoca), built in the 14th century and named after the Archangel Michael (Michael (archangel)), the patron saint of Cluj-Napoca.

Cluj-Napoca experienced a decade of decline during the 1990s, its international reputation suffering from the policies of its mayor of the time, Gheorghe Funar.

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