Cholula, Puebla

What is Cholula, Puebla known for?


visual location

destinations. *


providing food

gateways of flowers, and more decorating the route. When the image comes down off the pyramid, she travels through all ten neighborhoods three times in an event called the "circulares." Each circulare is dedicated to a different saint, and presided over by a mayordomo. Each neighborhood sponsors one of the circulares every ten years, providing food and drink, incense and other necessities for the rite. She descends again on August 11, all the way


poor people

a population of about 100,000 and overpopulation meant that many poor people often lacked food. Cortés had arrived to Cholula after the Spanish victory of the Tlaxcalans (Tlaxcala (Nahua state)), and he was supposed to meet Moctezuma II here. Since Cholula was allied with the Aztecs, the Spanish and their new Tlaxcalan allies were suspicious of this arrangement. There are two accounts of what happened next. Spanish


images called

is the Virgin's day, which commemorates her appearance in the city. Events include indigenous dancing such as the Concheros performed in the atrium and other locations, and pilgrims bring offerings to the image. In the afternoon, there is a burning of images called a "panzones." A panzon is an effigy made of crepe paper with fireworks in its belly. "Panzon" means "large belly." This effigy


local religious

These people kept the pyramid as their primary religious center, but the newly dominant Toltec-Chichimecas founded a new temple to Quetzacoatl where the San Gabriel monastery is now.The Toltec-Chichimec people who settled in the area around the 12th century CE named Cholula as ''Tlachihualtepetl'', meaning "artificial hill". Brand name The hot sauce is named after the 2,500-year-old city of Cholula, Puebla, the oldest still-inhabited city in Mexico. The name "Cholula" is derived from the Nahuatl toponym ''Chollollan'', meaning "the place of the retreat." In 1999, the Borregos Salvajes obtained a second championship when defeating again the Aztecs of the UDLA by score of 38-25, this time the game was celebrated in the field nicknamed the Temple of the Pain in Cholula, Puebla. In the 2000, the squad arrives at the final game but this time in front of its brothers of the Campus Estado de Mexico, and falling by a score of 38-28, in a game that was celebrated at the "Plastic Corral" Stadium in the State of Mexico. During the last days of her life, she lived in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, and died at her home in San Andres Cholula (San_Andrés_Cholula_(municipality)), accompanied by her daughters and grandchildren, where her surviving family still live. Mendoza had been given his choice of the Viceroyalty of Mexico or of Peru, with Velasco to fill the other office. Velasco arrived at San Juan de Ulúa, New Spain on August 23, 1550. He spent the month of September in Puebla, while Mendoza was making his choice. Finally the two men decided to meet in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), and there Mendoza chose Peru. On November 25, 1550, Velasco made his official entry into Mexico City, thus becoming Viceroy of New Spain. He served until his death there on July 31, 1564. '''Estadio Templo del Dolor''' is a stadium in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), Puebla, Mexico. It is primarily used for American football and is the home field of the Aztecas de la UDLA. It holds 13,000 people. Sometimes more.


paintings called

these religious events, as well as traditions involving communal labor and commercial patterns. People and entire neighborhood rotate certain religious and ceremonial duties, which are called cargas. Many revolve around neighborhood and other local patron saints. These festivals require much work, money and organization. For example, during major festivals, the church of San Andres is richly decorated in flowers, and there are sand paintings called carpets on the ground in Biblical designs. During the week-long feast of Saint Andrew, there is also folk ballet, musical performances and firework shows at night. The most important festival in any of the neighborhood is that of the patron saint. The night before the church is decorated with lamps and then fireworks are set off to announce the event. The next day, Las Mañanitas is sung to the image, there are a number of Masses (mass (liturgy)) and it is possible to receive a "visit" by the image of another saint from another neighborhood. During one of the Masses, the carga is transferred to a new mayordomo or person in charge, which is usually attended by mayordomos from other neighborhoods. After this mass, food is offered to all in attendance. Cargas generally last for one year and start small, such as being in charge of cleaning the neighborhood church, collecting alms and acting as a go-between for the priest and parishioners. However, most involve the sponsorship of the many religious festivals that take place in the city. This system is one of the more complex of its type in the world. Receiving a carga gives the person, called a mayordomo, prestige from the community since he is considered to be working for the common good. Mayordomos can be men, women and even children. The most prestigious carga is to be the mayordomo of the neighborhood's patron saint. This mayordomo receives a certain amount of authority and even a silver scepter along with physical possession of the image. The wives of these mayordomos, carry silver baskets. Even more prestigious than this is to be a mayordomo of a city-wide festival which is organized among the neighborhoods. These include the festival of the Virgin of the Remedies, the Fiesta del Pueblo, and events related to Holy Week. Important festivals thumb Image of the Virgin of the Remedies at the church (File:ImageNSRCholula.JPG) The most important festival period in Cholula extends from 31 August to the middle of September, which revolves around the patron saint of the city, the Virgin of the Remedies. On the night of August 31, there is the Procesión de los Faroles (Procession of the Lamps). It begins with a procession around the streets of the city, with each neighborhood carrying an image of its patron saint. At nine pm, the procession arrives to San Gabriel monastery to sing and pray during what is called the "hora santa" (holy hour). The night ends at the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios church on top of the pyramid with Mass and the singing of "Las Mañanitas" to the Virgin. This tradition is recent, being only about twenty years old. The '''feast of the Virgin of the Remedies''' officially begins on September 1 and lasts for about a week. The events of the week lead up to September 8, which is the Virgin's day, which commemorates her appearance in the city. Events include indigenous dancing such as the Concheros performed in the atrium and other locations, and pilgrims bring offerings to the image. In the afternoon, there is a burning of images called a "panzones." A panzon is an effigy made of crepe paper with fireworks in its belly. "Panzon" means "large belly." This effigy is burned, with the fireworks going off last. After it is burned, it is taken to the neighborhood which is charged with the creation of a new one the following year. After the veneration of the image, visitors gather in the Concordia Plaza for the "trueque" (trade), to exchange and sell goods, a tradition from the pre-Hispanic period. Common items include cheese from Chiautla (cheeses of Mexico), fresh and dried herbs (both culinary and medicinal), ocote These people kept the pyramid as their primary religious center, but the newly dominant Toltec-Chichimecas founded a new temple to Quetzacoatl where the San Gabriel monastery is now.The Toltec-Chichimec people who settled in the area around the 12th century CE named Cholula as ''Tlachihualtepetl'', meaning "artificial hill". Brand name The hot sauce is named after the 2,500-year-old city of Cholula, Puebla, the oldest still-inhabited city in Mexico. The name "Cholula" is derived from the Nahuatl toponym ''Chollollan'', meaning "the place of the retreat." In 1999, the Borregos Salvajes obtained a second championship when defeating again the Aztecs of the UDLA by score of 38-25, this time the game was celebrated in the field nicknamed the Temple of the Pain in Cholula, Puebla. In the 2000, the squad arrives at the final game but this time in front of its brothers of the Campus Estado de Mexico, and falling by a score of 38-28, in a game that was celebrated at the "Plastic Corral" Stadium in the State of Mexico. During the last days of her life, she lived in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, and died at her home in San Andres Cholula (San_Andrés_Cholula_(municipality)), accompanied by her daughters and grandchildren, where her surviving family still live. Mendoza had been given his choice of the Viceroyalty of Mexico or of Peru, with Velasco to fill the other office. Velasco arrived at San Juan de Ulúa, New Spain on August 23, 1550. He spent the month of September in Puebla, while Mendoza was making his choice. Finally the two men decided to meet in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), and there Mendoza chose Peru. On November 25, 1550, Velasco made his official entry into Mexico City, thus becoming Viceroy of New Spain. He served until his death there on July 31, 1564. '''Estadio Templo del Dolor''' is a stadium in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), Puebla, Mexico. It is primarily used for American football and is the home field of the Aztecas de la UDLA. It holds 13,000 people. Sometimes more.


massive complex

; Around the pyramid, there are a number of other structures and patios, which forma a massive complex. The Patio of the Altars was the main access to the pyramid and is named for the various altars that surround a main courtyard. The Cholula Pyramid site museum is located across the street from the north side of the pyramid, separated by the main road that connects Cholula to Puebla. ref name "zonaviva" >


important social

and cargas thumb Procession in Cholula (File:Saint Prosession.jpg) The city of Cholula is made up of two municipalities: San Pedro Cholula and San Andrés Cholula. The more important social division is a system of neighborhoods or barrios. San Pedro consists of eight neighborhoods: are San Miguel Tianguisnahuac, Jesús Tlatempa, Santiago Mixquitla, San Matias Cocoyotla, San Juan Calvario Texpolco, San Cristóbal Tepontla, Santa María Xixitla, La Magdalena Coapa, San Pedro Mexicaltzingo and San Pablo Tecama. San Andrés consists of ten: San Miguel Xochimehuacan, Santiago Xicotenco, San Pedro Colomoxco, Santa María Coaco, La Santísima, San Juan Aquiahuac, San Andresito and Santo Niño. In the pre-Hispanic period (Mesoamerican chronology), the city was a mixture of ethnicities. What unified them was a common religious belief. After the Conquest, the Spanish reorganized the pre Hispanic neighborhoods or capullis around various patron saints. These neighborhoods remain to this day, whose names refer to their patron saint affixed before the original pre-Hispanic name. The neighborhoods closest to the center are urbanized, with those on the edges of the city maintaining more of their rural character, with economies based on agriculture and brick making (brickworks). Despite five centuries of change and growth since the Conquest, modem Cholultecans maintain many traditional practices, which exist within a vital fabric of local religious and cultural life. These traditional practices very likely have pre Hispanic roots, including a ten-year cycle, called the "circular" of rotating city-wide religious duties among the various neighborhoods. There are religious festivals of one kind or another almost all year round somewhere in the Cholula area. Social life within and among the various neighborhoods is organized around these religious events, as well as traditions involving communal labor and commercial patterns. People and entire neighborhood rotate certain religious and ceremonial duties, which are called cargas. Many revolve around neighborhood and other local patron saints. These festivals require much work, money and organization. For example, during major festivals, the church of San Andres is richly decorated in flowers, and there are sand paintings called carpets on the ground in Biblical designs. During the week-long feast of Saint Andrew, there is also folk ballet, musical performances and firework shows at night. The most important festival in any of the neighborhood is that of the patron saint. The night before the church is decorated with lamps and then fireworks are set off to announce the event. The next day, Las Mañanitas is sung to the image, there are a number of Masses (mass (liturgy)) and it is possible to receive a "visit" by the image of another saint from another neighborhood. During one of the Masses, the carga is transferred to a new mayordomo or person in charge, which is usually attended by mayordomos from other neighborhoods. After this mass, food is offered to all in attendance. Cargas generally last for one year and start small, such as being in charge of cleaning the neighborhood church, collecting alms and acting as a go-between for the priest and parishioners. However, most involve the sponsorship of the many religious festivals that take place in the city. This system is one of the more complex of its type in the world. Receiving a carga gives the person, called a mayordomo, prestige from the community since he is considered to be working for the common good. Mayordomos can be men, women and even children. The most prestigious carga is to be the mayordomo of the neighborhood's patron saint. This mayordomo receives a certain amount of authority and even a silver scepter along with physical possession of the image. The wives of these mayordomos, carry silver baskets. Even more prestigious than this is to be a mayordomo of a city-wide festival which is organized among the neighborhoods. These include the festival of the Virgin of the Remedies, the Fiesta del Pueblo, and events related to Holy Week. Important festivals thumb Image of the Virgin of the Remedies at the church (File:ImageNSRCholula.JPG) The most important festival period in Cholula extends from 31 August to the middle of September, which revolves around the patron saint of the city, the Virgin of the Remedies. On the night of August 31, there is the Procesión de los Faroles (Procession of the Lamps). It begins with a procession around the streets of the city, with each neighborhood carrying an image of its patron saint. At nine pm, the procession arrives to San Gabriel monastery to sing and pray during what is called the "hora santa" (holy hour). The night ends at the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios church on top of the pyramid with Mass and the singing of "Las Mañanitas" to the Virgin. This tradition is recent, being only about twenty years old. The '''feast of the Virgin of the Remedies''' officially begins on September 1 and lasts for about a week. The events of the week lead up to September 8, which is the Virgin's day, which commemorates her appearance in the city. Events include indigenous dancing such as the Concheros performed in the atrium and other locations, and pilgrims bring offerings to the image. In the afternoon, there is a burning of images called a "panzones." A panzon is an effigy made of crepe paper with fireworks in its belly. "Panzon" means "large belly." This effigy is burned, with the fireworks going off last. After it is burned, it is taken to the neighborhood which is charged with the creation of a new one the following year. After the veneration of the image, visitors gather in the Concordia Plaza for the "trueque" (trade), to exchange and sell goods, a tradition from the pre-Hispanic period. Common items include cheese from Chiautla (cheeses of Mexico), fresh and dried herbs (both culinary and medicinal), ocote These people kept the pyramid as their primary religious center, but the newly dominant Toltec-Chichimecas founded a new temple to Quetzacoatl where the San Gabriel monastery is now.The Toltec-Chichimec people who settled in the area around the 12th century CE named Cholula as ''Tlachihualtepetl'', meaning "artificial hill". Brand name The hot sauce is named after the 2,500-year-old city of Cholula, Puebla, the oldest still-inhabited city in Mexico. The name "Cholula" is derived from the Nahuatl toponym ''Chollollan'', meaning "the place of the retreat." In 1999, the Borregos Salvajes obtained a second championship when defeating again the Aztecs of the UDLA by score of 38-25, this time the game was celebrated in the field nicknamed the Temple of the Pain in Cholula, Puebla. In the 2000, the squad arrives at the final game but this time in front of its brothers of the Campus Estado de Mexico, and falling by a score of 38-28, in a game that was celebrated at the "Plastic Corral" Stadium in the State of Mexico. During the last days of her life, she lived in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, and died at her home in San Andres Cholula (San_Andrés_Cholula_(municipality)), accompanied by her daughters and grandchildren, where her surviving family still live. Mendoza had been given his choice of the Viceroyalty of Mexico or of Peru, with Velasco to fill the other office. Velasco arrived at San Juan de Ulúa, New Spain on August 23, 1550. He spent the month of September in Puebla, while Mendoza was making his choice. Finally the two men decided to meet in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), and there Mendoza chose Peru. On November 25, 1550, Velasco made his official entry into Mexico City, thus becoming Viceroy of New Spain. He served until his death there on July 31, 1564. '''Estadio Templo del Dolor''' is a stadium in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), Puebla, Mexico. It is primarily used for American football and is the home field of the Aztecas de la UDLA. It holds 13,000 people. Sometimes more.


main great

finished. These details include pre-Hispanic elements such as dark skinned angels, niches with headdresses, tropical fruits and ears of corn. This area was sacred to Tonantzin, the mother goddess, and the Spanish replaced her with an image of the Virgin Mary. Pyramid of Cholula and Nuestra Señora de los Remedios Church These people kept the pyramid as their primary religious center, but the newly dominant Toltec-Chichimecas founded a new temple to Quetzacoatl where the San Gabriel monastery is now.The Toltec-Chichimec people who settled in the area around the 12th century CE named Cholula as ''Tlachihualtepetl'', meaning "artificial hill". Brand name The hot sauce is named after the 2,500-year-old city of Cholula, Puebla, the oldest still-inhabited city in Mexico. The name "Cholula" is derived from the Nahuatl toponym ''Chollollan'', meaning "the place of the retreat." In 1999, the Borregos Salvajes obtained a second championship when defeating again the Aztecs of the UDLA by score of 38-25, this time the game was celebrated in the field nicknamed the Temple of the Pain in Cholula, Puebla. In the 2000, the squad arrives at the final game but this time in front of its brothers of the Campus Estado de Mexico, and falling by a score of 38-28, in a game that was celebrated at the "Plastic Corral" Stadium in the State of Mexico. During the last days of her life, she lived in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, and died at her home in San Andres Cholula (San_Andrés_Cholula_(municipality)), accompanied by her daughters and grandchildren, where her surviving family still live. Mendoza had been given his choice of the Viceroyalty of Mexico or of Peru, with Velasco to fill the other office. Velasco arrived at San Juan de Ulúa, New Spain on August 23, 1550. He spent the month of September in Puebla, while Mendoza was making his choice. Finally the two men decided to meet in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), and there Mendoza chose Peru. On November 25, 1550, Velasco made his official entry into Mexico City, thus becoming Viceroy of New Spain. He served until his death there on July 31, 1564. '''Estadio Templo del Dolor''' is a stadium in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), Puebla, Mexico. It is primarily used for American football and is the home field of the Aztecas de la UDLA. It holds 13,000 people. Sometimes more.


monumental construction

over the Puebla-Tlaxcala region, with more monumental construction, including the addition of two stages to the Great Pyramid. thumb Ceramics displayed at the Pyramid site museum (File:CeramicsMuseumCholula.JPG) During this time period, there is also evidence of influence from the larger Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico. However, the exact nature of the relationship between the two cities is not entirely known. One stage of the Great Pyramid is done in talud-tablero architecture, similar to that of Teotihuacan, but the next stage uses a different style, with stairs leading to the top on all four sides. The stage after this one, built during the decline of Teotihuacan, again returns to talud-tablero. Pottery styles between the two cities are similar, especially in the early Classic period, but living spaces and some religious iconography was different. When Teotihuacan declined, Cholula also suffered a significant population decline. At this time, the area took part in the Epi-classic central Mexican culture, and the iconography changes to show Gulf coast influence. Religious focus was kept on the Great Pyramid, but added its own layers to the work. In the 12th century, Nahua peoples migrated to the Valley of Puebla after the fall of Tula. Eventually, this group was able to displace the Oto-mangue speakers as the ruling class, pushing them to the area south of the Great Pyramid. Kaufman has proposed that the displacement of Mangue speakers to southern Mesoamerica happened at this point. However, the remaining in this area retained a certain amount of political autonomy, which would create division in the city that remains to this day. The new lords, calling themselves the Chololtecs, shifted religious focus away from the Great Pyramid and to a new temple constructed to Quetzalcoatl. As part of this shift, some of the final construction phases of the Pyramid were destroyed. However, the Chololtecs would face continued hostilities from the previous inhabitants who dominated settlements around the city. In the Post-classic period, Cholula (900–1521) grew to its largest size and returned to its status as a regionally dominant city. The city's location was strategic, on the trade routes between the Valley of Mexico, the Valley of Oaxaca and the Gulf of Mexico, making it a major mercantile center. A variant of an artistic style and iconography, especially in pottery, spread from Cholula to Culhuacán in and other areas in the Valley of Mexico, then to other areas in Mesoamerica. This cultural trait is called Mixteca-Puebla and it was spread by the vast trading networks that existed in Mesoamerica at that time. These people kept the pyramid as their primary religious center, but the newly dominant Toltec-Chichimecas founded a new temple to Quetzacoatl where the San Gabriel monastery is now.The Toltec-Chichimec people who settled in the area around the 12th century CE named Cholula as ''Tlachihualtepetl'', meaning "artificial hill". Brand name The hot sauce is named after the 2,500-year-old city of Cholula, Puebla, the oldest still-inhabited city in Mexico. The name "Cholula" is derived from the Nahuatl toponym ''Chollollan'', meaning "the place of the retreat." In 1999, the Borregos Salvajes obtained a second championship when defeating again the Aztecs of the UDLA by score of 38-25, this time the game was celebrated in the field nicknamed the Temple of the Pain in Cholula, Puebla. In the 2000, the squad arrives at the final game but this time in front of its brothers of the Campus Estado de Mexico, and falling by a score of 38-28, in a game that was celebrated at the "Plastic Corral" Stadium in the State of Mexico. During the last days of her life, she lived in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, and died at her home in San Andres Cholula (San_Andrés_Cholula_(municipality)), accompanied by her daughters and grandchildren, where her surviving family still live. Mendoza had been given his choice of the Viceroyalty of Mexico or of Peru, with Velasco to fill the other office. Velasco arrived at San Juan de Ulúa, New Spain on August 23, 1550. He spent the month of September in Puebla, while Mendoza was making his choice. Finally the two men decided to meet in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), and there Mendoza chose Peru. On November 25, 1550, Velasco made his official entry into Mexico City, thus becoming Viceroy of New Spain. He served until his death there on July 31, 1564. '''Estadio Templo del Dolor''' is a stadium in Cholula (Cholula, Puebla), Puebla, Mexico. It is primarily used for American football and is the home field of the Aztecas de la UDLA. It holds 13,000 people. Sometimes more.

Cholula, Puebla

'''Cholula''' is a city and district located in the center west of the state of Puebla, next to the city of Puebla de Zaragoza, in central Mexico. Cholula is best known for its Great Pyramid (Great Pyramid of Cholula), with the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios sanctuary on top and its numerous churches. The city and district are divided into two, San Pedro Cholula and San Andrés Cholula, which together are officially called the Distrito Cholula de Rivadavia. Surrounding the city proper is a number of more rural communities which belong to the municipalities (municipalities of Mexico) of San Andrés and San Pedro. The city itself is divided into eighteen neighborhoods or barrios, each with a patron saint. This division has pre-Hispanic origins as does the division into two municipalities. The city is unified by a complicated system of shared religious responsibilities, called cargas, which function mostly to support a very busy calendar of saints' days and other festivals which occur in one part or another almost all year round. The most important of these festivals is that dedicated to the Virgin of the Remedies (Virgin of Los Remedios), the patron of the city in its entirety, which occurs at the beginning of September.

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