Carpathian Ruthenia

What is Carpathian Ruthenia known for?


local religious

, and these cultural and political orientation impacted the local religious communities. Even before the first world war already quite a lot of distant mountain communities were de facto Orthodox, where priests simply ceased to follow the Uniate canons. However, much more significant changes took place in the interwar period. The number of parishes statistics seems to be more reliable and consistent even though it may not necessarily directly translate into the numbers of adherents. By number


century modern

was officially allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city. After the Munich Treaty, Uzhhorod became part of the Slovak half of the new Czecho-Slovak state. 21st century Modern revanchist politics often center around certain areas of historic competition and claims of ownership, as in the cases of Carpathian Ruthenia, Kosovo, with its


legal history

and Knowledge (Культура й ocвiтa). * Shandor, Vincent (1997). ''Carpatho-Ukraine in the Twentieth Century: A Political and Legal History'', Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-916458-86-5 * Stercho, Peter (1959). ''Carpatho-Ukraine in International Affairs: 1938-1939'', Notre Dame. * Subtelny, Orest (3rd edition, 2000). ''Ukraine: A History'', University of Toronto Press ISBN 0-8020-8390-0 * Wilson, Andrew (2nd edition, 2002). ''The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation


quot played

;). The "Ruska Triytsia" and Western Ukrainian National Revival Although short-lived, a group of young Galician poets and scholars, established in the 1830s and known as the "Ruthenian Triad," played a decisive role in the Western Ukrainian cultural revival of the 19th century. Comprised by Markiian Shashkevych, Yakiv Holovatsky, and Ivan Vahylevych, the "Ruthenian Triad" united around itself other young people who began to research Ukrainian history and culture


active strength

;ref Richard Overy, ''Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945'', Penguin Books, 1998, ISBN 0-14-027169-4 p. XV The official Russian statistics for military dead do not include an additional estimated 500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed before being listed on active strength, 1,000,000 civilians treated as POW by Germany; and an estimated 150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead, which are considered civilian war losses in the official


time significant

, after the annexation of Zaolzie, the area grew to 389,720 km².), and 27.2 million inhabitants according to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921). In 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, it had an estimated 35.1 million inhabitants. Almost a third of these were of minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians (Ukraine); 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans; and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders (see Poles in the former Soviet Union). *1928 – The Outerbridge Crossing and Goethals Bridge in Staten Island, New York are both opened. *1945 – Carpathian Ruthenia is annexed by the Soviet Union. *1950 – The United States (United States men's national soccer team) defeats (England v United States (1950)) England (England national football team) during the 1950 FIFA World Cup. In March 1939, Ribbentrop assigned the largely ethnic Ukrainian Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia (Carpathian Ruthenia) region of Czecho-Slovakia, which had just proclaimed its independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, to Hungary, which then proceeded to annex it after a short war. Rothwell, Victor ''The Origins of the Second World War'', Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 2001 pages 118–119. The significance of this lies in that there had been many fears in the Soviet Union in the 1930s that the Germans would use Ukrainian nationalism as a tool for breaking up the Soviet Union. The establishment of an autonomous Ukrainian region in Czecho-Slovakia in October 1938 had promoted a major Soviet media campaign against its existence on the grounds that this was part of a Western plot to support separatism in the Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Rothwell, Victor ''The Origins of the Second World War'', Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 2001 page 119. By allowing the Hungarians to destroy Europe's only Ukrainian state, Ribbentrop had signified that Germany was not interested (at least for the moment) in sponsoring Ukrainian nationalism. This in turn helped to improve German-Soviet relations by demonstrating that German foreign policy was now primarily anti-Western rather than anti-Soviet. thumb 250px Bavarian playing cards (image:Schafkopf Tarock bayerisches Bild.jpg) The cards of Hungary (Culture of Hungary), Austria (Culture of Austria), Slovenia (Culture of Slovenia), the Czech Republic (Culture of the Czech Republic), Northern Croatia (Culture of Croatia), Slovakia (Culture of Slovakia), Western Romania (Culture of Romania), Transcarpathia (Carpathian Ruthenia) in Ukraine (Culture of Ukraine), Vojvodina in Serbia (Culture of Serbia) and South Tyrol use the same suits (Hearts, Bells, Leaves and Acorns) as the cards of Southern and Eastern Germany. They usually have a deck of 32 or 36 cards. The numbering includes VII, VIII, IX, X, Under, Over, King and Ace. Some variations with 36 cards have also the number VI. The VI in bells also has the function like a joker (joker (playing card)) in some games and it is named ''Welli'' or ''Weli''. In 1918, Slovakia and the regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia (Czech Silesia) and Carpathian Ruthenia formed a common state, Czechoslovakia, with the borders confirmed by the Treaty of Saint Germain (Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)) and Treaty of Trianon. In 1919, during the chaos following the breakup of Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia was formed with numerous Germans and Hungarians within the newly set borders. A Slovak patriot Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880–1919), who helped organize Czechoslovak regiments against Austria-Hungary during the First World War, died in a plane crash. In the peace following the World War, Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign European nation. **Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko) expanded by Irpen (User:Irpen) 07:13, Jun 9, 2005 (UTC) *New stub: '''Carpatho-Ukraine''', mostly material from Carpathian Ruthenia. ''—Michael (User:Mzajac ) Z. (User talk:Mzajac )  2005-06-7 02:10 Z '' *Wrote a bit of history for '''Ukrainian National Republic''', up to the start of the Directoriya. As a result of First Vienna Award Czechoslovakia was forced to give up territory to Poland and Hungary (southern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia. While conflicts with Polish forces were minor, clash with Hungarian forces and partisans (''Szabadczapatok'') was more intense (starting in November 1939). From January to March 1939 (until Czechoslovakia was dissolved) heavy clashes occurred between Hungarian forces and guard and the army in Ruthenia. Czechoslovakian units were forced to withdraw in three directions - to Slovakia, Poland and Romania. During March the units also faced local insurgents (''Sičovci'') attempting to establish independent Ruthenian state (Carpatho-Ukraine).


political position

of Pozsony (today Bratislava). Historical revisionism was often used by both proponents still feel nostalgic for the old Hungarian Kingdom, but outright territorial revisionism remains a marginalized political position. Carpathian Rus In late 1938, soon after the Munich Conference, Józef Kasparek, a 23-year-old Lwów


hungarian

mountains"). This is contrasted implicitly with ''Prykarpattia'' (Ciscarpathia; " Near-Carpathia), an unofficial region in Ukraine, to the immediate north-east of the central area of the Carpathian Range, and potentially including its foothills, the Subcarpathian basin and part of the surrounding plains. Among self-identifying ethnic Ukrainians, Carpathian Ruthenia is usually known simply as Transcarpathia. From a Hungarian, Slovak

and Czech perspective the region is usually described as Subcarpathia (literally "below the Carpathians"), although technically this name refers only to a long, narrow basin that flanks the northern side of the mountains. During the period in which the region was administered by the Hungarian states (History of Hungary) it was officially referred to in Hungarian as Subcarpathia ( ) or North-Eastern Upper Hungary. The Romanian (Romanian language) name

and Slovak (Slovak language): ''Karpatská Rus'') and, occasionally, Hungarian Rus Ruthenia'' ( ). The region declared its independence as Carpatho-Ukraine on March 15, 1939, but was occupied by Hungary in March 15–18, 1939, and remaining under Hungarian control until the German occupation of Hungary in 1944. In 1945, most of the region was annexed by Soviet Union and subsequently incorporated into the independent state of Ukraine


inventing

by Anthony Hope, especially ''The Prisoner of Zenda'' (1894). Recently Vesna Goldsworthy, in ''Inventing Ruritania: the imperialism of the imagination'' (1998) has explored the origins of the ideas that underpin Western perceptions of the "Wild East" of Europe, especially of Ruthenian and other rural Slavs in the upper Balkans, but ideas that are highly applicable to Transcarpathia, all in all "an innocent process: a cultural great power seizes and exploits the resources


national views

Ukrainian and not in the "learned" yazychiie; it thus initiated the use of vernacular Ukrainian language for literature in the Ukrainian lands in the Habsburg Empire. Because of their populist and national views, the group members suffered harassment by the conservative Ukrainian clergy and Austrian authorities. Since the group came into being during the period of Romanticism, it retained the predominant interests and features of that movement — an interest in folklore and history

; it thus initiated the use of vernacular Ukrainian language for literature in the Ukrainian lands (Ukraine) in the Habsburg Empire. Because of their populist and national views, the group members suffered harassment by the conservative Ukrainian clergy and Austrian authorities. * Józef Kasparek, ''Przepust karpacki: tajna akcja polskiego wywiadu'' (The Carpathian Bridge: a Covert Polish Intelligence Operation), Warsaw, Sigma NOT, 1992, ISBN 83-85001-96-4. *

Carpathian Ruthenia

right thumb Coat of arms of Carpathian Ruthenia (File:Karptska Ukraina-2 COA.svg) thumb Carpatho-Rusyn sub-groups - Prešov (File:Carpatho-Rusyn sub-groups - Presov area Lemkos (left side) and Przemyśl area Ukrainians in original goral folk-costumes..jpg) area Lemkos (left side) and Przemyśl area Rusyns in stylised traditional folk-costumes. Photo: Village Mokre near Sanok. 2007 thumb right Ukraine (File:Map of Ukraine political simple Oblast Transkarpatien.png)'s Zakarpattia Oblast (in red) thumb A road to Yasinya from a ski centre (File:Jasiňa, cesta k obci.jpg)

'''Carpathian Ruthenia''', also known as '''Transcarpathian Ruthenia''', '''Transcarpathian Ukraine''', '''Transcarpathia''', '''Rusinko''', '''Subcarpathian Rus′''' or '''Subcarpathia''',

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