, and thirdly to cultivate friendly international relations. After the three ships arrived at Queenstown (Cobh), Ireland, ''Ashuelot'' sailed independently to the Far East, and ''Augusta'' and ''Miantonomoh'' then visited England, before finally arriving at Kronstadt in August. After a month's stay in Russia, during which the Tsar and members of the royal family visited the ships, they called at Stockholm, Sweden, Kiel, Germany, and ports in France, Portugal, and Spain. After
of arms of Cape Verde.svg symbol_type National emblem image_map Location Cape Verde AU Africa.svg map_caption File:National Anthem of Cap Verde by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages
, Mexico and Cape Verde,. He is currently working on long-term projects in Zimbabwe, Mexico
and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement - originally led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 - passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in 1975. Independence (1975) Following the April 1974 revolution in Portugal (Carnation Revolution), the PAIGC became an active political movement in Cape Verde. In December 1974, the PAIGC and Portugal signed an agreement providing for a transitional government composed of Portuguese and Cape Verdeans. On 30 June 1975, Cape Verdeans elected a National Assembly which received the instruments of independence from Portugal on July 5, 1975. In the late 1970s and 1980s, most African countries prohibited South African Airways from overflights but Cape Verde allowed them and became a centre of activity for the airline's flights to Europe and the United States. Immediately following the November 1980 coup in Guinea-Bissau (History of Guinea-Bissau#Independence from Portugal), relations between Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau became strained. Cape Verde abandoned its hope for unity with Guinea-Bissau and formed the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV). Problems have since been resolved and relations between the countries are good. The PAICV and its predecessor established a one-party system and ruled Cape Verde from independence until 1990. Responding to growing pressure for pluralistic democracy, the PAICV called an emergency congress in February 1990 to discuss proposed constitutional changes to end one-party rule. Opposition groups came together to form the Movement for Democracy (Movement for Democracy (Cape Verde)) (MPD) in Praia in April 1990. Together, they campaigned for the right to contest the presidential election scheduled for December 1990. The one-party state was abolished 28 September 1990, and the first multi-party elections were held in January 1991. The MPD won a majority of the seats in the National Assembly, and MPD presidential candidate António Mascarenhas Monteiro defeated the PAICV's candidate with 73.5% of the votes. Legislative elections in December 1995 increased the MPD majority in the National Assembly. The party won 50 of the National Assembly's 72 seats. A February 1996 presidential election returned President Monteiro to office. Legislative elections in January 2001 returned power to the PAICV, with the PAICV holding 40 of the National Assembly seats, MPD 30, and Party for Democratic Convergence (PCD) and Labour and Solidarity Party (PTS) 1 each. In February 2001, the PAICV-supported presidential candidate Pedro Pires defeated former MPD leader Carlos Veiga by only 13 votes. Politics
offprint; Waters, D.W. (1988) "Reflections Upon Some Navigational and Hydrographic Problems of the XVIth Century Related to the voyage of Bartolomeu Dias", ''Revista da Universidade de Coimbra'', Vol. 34, p.275-347. offprint This course proved successful and on November 4, 1497, the expedition made landfall on the African coast. For over three months the ships had sailed more than 6,000 miles of open ocean, by far the longest journey out of sight of land made by the time.
;dq zouk+mazurka# brass section, two synthesizers, guitar, bass guitar. Contemporary: Zouk-love and Zouk-R'n'B use synthesisers and drum machines especially. ##Lambazouk (Zouk-Lambada#Lambazouk) or Lambada. Lambada dance style (or a variation of it) danced to Zouk music. #Angolan Kizomba, and Cape Verdean cola-zouk (Coladeira#The cola-zouk) dance style. The music was developed directly from zouk. In 1926 Ramón Franco became a national Spanish hero when he piloted the Dornier ''Plus Ultra'' (Plus Ultra (flying boat)) on a trans-Atlantic flight. His co-pilot was Julio Ruiz de Alda Miqueleiz; the other crew members were Teniente de Navio (Navy Lieutenant) Juan Manuel Duran and the mechanic Pablo Rada. The Plus Ultra departed from Palos de la Frontera, in Huelva (Huelva (province)), Spain on 22 January and arrived in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 26 January. It stopped over at Gran Canaria, Cape Verde, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Montevideo. The 10,270 km journey was completed in 59 hours and 39 minutes. '''July 5''': Independence Day (List of national independence days) in '''Venezuela''' (1811), '''Algeria''' (1962) and '''Cape Verde''' (1975); '''Saints Cyril and Methodius Day (Saints Cyril and Methodius#Saints Cyril and Methodius Day)''' in the Czech Republic and Slovakia Portugal and former colonies In Portugal (and also at some of its former colonies such as Guinea-Bissau, Macau, Cape Verde, East Timor, Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe), Children's Day is celebrated on June 1. :BNU's interests in São Tomé and Príncipe were nationalized and renamed National Bank of São Tomé and Príncipe. In 1993, the government split National Bank into a central bank, Central Bank of São Tomé and Príncipe, and a commercial bank, Banco Internacional de Sao Tome e Principe. :BNU's interests in Cape Verde were nationalized and renamed Bank of Cape Verde. In 1993, the government spun off the commercial banking operations into a new bank, Banco Comercial do Atlantico. *1988 - Portuguese Government-owned Caixa Geral de Depósitos became the majority shareholder of BNU, with the Republic of Portugal the sole other shareholder. At the Cape Verde Islands (Cape Verde), Condent and his men captured a Portuguese wine vessel, a squadron of small ships, and a Dutch war ship. Condent kept the warship, and named it ''The Flying Dragon''. The ''Flying Dragon'' then cruised the Brazilian coast, and Condent took more ships, occasionally torturing Portuguese prisoners by cutting off their ears and noses. Cape Verde Cape Verde cuisine features the pastel (Pastel (food)) as well. Cape Verdean pastéis are often filled with spicy tuna fish. One particular variety, known as "pastel com o diabo dentro" is particularly spicy, and is made with a dough made from sweet potatoes and cornmeal. Hamilton, Cherie. 'Cuisines of Portuguese Encounters' Hippocrene Books. 2001. Amadora is one of the largest cities in Portugal by population. It forms a conurbation with the Portuguese capital Lisbon, and both cities share the same subway, bus and train network. It is essential a residential city, and the landscape is dominated by large apartment blocks, commercial parks and industrial areas. Amadora also has relevant immigrant communities, mostly from Angola, Cape Verde and Brazil. Social issues Although major rehabilitation plans have been started, Amadora is still regarded as a city with a crime rate higher than the national average (Crime in Portugal). The neighborhood of Cova da Moura, in Amadora, is an incredible example of what one might call lateral citizenship. Starting during the 1970s and 1980s, in less than 30 years, over 10,000 men and women, mostly from the Cape Verde (but also from the North of Portugal (Norte, Portugal) and Angola), built an illegal town inside the city. Drug dealing and gangs, as well as unemployment and poverty, are responsible for most of the fear that Cova da Moura inspires to any average citizen. The place is, however, home to dozens of hairdressers that operate in Cova da Moura and are responsible for some of the most creative hair sculptures one can see everywhere in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, and is a centre of both rap music and Hip Hop Tuga suburban culture. '''ATLANTIS-2''' is a fiber optic transatlantic telecommunications cable connecting Argentina, Brazil, Senegal, Cape Verde, Canary Islands and Portugal.The Atlantis 2 project total cost was US$370 million invest by a 25 international carrier consortium led technically and financially by Embratel with more than US$100 million of the investment. ''Chamuças'' are also relatively common in Brazil and several former Portuguese colonies in Africa, such as Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, Angola, and Mozambique. Portuguese Creoles are the mother tongue of Cape Verde (it also has a largest number of standard Portuguese speakers) and Guinea-Bissau's population. - Cape Verdean Creole ''Kriolu'', ''Kriol'' Cape Verde National language. A degree of Decreolization occurred. - '''Oware''' is an abstract strategy game of Akan origin. African Games of Strategy Part of the mancala family, it is played throughout West Africa and the Caribbean. Among its many names are '''Ayò''' (Yoruba (Yoruba language)), '''Awalé''' (Côte d'Ivoire), '''Wari''' (Mali), '''Ouri, Ouril or Uril''' (Cape Verde), '''Warri''' (Caribbean), '''Adji''' (Ewe (Ewe language)), '''Nchọ''' (Igbo (Igbo language)) and '''Awélé''' (Ga (Ga language)). A common name in English is '''Awari''' but one of the earliest Western scholars to study the game, R.S. Rattray (R.S.Rattray), used the name ''Wari''. August * August 7 – TACV Flight 5002, a Dornier Do 228 chartered from the Cape Verde Coast Guard, crashes into a cliff on Santo Antão (Santo Antão, Cape Verde), Cape Verde, during poor weather. All 18 people on board die. * August 10 – Two Indian Air Force MiG-21 fighters shoot down (Atlantique Incident) a Pakistan Naval Air Arm Breguet Atlantique maritime patrol aircraft, killing all 16 men aboard the Atlantique. The Atlantique crashes in the Great Rann of Kutch inside Pakistan, although India claims it had violated Indian airspace. As a sports club, Benfica currently has departments for futsal, roller hockey, basketball, handball (Team handball), volleyball, athletics (Athletics (sport)), triathlon (Triathlon), rugby (Rugby football), table tennis (Table_tennis), judo (Judo), among others. Due to the success and popularity of its football (Association football), Benfica has built the biggest fan base among the ''Três Grandes'' in Portugal. Benfica also has one of the biggest fan bases in the world, with many supporters outside of Portugal in countries like Andorra, Angola, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Croatia, France, Germany, Guinea-Bissau, United Kingdom, Japan, Luxembourg, Macau, Mexico, Switzerland, Netherlands and United States. The ''Estado Novo'' was an authoritarian regime with an integralist (integralism) orientation, which differed from fascist (Fascism) regimes by its lack of expansionism, lack of a charismatic leader, lack of party structure, and more moderate use of state violence. Kallis, Aristotle A. Fascism Reader p. 313-317 2003 Routledge It incorporated, however, the principles for its military from Benito Mussolini's system in Italy. Salazar was a Catholic traditionalist who believed in the necessity of control over the forces of economic modernisation in order to defend the religious and rural values of the country, which he perceived as being threatened. One of the pillars of the regime was the PIDE, the secret police. Many political dissidents were imprisoned at the Tarrafal (Tarrafal camp) prison in the African archipelago of Cape Verde, on the capital island of Santiago (Santiago, Cape Verde), or in local jails. Strict state censorship was in place. The sections of Dorchester have distinct ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic compositions. The eastern areas of Dorchester (especially between Adams Street and Dorchester Bay) are primarily ethnic European (Ethnic groups in Europe) and Asian (Asian people), with a large population of Irish Americans and Vietnamese Americans, while the residents of the western, central and parts of the southern sections of the neighborhood are predominantly African Americans. In Neponset, the southeast corner of the neighborhood, as well as parts of Savin Hill in the north and Cedar Grove in the south, Irish Americans maintain the most visible identity. Dorchester Reporter, Dorchester MA USA In the northern section of Dorchester and southwestern section of South Boston is the Polish Triangle, where recent Polish (Polish people) immigrants are residents. Savin Hill, as well as Fields Corner, have large Vietnamese American populations. Uphams Corner contains a Cape Verdean American community, the largest concentration of people of Cape Verdean origin within Boston city limits. Western, central and parts of southern Dorchester have a large Caribbean population (especially people from Haiti, Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago). They are most heavily represented in the Codman Square, Franklin Field and the Ashmont area, although there are also significant numbers in Four Corners and Fields Corner. Significant numbers of African Americans live in the Harbor Point, Uphams Corner, Fields Corner, Four Corners and Franklin Field areas. Dorchester In recent years Dorchester has also seen an influx of young residents, gay men and women, and working artists (in areas like Lower Mills (Dorchester-Milton Lower Mills Industrial District), Ashmont Hill Peabody Square (Ashmont, Boston), and Savin Hill). Kuhr, Fred. 2004. There goes the gayborhood. The Advocate, Jul 6, 2004.
-with-a-letter.aspx and India (Religion in India) (59,039). India Stats The denomination has the highest ''per capita'' population in the nations of Cape Verde, Samoa, Barbados, Haiti and Swaziland. Membership Stats Statistics At the end of September 2011
increase in church members in 2009). The denomination has the highest percentage presence in the nations of Cape Verde (where its members constitute 2.5% of the population); Samoa (1.88% of the population); Haiti (1.28% of the population); Barbados (1.0% of the population); and Swaziland (0.96% of the population). In 2000 there was the highest percentage of Nazarene presence in the USA, with 2.25 members for every 1,000 US people
, Angola, Mozambique and Cape Verde, the fado song tradition did not penetrate Guinea-Bissau to any significant degree. Gumbe was the first popular song tradition to arise in the country, and began in 1973 with the recording of Ernesto Dabó's "M'Ba Bolama" in Lisbon. Dabó's record producer was Zé Carlos, who had formed the most popular band in Guinea-Bissau's history, Cobiana Djazz, in 1972. The next popular band to form was Super Mama Djombo
fishers were seal fur traders and hunters, fishers and whalers in Sahara coast from Dakhla to Cabo Blanco (Ras Nouadhibou) from 1500 to present, extending by West coast of Africa to whaling humpback whales and whale calves, mostly in Cape Verde, and Guinea gulf in Annobon, São Tomé and Príncipe islands just to 1940. These fishing activities have had a negative impact on wildlife causing the disappearance or endangered of many species, it highlighting marine mammals and birds. ref
and Agricultural Organization isbn 9251013845 page 93–95 Spaniard fishers were seal fur traders and hunters, fishers and whalers in Sahara coast with several enclaves in Cabo Bojador, Dakhla and Ras Nouadhibou from 1500 to present, extending by West coast of Africa to whaling humpback whales and whale calves, mostly in Cape Verde, and Guinea gulf in Annobon, São Tomé and Príncipe islands just to 1940. These fishing activities have had
in desertic coast of Sahara was the result of fishing activities carried out from the nearby Canary Islands by Spanish fishers. Spaniard fishers were seal fur traders and hunters,They were fishing and whaling in Sahara coast from Dakhla to Ras Nouadhibou from 1500 to present, extending by West coast of Africa to whaling humpback whales and whale calves, mostly in Cape Verde, and Guinea gulf in Annobon, São Tomé and Príncipe islands just to 1940. History Spaniard fishers
Verde (municipality) Ribeira Brava (then by its island name) bounds at the mountaintop. The mountain is almost partly deforested, vegetations are mainly in valley areas and slopes and it contains trees and also features some areas with colorful ledges and a crater area. A communications tower serving radio and television to the island is near the mountaintop with the only road linking Monte Gordo, colorful green pine trees are in the higher elevations. The mountain can be seen from almost
'''Cape Verde''' .
Portuguese (Portugal) explorers discovered and colonized (Colony) the uninhabited islands in the 15th century, the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade, the islands grew prosperous and often attracted privateers and pirates, among them Sir Francis Drake in the 1580s. The islands were also visited by Charles Darwin during FitzRoy's (Robert FitzRoy) ''Beagle'' (HMS Beagle) voyage in 1832. The islands were settled as the colony grew in importance on the main shipping lanes from Europe to India and Australia, and population increased steadily.
At the time of independence from Portugal in 1975, Cape Verdeans emigrated across the world, such that the population in the 21st century of over half a million people on the islands is equaled by the diaspora in Europe, the Americas, and on the African continent. The Cape Verdean economy is mostly service-oriented with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment.
The country is known for the Cape Verdean type hurricanes (Cape Verde-type hurricane) that form off the coast of the archipelago islands. While many move harmlessly out to sea, some move across the Caribbean sea and Gulf of Mexico, becoming damaging storms for Caribbean nations, Central America, Mexico, Bermuda, the United States, and occasionally even Canada.
Historically, the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation "Cabo Verde" would henceforth be used for official purposes, such as at the United Nations, even in English contexts.