Cao Wei

What is Cao Wei known for?


part historical

as the description of objects. The story (part historical, part legend, and part myth) chronicles the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han Dynasty or restore it. While the novel actually follows literally hundreds of characters, the focus is mainly on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han Dynasty, and would eventually form the three states of Wei (Cao Wei), Shu (Shu Han), and Wu (Eastern Wu). The novel deals with the plots


works called

grid system in Chinese cartography. Robert Temple writes that Zhang not only presented a map to the emperor in 116 CE, but his now lost works called ''Discourse on New Calculations'' and ''Bird's-Eye Map'' "laid the groundwork for the mathematical use of the grid with maps." Temple (1986), 30. Moreover, the ''Book of Later Han'' hints that Zhang was the first to make a mathematical grid reference, stating that he "cast a network of coordinates about heaven and earth, and reckoned on the basis of it." Historian Florian C. Reiter notes that Zhang's narrative "Guitian fu" contains a phrase about applauding the maps and documents of Confucius of the Zhou Dynasty, which Reiter suggests places maps (''tu'') on a same level of importance with documents (''shu''). Reiter (1990), 320. Posthumous honors Zhang was given great honors in life and in death. The philosopher and poet Fu Xuan (217–278) of the Wei (Cao Wei) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (265–420)) dynasties once lamented in an essay over the fact that Zhang Heng was never placed in the Ministry of Works (Nine Ministers). Writing highly of Zhang and the 3rd-century mechanical engineer Ma Jun, Fu Xuan wrote, "Neither of them was ever an official of the Ministry of Works, and their ingenuity did not benefit the world. When (authorities) employ personnel with no regard to special talent, and having heard of genius neglect even to test it—is this not hateful and disastrous?" Needham (1986), Volume 4, 42. * Yang Chou (d. 198) * Lady Bian (Empress Dowager Bian), second wife of Cao Cao, mother of Cao Wei's first emperor, Cao Pi (d. 230) * Liu Shan, last Emperor of the Kingdom of Shu (Shu Han) (b. 207) * Pei Xiu, minister and cartographer (cartography) of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 224) * Sima Wang, general of the Jin Dynasty (b. 205) * Origen, Christian (Christianity) apologist (approximate date) * Wang Xiang, minister of Wei (Cao Wei) (d. 269) * Lu Su, advisor to Sun Quan, sympathetic to Liu Bei (b. 172) * Wang Can, Chinese poet, scholar, and statesman of Cao Wei (b. 177) * Sima Lang, official of Han Dynasty (b. 171) * Wu Zhi, adviser under Cao Pi of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) * Zhong Yao, minister of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 151) * Zhang Yi (Zhang Yi (Early Shu Han)), officer of the Kingdom of Shu (b. 167) China * Future Emperor of Cao Wei, Cao Fang, is instated as the Prince of Qi. * Ke Bineng (b. 172) * Empress Wende (Empress Guo Nüwang), empress of Cao Wei (b. 184) * Origen (possible date) * Sima Yi, strategist of Wei (Cao Wei) and rival of Zhuge Liang (b. 179) * Empress Zhen (Empress Zhen (Cao Fang)), wife of Cao Fang * Li Feng (Li Feng (Cao Wei)) * Xiahou Xuan, minister of Wei (Cao Wei) and son of Xiahou Shang (b. 209) The Three Kingdoms Period (Three Kingdoms) consisted of the kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei), Shu (Shu Han), and Wu (Eastern Wu). It began when the ruler of Wei, Cao Cao, was defeated by Liu Bei and Sun Quan at the Battle of Red Cliffs. After Cao Cao's death in AD 220, his son Cao Pi became emperor of Wei. Liu Bei and Sun Quan declared themselves emperor of Shu and Wu respectively. Many famous personages in Chinese history were born during this period, including Hua Tuo and the great military strategist Zhuge Liang. Buddhism, which was introduced during the Han Dynasty, also became popular in this period. Two years after Wei conquered Shu (Conquest of Shu by Wei) in AD 263, Sima Yan, Wei's Imperial Chancellor, overthrew Wei and started the Western Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265–420)). The conquest of Wu by the Western Jin Dynasty ended the Three Kingdoms period, and China was unified again. However, the Western Jin did not last long. Following the death of Sima Yan, the War of the Eight Princes began. This war weakened the Jin Dynasty, and it soon fell to the kingdom of Han Zhao. This ushered in the Sixteen Kingdoms. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD, '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


independent history

of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the List of the Khitan rulers Yaonian Khaganate


critical event

history . In 228, a critical event to Wang's life happened when he fought under Ma Su as the vanguard during the Battle of Jieting. He advised Ma against abandoning the water sources and encamping atop the mountain, which Ma refused but gave the option to Wang to lead a detachment to camp where the latter saw fit. Indeed, Ma was defeated by Cao Wei general, Zhang He, when the latter cut off his water supply; Wang Ping and a company of 1000 soldiers near the mountain foot rolled


academic sense

;Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei (Cao Wei) in 220 and the conquest (Conquest of Wu by Jin) of the state Wu (Eastern Wu) by the Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265–420)) in 280.  However, many Chinese historians and laymen extend the starting point of this period back to the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184. The '''Three


character+line

-prose," a uniquely Han offshoot of Chinese poetry's tradition. Cai 2008, p. 59 et seq., Chapter 3 Equally noteworthy is Music Bureau poetry (''yuefu (Yue fu)''), collected and presumably refined popular lyrics from folk music. The end of the Han witnesses a resurgence of the ''shi'' poetry, with the anonymous "19 Old Poems (Nineteen Old Poems)." This collection reflects the emergence of a distinctive five-character line that later became ''shi

'' poetry's most common line length. Cai 2008, p. 103 et seq., Chapter 5 From the Jian'an (Jian%27an poetry) reign period (196 - 220 CE) onward, the five-character line became a focus for innovations in style and theme. Lin and Owen 1986, pp. 346-347 The Cao family Lin and Owen 1986, p. 136 , rulers of the Wei Dynasty (Cao Wei) (220 - 265 CE) during the post-Han Three Kingdoms (Three kingdoms) period, distinguished themselves as poets by writing poems filled with sympathy for the day-to-day struggles of soldiery and the common people. Taoist philosophy became a different, common theme for other poets, and a genre emphasizing true feeling emerged led by Ruan Ji (210-263). Watson 1971, pp. 69-70 The landscape genre of Chinese nature poetry emerged under the brush of Xie Lingyun (385-433), as he innovated distinctively descriptive and complementary couplets composed of five-character lines. Lin and Owen 1986, p. 125 A farmland genre was born in obscurity by Tao Qian (Tao Yuanming) (365-427) also known as Tao Yuanming as he labored in his fields and then wrote extolling the influence of wine. Cai 2008, pp. 121-129 Toward the close of this period in which many later-developed themes were first experimented with, the Xiao family Lin and Owen 1986, p. 158 of the Southern Liang Dynasty (Liang Dynasty) (502-557) engaged in highly refined and often denigrated Contemporary criticism by Watson 1971, "stilted," "effete," "trying" at p. 105, "weakness," "banality," "badness of style," "triviality," "repetitiousness," "beyond recovery" at p. 107, "ridiculous" at p. 108; Tang Dynasty criticism by Li Bai at Lin and Owen 1986, p. 164 court-style poetry lushly describing sensual delights as well as the description of objects. The story (part historical, part legend, and part myth) chronicles the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han Dynasty or restore it. While the novel actually follows literally hundreds of characters, the focus is mainly on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han Dynasty, and would eventually form the three states of Wei (Cao Wei), Shu (Shu Han), and Wu (Eastern Wu). The novel deals with the plots, personal and army battles, intrigues, and struggles of these states to achieve dominance for almost 100 years. This novel also gives readers a sense of how the Chinese view their history in a cyclical lense. The famous opening lines of the novel summarize this view: ''It is a general truism of this world that anything long divided will surely unite, and anything long united will surely divide'' (話說天下大勢,分久必合,合久必分). Luo Guanzhong. ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms'', Chapter 1. thumb right Hashihaka kofun, Sakurai, Nara (File:Hashihaka-kofun-1.jpg) The ''Wei Zhi'', which is part of the San Guo Zhi (Records of Three Kingdoms), first mentions Yamataikoku and Queen Himiko in the 3rd century. According to the record, Himiko assumed the throne of Wa, as a spiritual leader, after a major civil war (Civil war of Wa). Her younger brother was in charge of the affairs of state, including diplomatic relations with the Chinese court Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei). 魏志倭人伝, Chinese texts of the ''Wei Zhi'', Wikisource When asked about their origins by the Wei embassy, the people of Wa claimed to be descendants of the Grand Count Tàibó (Wu Taibo) of Wu (Wu (region)), a historic figure of the Wu Kingdom (Wu (state)) around the Yangtze Delta (Yangtze River Delta) of China. The late 2nd century saw China decline into anarchy. "The decline was accelerated by the rebellion by the Yellow Turbans, who, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184 CE, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang on 24 September 189 CE. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire. Hill (2009), p. xvi, In 190 CE, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered his soldiers to ransack, pillage and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him (Campaign against Dong Zhuo) by regional lords from across China. The court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an. Following a period of disorder, Luoyang was restored to prominence when Emperor Wen (Cao Pi) of the Wei Dynasty (Cao Wei) declared it his capital in 220 CE. The Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265-420)), successor to Wei, was also established in Luoyang. When Jin was overrun by Xiongnu forces in 311 CE, it was forced to move its capital to Jiankang (modern day Nanjing), the Xiongnu warriors then sacked and nearly totally destroyed Luoyang. The same fate befell Chang'an in 316 CE. In the chaos following the fall of the Han Dynasty, the former Han commanderies had broken free of control and were ruled by various independent warlords. Surrounded by these commanderies, who were governed by aggressive warlords, Goguryeo moved to improve relations with the newly created Wei (Cao Wei) Dynasty of China and sent tribute in 220. In 238, Goguryeo entered into a formal alliance with the Wei to destroy the Liaodong commandery (Sima Yi's Liaodong campaign). '''Liu Hui''' (fl. 3rd century) was a mathematician of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history (History of China). In 263, he edited and published a book with solutions to mathematical problems presented in the famous Chinese book of mathematic known as ''The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art'' (九章算术). In 236, under the order of Emperor Ming (Cao Rui) of Cao Wei, Sima Yi crushed the Gongsun family (Sima Yi's Liaodong campaign) and annexed Liaodong, Lelang and Daifang to Wei. Lelang was inherited by the Jin Dynasty. Due to bitter civil wars, Jin became unable to control the Korean peninsula at the beginning of the 4th century. Zhang Tong (張統) broke away from Jin in Lelang and Daifang. After Luoyang, the capital of Jin, was occupied by the Xiongnu in 311, he went for help to Murong Hui, a Xianbei warlord, with his subjects. Murong Hui put another small Lelang commandery in Liaodong. The former Lelang was then annexed by Goguryeo. '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


open academic

. Despite the dim times, this was a period of great achievements in spiritual culture. Bright peculiarity of that time was intellectual life: interests in metaphysics, which were discussed in the “pure talks” of open academic forums, profound interest in the problem of the highest purpose, the great popularity of Daoism and the spreading of foreign learning, such as Buddhism, a rapid expansion of lyrical poetry, a flourishing of all fine arts from painting to architecture; all these brought


intelligence knowledge

Yang Chen (羊耽) and served his uncle filially. As he grew in age, he became known for his intelligence, knowledge, and physical beauty. The general Xiahou Wei became impressed with him and married his niece (Xiahou Ba's daughter) to Yang. After his father-in-law defected to Shu Han in 249 in light of Sima Yi's coup against Cao Shuang, Yang was one of the few who were related by marriage who still dared to associate with the Xiahou clan. He served as a low level official


beautiful long

, and became a high-ranking official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Chen Shou, author of ''Records of Three Kingdoms'', described him as a very tall man (approximately 1.91m) with a beautiful long beard. "長八尺三寸,美須髯。" Description in SGZ, vol. 14. He was from Dong'e County, Dong Commandery (Commandery (China)) (near


collection painting

and his clan in the north. It was widely agreed that his numerous contributions laid the foundation of Cao Wei, the reason he was not promoted to the rank of a duke was only because of his fore-mentioned strategy to cope with the food shortage in Yan Province. thumb 500px The ''Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove'' (with boy attendant), in a Kano school Japanese painting of the Edo period (File:7 sages of the bamboo grove wittig collection painting 16.jpg) The '''Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove

Cao Wei

'''Wei''' or '''Cao Wei''' (220–265) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). With its capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty (End of the Han dynasty). Its name originated as such: In 213, Cao Cao's feudal holdings were given the name "Wei" by the Eastern Han government. Historians often add the prefix "Cao" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as "Wei", such as Wei (Wei (state)) of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The authority of the ruling Cao family gradually weakened after the death of the second Wei emperor, Cao Rui, and eventually fell into the hands of Sima Yi, a Wei regent, and his family, in 249. Cao Rui's successors remained as puppet rulers under the control of the Simas until Sima Yi's grandson, Sima Yan (Emperor Wu of Jin), forced the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate the throne and established the Jin dynasty (Jin dynasty (265–420)).

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