Cao Wei

What is Cao Wei known for?


period people

other or any authorities. '''Himiko''' or '''Pimiko''' (卑弥呼, 175-248 CE) was an obscure shaman queen of Yamataikoku in ancient Wa (Japan). Early Chinese dynastic histories (Twenty-Four Histories) chronicle tributary (tribute) relations between Queen Himiko and the Cao Wei Kingdom (220-265), and record that the Yayoi period people chose her as ruler following decades of warfare among the kings of Wa (Civil war of Wa). Early Japanese histories do not mention Himiko


great achievements

. Despite the dim times, this was a period of great achievements in spiritual culture. Bright peculiarity of that time was intellectual life: interests in metaphysics, which were discussed in the “pure talks” of open academic forums, profound interest in the problem of the highest purpose, the great popularity of Daoism and the spreading of foreign learning, such as Buddhism, a rapid expansion of lyrical poetry, a flourishing of all fine arts from painting to architecture; all these brought


covers history

of Wei", comprising the first of the ''San Guo Zhi'' 三國志 "Records of the Three Kingdoms", covers history of the Cao Wei kingdom (220-265 CE). The 東夷伝 "Encounters with Eastern Barbarians" section describes the ''Wōrén'' 倭人 "Japanese" based upon detailed reports from Chinese envoys to Japan. It contains the first records of Yamataikoku, shamaness Queen Himiko (Himiko (queen)), and other Japanese historical topics. The people of Wa dwell in the middle of the ocean on the mountainous islands southeast of the prefecture of Tai-fang. They formerly comprised more than one hundred communities. During the Han dynasty, Wa envoys appeared at the Court; today, thirty of their communities maintain intercourse with us through envoys and scribes. 倭人在帯方東南大海之中依山爲國邑舊百餘國漢時有朝見者今使早譯所通三十國 (tr. Tsunoda 1951:8) There are legends of earlier south-pointing chariots, but the first reliably documented one was created by Ma Jun (c. 200–265 CE) of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms, about eight hundred years before the first navigational use of a magnetic compass (Compass#Magnetic_compass). No ancient chariots still exist, but many extant ancient Chinese texts mention them, saying they were used intermittently until about 1300 CE. Some include information about their inner components and workings. thumb This is a part of the Dunhuang fresco. Two ''pipa'' players are shown at the left hand corner. (File:Dunhuang fresco.jpg) A small ''pipa'' was found in murals of tombs in Liaoning (遼寧) province in northeastern China. The date of these tombs is about late Eastern Han (東漢) or Wei (Cao Wei) (魏) period (220-265 AD). However, the pear-shaped ''pipa'' was not brought to China from Dunhuang (敦煌, now in northwestern China) until the Northern Wei period (386-524 AD) when ancient China traded with the western countries through the Silk Road (絲綢之路). Evidence was shown on the Dunhuang Caves frescoes that the frescoes contain a large number of pipa, and they date to 4th to 5th century. Shen, Sin-Yan (1991). ''Chinese Music and Orchestration: A Primer on Principles and Pracrice'', p. 109. Chinese Music Society of North America, Woodridge. October 19, 2009. '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


folktales

Philosophical Society. who organized an ambush through an elaborate banquet combined with liquor and singing in order to subdue a bully named "Wang Mang". Hu, Jun (1994). Minhe Monguor Folktales (collected and translated folktales from Monguor and Chinese). China's Monguor Minority: ethnography and folktales. Sino-Platonic Papers. No. 59, pp 132–184. Kevin Stuart and Limusishiden. In Chinese record, the name of Wang Mang, who were historically

gu shi Folktales of China's Minhe Monguor 中国民和土族民间故事. München, Lincom Europa. In historical terms, the "Wang Mang" people were recorded more than four thousand years ago as physically robust and active on the west of the present Liaoning, whose culture was associated with the Hongshan Culture. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. p. 3. <


leading military

of the leading military families at the time, but defected to the rival state of Shu Han (which is the regime responsible for his father's death) due to political instability at the capital Luoyang. *Nagamasa makes appearances as a general in the Main Campaign and in various Historical Battles and Historical Campaigns in the PC game ''Shogun Total War''. Additionally, Nagamasa returns as an Heir to the Azai Clan in the fan created Samurai Warlords Mod (aka the Shogun Mod) for the PC game Medieval Total War (Medieval: Total War). *Nagamasa is a featured playable character within the video game series ''Samurai Warriors'', in which he is depicted as an extremely honorable man who will stop at nothing to ensure that his notions of justice are enforced. As like in history, Nagamasa decides to collaborate with his erstwhile allies, the Asakura, and fight against Nobunaga at Anegawa; he also expresses a more dramatized showing of love towards his respective wife, Oichi, and cares deeply for her welfare. In appearance, Nagamasa is depicted with his traditional kabuto helmet and carries a lance as his weapon of choosing. This version of the character also appears in the spin-off series ''Warriors Orochi'' as an unlockable character for the Cao Wei storyline. Cao Pi and Mitsunari Ishida attack Nagamasa's forces, including his wife Oichi and Gan Ning of Wu (Wu (kingdom)). Instead of death, as they wanted, Cao Pi enlists the three of them into his army against Orochi. *Nagamasa is an NPC in ''Sengoku Basara 2'', along with Oichi, but becomes playable in the expansion ''Sengoku Basara 2: Heroes''. He wields a long sword and carries a shield with him and is portrayed as a justice loving man. Life prior to ascension Sima Zhong was born to Sima Yan and his wife Yang Yan (Empress Yang Yan) in 259, while Sima Yan was still the assistant to his father, the Cao Wei regent Sima Zhao. He was their second son, but as his older brother Sima Gui (司馬軌) died early, he became the oldest surviving son. It is not known when it became apparent that he was developmentally disabled, but in any case, after Sima Zhao died in 265 and Sima Yan subsequently forced the Cao Wei emperor Cao Huan to abdicate to him, ending Cao Wei and starting Jin (as Emperor Wu), he created Prince Zhong crown prince in 267, at age seven. '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


independent history

of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the List of the Khitan rulers Yaonian Khaganate


controversial family

controversial. Family background When Cao Rui was born (likely in 204), his grandfather Cao Cao was the paramount warlord of Han Dynasty, who had rendered Emperor Xian of Han a mere figurehead. His father Cao Pi was Cao Cao's oldest surviving son and the heir apparent. His mother Lady Zhen had been the wife of Yuan Shao's son Yuan Xi, but when she was seized by Cao Cao's army in 204, Cao Pi forced her to marry him, and she gave birth to Cao Rui only eight months after


great period

in the administration since then. During the greater part of China's first great period of unification, begun with the short-lived Qin Dynasty (221 BCE - 206 BCE) and followed by the centuries-long Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE), the ''shi (Shi (poetry))'' form of poetry underwent little innovation. But a distinctively descriptive and erudite ''fu (Fu (literature))'' form (not the same ''fu'' character as that used for the bureau of music) developed that has been called "rhyme


poems quot

-prose," a uniquely Han offshoot of Chinese poetry's tradition. Cai 2008, p. 59 et seq., Chapter 3 Equally noteworthy is Music Bureau poetry (''yuefu (Yue fu)''), collected and presumably refined popular lyrics from folk music. The end of the Han witnesses a resurgence of the ''shi'' poetry, with the anonymous "19 Old Poems (Nineteen Old Poems).&quot; This collection reflects the emergence of a distinctive five-character line that later became ''shi


writing poems

as poets by writing poems filled with sympathy for the day-to-day struggles of soldiery and the common people. Taoist philosophy became a different, common theme for other poets, and a genre emphasizing true feeling emerged led by Ruan Ji (210-263). Watson 1971, pp. 69-70 The landscape genre of Chinese nature poetry emerged under the brush of Xie Lingyun (385-433), as he innovated distinctively descriptive and complementary couplets composed of five-character lines. Lin and Owen 1986, p. 125 A farmland genre was born in obscurity by Tao Qian (Tao Yuanming) (365-427) also known as Tao Yuanming as he labored in his fields and then wrote extolling the influence of wine. Cai 2008, pp. 121-129 Toward the close of this period in which many later-developed themes were first experimented with, the Xiao family Lin and Owen 1986, p. 158 of the Southern Liang Dynasty (Liang Dynasty) (502-557) engaged in highly refined and often denigrated Contemporary criticism by Watson 1971, "stilted," "effete," "trying" at p. 105, "weakness," "banality," "badness of style," "triviality," "repetitiousness," "beyond recovery" at p. 107, "ridiculous" at p. 108; Tang Dynasty criticism by Li Bai at Lin and Owen 1986, p. 164 court-style poetry lushly describing sensual delights as well as the description of objects. The story (part historical, part legend, and part myth) chronicles the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han Dynasty or restore it. While the novel actually follows literally hundreds of characters, the focus is mainly on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han Dynasty, and would eventually form the three states of Wei (Cao Wei), Shu (Shu Han), and Wu (Eastern Wu). The novel deals with the plots, personal and army battles, intrigues, and struggles of these states to achieve dominance for almost 100 years. This novel also gives readers a sense of how the Chinese view their history in a cyclical lense. The famous opening lines of the novel summarize this view: ''It is a general truism of this world that anything long divided will surely unite, and anything long united will surely divide'' (話說天下大勢,分久必合,合久必分). Luo Guanzhong. ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms'', Chapter 1. thumb right Hashihaka kofun, Sakurai, Nara (File:Hashihaka-kofun-1.jpg) The ''Wei Zhi'', which is part of the San Guo Zhi (Records of Three Kingdoms), first mentions Yamataikoku and Queen Himiko in the 3rd century. According to the record, Himiko assumed the throne of Wa, as a spiritual leader, after a major civil war (Civil war of Wa). Her younger brother was in charge of the affairs of state, including diplomatic relations with the Chinese court Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei). 魏志倭人伝, Chinese texts of the ''Wei Zhi'', Wikisource When asked about their origins by the Wei embassy, the people of Wa claimed to be descendants of the Grand Count Tàibó (Wu Taibo) of Wu (Wu (region)), a historic figure of the Wu Kingdom (Wu (state)) around the Yangtze Delta (Yangtze River Delta) of China. The late 2nd century saw China decline into anarchy. "The decline was accelerated by the rebellion by the Yellow Turbans, who, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184 CE, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang on 24 September 189 CE. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire. Hill (2009), p. xvi, In 190 CE, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered his soldiers to ransack, pillage and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him (Campaign against Dong Zhuo) by regional lords from across China. The court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an. Following a period of disorder, Luoyang was restored to prominence when Emperor Wen (Cao Pi) of the Wei Dynasty (Cao Wei) declared it his capital in 220 CE. The Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265-420)), successor to Wei, was also established in Luoyang. When Jin was overrun by Xiongnu forces in 311 CE, it was forced to move its capital to Jiankang (modern day Nanjing), the Xiongnu warriors then sacked and nearly totally destroyed Luoyang. The same fate befell Chang'an in 316 CE. In the chaos following the fall of the Han Dynasty, the former Han commanderies had broken free of control and were ruled by various independent warlords. Surrounded by these commanderies, who were governed by aggressive warlords, Goguryeo moved to improve relations with the newly created Wei (Cao Wei) Dynasty of China and sent tribute in 220. In 238, Goguryeo entered into a formal alliance with the Wei to destroy the Liaodong commandery (Sima Yi's Liaodong campaign). '''Liu Hui''' (fl. 3rd century) was a mathematician of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history (History of China). In 263, he edited and published a book with solutions to mathematical problems presented in the famous Chinese book of mathematic known as ''The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art'' (九章算术). In 236, under the order of Emperor Ming (Cao Rui) of Cao Wei, Sima Yi crushed the Gongsun family (Sima Yi's Liaodong campaign) and annexed Liaodong, Lelang and Daifang to Wei. Lelang was inherited by the Jin Dynasty. Due to bitter civil wars, Jin became unable to control the Korean peninsula at the beginning of the 4th century. Zhang Tong (張統) broke away from Jin in Lelang and Daifang. After Luoyang, the capital of Jin, was occupied by the Xiongnu in 311, he went for help to Murong Hui, a Xianbei warlord, with his subjects. Murong Hui put another small Lelang commandery in Liaodong. The former Lelang was then annexed by Goguryeo. '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.

Cao Wei

'''Wei''' or '''Cao Wei''' (220–265) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). With its capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty (End of the Han dynasty). Its name originated as such: In 213, Cao Cao's feudal holdings were given the name "Wei" by the Eastern Han government. Historians often add the prefix "Cao" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as "Wei", such as Wei (Wei (state)) of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The authority of the ruling Cao family gradually weakened after the death of the second Wei emperor, Cao Rui, and eventually fell into the hands of Sima Yi, a Wei regent, and his family, in 249. Cao Rui's successors remained as puppet rulers under the control of the Simas until Sima Yi's grandson, Sima Yan (Emperor Wu of Jin), forced the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate the throne and established the Jin dynasty (Jin dynasty (265–420)).

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