. In response the 10th (Irish) Division was shipped to Salonika for the Macedonian campaign (Macedonian front (World War I)). . Staunton, p.104 The division received extensive training as well as reinforcements from non-regimental sources changing the character of the two battalions. Still wearing summer uniforms the severe snow and frost at high level caused many casualties. The Bulgarian forces made intensive progress and threatened the Anglo-French force, the 7th RMF in a front line position. At Kosturino it held the rearguard as the 10th Division, which included Connaught Rangers and Royal Dublin Fusiliers, was ordered to retreat at the end of December. Having failed to prevent the fall of Serbia, the Allied forces remained at Salonika, where during early 1916 the two RMF battalions were built up to strength again. . Staunton, pp.105-07
web url http: www.grammy.com nominees search?artist &title &year 1989&genre All title 32nd Grammy Awards Winners publisher Grammy Awards accessdate 4 December 2011 Bulgaria's written musical composition can be traced back to the early Middle Ages and the works of Yoan Kukuzel (c. 1280–1360).
status. After the death of Voev Nova Generacia temporarily disbanded. They did one last appearance Her illness made it necessary for her to travel to places where the climate was dry, and as a result, spent extended periods of time in Germany, Austria, Italy
complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin ''fortis'' ("strong") and ''facere'' ("to make"). However, the civil rights portion of the agreement provided the basis for the work of the Moscow Helsinki Group, an independent non-governmental organization created to monitor compliance to the Helsinki Accords (which evolved into several regional committees, eventually forming the International Helsinki Federation and Human Rights Watch). While
source to cite Thraustila as son-in-law of Aëtius). Cited in Jones, p. 21. International Discovery Channel reaches 431 million homes in 170 countries. Currently, Discovery Communications offers 29 network brands in 33 languages. In a number of countries, Discovery's channels are available on digital satellite platforms with multiple language soundtracks or subtitles including Spanish, German, Russian, Czech (Czech Language), Hindi, Tamil
accessdate 4 March 2012 The mushroom is still highly regarded and consumed in Bulgaria, being sold in markets and picked for export there.
) - Eastern Rock Partridge :E Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) to Greece and Bulgaria, Apennines (Apennine Mountains). * ''A. g. saxatilis'' (Bechstein (Johann Matthäus Bechstein), 1805) - Central Rock Partridge thumb 1927 ''Time'' cover featuring Arlen (Image:Time-magazine-cover-michael-arlen.jpg) '''Michael Arlen''' ( ; born Rousse, Bulgaria, November 16, 1895, died June 23, 1956), original name '''Dikran
were attacked by skinheads, but police managed to prevent any injuries. The 2009 pride parade, with the motto "Rainbow Friendship" attracted more than 300 participants from Bulgaria and tourists from Greece and Great Britain (UK). There were no disruptions and the parade continued as planned. A third Pride parade took place successfully in 2010, with close to 800 participants and an outdoor concert event.
Olympiad for First and Second Year University Students with International Participation (SEEMOUS) — competition for the Balkan region; however, participation is international. The first Olympiad was held in Agros (Agros, Cyprus), Cyprus, 7–12 March 2007, the second in Athens, Greece, 5–10 March 2008, the third in Agros (Agros, Cyprus), Cyprus, 4–9 March 2009, the fourth in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 8–13 March 2010, the fifth in Bucharest, Romania, 2–6
international participation of the year was in the Pan American Games (Boxing at the 1991 Pan American Games) that took place on Havana, Cuba. Here he again took bronze, sharing the third position with Fernando Retayud of Colombia. Panamerican Games1991 A year later he went on to represent Puerto Rico at the 1992 (1992 Summer Olympics) Olympic Games, held in Barcelona, Spain. OlympicGames1992 These would mark his final participation in an amateur event. Dieppa only participated in one fight in the first round of the Olympic boxing tournament (Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics), where he fought against Daniel Petrov. Dieppa lost the fight by points, with a final score of 7-10. *
stat.php?menuid 3&id 3 Statistics from the Bulgarian Tourism Agency New types of tourism, including cultural, architectural and historic tours, eco-tourism, and adventure tours, are expanding the range of visitor experiences. The tourist industry, especially on the seaside, continues to suffer from construction works, poor handling of visitors, poor advertisement and low bed occupancy. Bulgarian Tourist Sector Hopes for 'Hot' Summer 2011, 16 July 2011, Novinite With Krum of Bulgaria blockading Constantinople by land, Leo V had inherited a precarious situation. He offered to negotiate in person with the invader and attempted to have him killed in an ambush. The stratagem failed, and although Krum abandoned his siege of the capital, he captured and depopulated Adrianople and Arkadioupolis (Lüleburgaz). When Krum died in spring 814, Leo V defeated the Bulgarians in the environs of Mesembria (Nesebar) and the two states concluded a 30-year peace in 815 (Treaty of 815). According to some sources, John Skylitzes, Synopsis of Histories (Σύνοψις Ἱστοριῶν), 13. 47–49 Joannes Zonaras, Extracts of History (Επιτομή Ιστοριών), 381. 5–10 Krum participated in the battle and abandoned the battlefield heavily injured. Little is known of Theodosius' short reign. He immediately faced an Arab invasion deep into Anatolia and the advance of the Arab fleet. In 716 he concluded a treaty with Tervel of Bulgaria favorable to the Bulgarians in effort to secure support against the Arab invasion. This policy paid off in 719, when they helped relieve the Second Arab siege of Constantinople. In 811 Nikephoros invaded Bulgaria, defeated Krum twice, and sacked the Bulgarian capital Pliska; however, during Nikephoros' retreat, the Byzantine army was ambushed and destroyed in the mountain passes on July 26 (Battle of Pliska) by Krum. Nikephoros was killed in the battle, the second Roman emperor to suffer this fate since Valens in the Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378). Krum is said to have made a drinking-cup (skull cup) of Nikephoros' skull. Later campaigns During his reign Nikephoros II Phokas continued to wage numerous wars. From 964–966 he led an army of 40,000 men which conquered Cilicia and again overran Mesopotamia and Syria, while the patrician Niketas (Nicetas, patricius) recovered Cyprus. W. Treadgold, ''A History of the Byzantine State and Society'', 948 In 968 he reduced most of the fortresses in Syria, and after the fall of Antioch and Aleppo in 969, which were recaptured by his lieutenants, he secured his conquests by a peace treaty. On his northern frontier he began a war against Bulgaria in 967, to which the Byzantines had been paying tribute. Nikephoros revoked the tribute and instigated (with 15,000 pounds of gold) King Sviatoslav I of Kiev to attack Bulgaria, which he did so effectively (Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria), that Nikephoros ended up renewing the alliance with Bulgaria and turning against his own Kievan (Kievan Rus') ally. This article is about the demographic (demographics) features of the population of '''Bulgaria''', including population density, ethnicity (Ethnic group), education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. By 1067, the Turks had been making incursions at will into Mesopotamia, Melitene, Syria, Cilicia and Cappadocia, culminating with the sack of Caesarea (Caesarea Mazaca) and the plundering of the Church of St Basil. Norwich, pg. 343 That winter they camped on the frontiers of the empire, and waited for the next year's campaigning season. Romanos was confident of Byzantine superiority on the field of battle, looking on the Turks as little more than hordes of robbers who would melt away at the first encounter. Finlay, pg. 32 He did not take into account the degraded state of the Byzantine forces Finlay, pg. 32 which had suffered years of neglect from his predecessors, in particular Constantine X. His forces, mostly composed of Sclavonia (Slavonia)n, Armenian, Bulgarian, and Frankish (Franks) mercenaries, were ill-disciplined, disorganised and uncoordinated, and he was not prepared to spend time in upgrading the arms, armour or tactics of the once feared Byzantine army. Norwich, pg. 345 It was soon evident that while Romanos was not devoid of military talent, his main flaw was his impetuosity. Canduci, pg. 272 During the respite from the war against the Abbasids, Theophilos arranged for the abduction of the Byzantine captives settled north of the Danube by Krum of Bulgaria. The rescue operation was carried out with success in c. 836, and the peace between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire was quickly restored. However, it proved impossible to maintain peace in the East. Theophilos had given asylum to a number of refugees from the east in 834, including Nasr (a Persian (Persian people) I. Sevcenko, Review of New Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire, ''Slavic Review'', p. 111, 1968. ), baptized Theophobos, who married the emperor's aunt Irene, and became one of his generals. With relations with the Abbasids deteriorating, Theophilos prepared for a new war. thumb 220px right ''Follis (File:Theophilus follis.jpg)'' of a new type, minted in large quantities in celebration of Theophilos' victories against the Arabs from ca. 835 on. On the obverse he is represented in triumphal attire, wearing the '' toupha'', and on the reverse the traditional acclamation "Theophilos ''Augustus (Augustus (honorific))'', you conquer". The succession of Theodore II was exploited by the Bulgarians, who invaded Thrace under the leadership of the young and inexperienced Michael Asen I of Bulgaria (Michael II Asen of Bulgaria) in 1255. In spite of his own scholarly predisposition, Theodore II immediately marched against the Bulgarians and inflicted a crushing defeat on them. During his second expedition in 1256, he managed to conclude a favorable peace with Bulgaria, which may have plunged the latter into a crisis of leadership. Theodore II followed up his victory against Bulgaria by expanding his control in the west, where he annexed Durazzo and Servia (Servia, Greece), effectively outflanking his rivals in Epirus (Despotate of Epirus). John III's possession of Adrianople was terminated by Theodore Komnenos Doukas (Theodore I Ducas) of Epirus (Despotate of Epirus) and Thessalonica, who drove the Nicaean garrison out of Adrianople and annexed much of Thrace in 1227. The elimination of Theodore by Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria in 1230 put an end to the danger posed by Thessalonica, and John III made an alliance with Bulgaria against the Latin Empire. In 1235 this alliance resulted in the restoration of the Bulgarian patriarchate and the marriage between Elena of Bulgaria and Theodore II, respectively Ivan Asen II's daughter and John III's son. In the same year the Bulgarians and Nicaeans campaigned against the Latin Empire, and in 1236, they attempted a siege of Constantinople. See Treadgold. ''History of the Byzantine State and Society'', pp. 722–724. Subsequently, Ivan Asen II adopted an ambivalent policy, effectively becoming neutral, and leaving John III to his own devices. The civil war (Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347) which ensued lasted six years, during which the rival parties called in the aid of the Serbians, Bulgarians, and the Ottoman Turks, and engaged mercenaries (mercenary) of every description. It was only by the aid of the Ottoman Turks, with whom he made a bargain, that John VI Kantakouzenos brought the war to an end favourable to himself. Fearing the potential conversion of Boris I of Bulgaria to Christianity under Frankish (Franks) influence, Michael III and the Caesar Bardas invaded Bulgaria and imposed Boris' conversion according to the Byzantine rite as part of the peace settlement in 864. Michael III stood as sponsor, by proxy, for Boris at his baptism. Boris took the additional name of Michael at the ceremony. The Byzantines also allowed the Bulgarians to reclaim the debatable border region of Zagora. Fine, pp. 118–119 The conversion of the Bulgarians has been evaluated as one of the greatest cultural and political achievements of the Byzantine Empire. Gregory, p. 240 thumb left Murder of emperor Romanos III Argyros under the order of Michael IV the Paphlagonian, from the Constantine Manasses Constantine Manasses Chronicle (Image:67-manasses-chronicle.jpg) John's reforms of the army and financial system revived for a while the strength of the Empire, which held its own successfully against its foreign enemies. Finlay, pg. 485 But the increase in taxation caused discontent among both nobles and commoners. Finlay, pg. 481 John's monopoly of the government, and his policies, such as the introduction of the ''Aerikon'' tax, led to several failed conspiracies against him, and, by extension, Michael. Kazhdan, pg. 1365 Finlay, pg. 481 There were local revolts at Antioch, Nicopolis and Bulgaria. Finlay, pg. 482 Local discontent was exacerbated by poor harvests and famine caused by bad weather and a locust plage in 1035, Treadgold, pg. 586 and when Michael tried to exercise a measure of control over Aleppo, the local citizens drove off the imperial governor. Treadgold, pg. 587 Although still advised by Michael Psellos and John Doukas, Michael VII became increasingly reliant on his finance minister Nikephoritzes. Norwich, pg. 359 The emperor's chief interests, shaped by Psellos, were in academic pursuits, and he allowed Nikephoritzes to increase both taxation and luxury spending without properly financing the army. As an emperor he was incompetent, and surrounded by synchophantic court officials, he was blind to the empire collapsing around him. Canduci, pg. 273 In dire straits, imperial officials resorted to property confiscations and even expropriated some of the wealth of the church. The underpaid army tended to mutiny, and the Byzantines lost Bari, their last possession in Italy, to the Normans of Robert Guiscard in 1071. Norwich, pg. 355 Simultaneously, they faced a serious revolt in the Balkans, where they faced an attempt for the restoration of the Bulgarian state in the same year. Norwich, pg. 359 Although this revolt was suppressed by the general Nikephoros Bryennios, Norwich, pg. 359 the Byzantine Empire was unable to recover its losses in Asia Minor. The controversy began when no score was registered on the scoreboard. For half an hour gymnastics stole the screen from all the other sports and even the adverts on Western TV stations were delayed. Deductions were taken in tenths by the judges, i.e. 0 if the judge thought the exercise was perfect, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 etc. The marks were 10 from the Bulgarian judge, 9.9 from the Czech (Czechoslovakia) judge,9.8 from both the Soviet (USSR) and Polish judges. With the top and bottom marks being discarded, and the remaining 2 being added together and then divided by 2, this gave Nadia Comăneci a score of 9.85. This gave her a shared silver with Maxi Gnauck. Natalia Shaposhnikova finished 4th but would have shared a silver medal with them had she scored 0.05 extra. The Lublin region had the lowest per capita GDP (Gross domestic product) in the European Union until Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007 (it was 32% of EU average in 2002). It is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than other regions of Poland located closer to Western Europe. While the standard of living in the city of Lublin is considerably higher than in the surrounding countryside, the city's relatively poor economic performance is tied to the poverty of its surrounding region. There were also reports from Bulgaria of the survival of Anastasia and her younger brother Tsarevich Alexei. In 1953, Peter Zamiatkin, who was reportedly a member of the guard of the Russian Imperial Family (Romanov), told a 16-year-old fellow hospital patient that he had taken Anastasia and Alexei to his birth village near Odessa at the request of the Tsar. After the assassination of the rest of the royal family, Zamiatkin reportedly escaped with the children via ship, sailing from Odessa to Alexandria. The alleged survivors, "Anastasia" and "Alexei," reportedly lived out their lives under assumed names in the Bulgarian town of Gabarevo near Kazanlak. The Bulgarian Anastasia claimant called herself Eleonora Albertovna Kruger (Eleonora Kruger) and died in 1954.
'''Bulgaria''' , Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country (List of European countries by area).
Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians and later the Greeks (Ancient Greece) and Romans (Roman Empire). The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 CE, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a single-party socialist state (People's Republic of Bulgaria) as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 (Revolutions of 1989) the ruling Communist Party (Bulgarian Communist Party) allowed multi-party (Multi-party system) elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgaria's population of 7.4 million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces (Provinces of Bulgaria). Most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.
The country's current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary (Unitary state) parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council (United Nations Security Council) three times.