. In response the 10th (Irish) Division was shipped to Salonika for the Macedonian campaign (Macedonian front (World War I)). . Staunton, p.104 The division received extensive training as well as reinforcements from non-regimental sources changing the character of the two battalions. Still wearing summer uniforms the severe snow and frost at high level caused many casualties. The Bulgarian forces made intensive progress and threatened the Anglo-French force, the 7th RMF in a front line position. At Kosturino it held the rearguard as the 10th Division, which included Connaught Rangers and Royal Dublin Fusiliers, was ordered to retreat at the end of December. Having failed to prevent the fall of Serbia, the Allied forces remained at Salonika, where during early 1916 the two RMF battalions were built up to strength again. . Staunton, pp.105-07
Western influence survived for a further two centuries, producing artists including El Greco whose training was in the Cretan School which was the most vigorous post-Byzantine school, exporting great numbers of icons to Europe. Theodore Komnenos Doukas immediately set out to attack Thessalonica, and fought with the Bulgarians along the way. Henry of Flanders died on the way to counterattack, and in 1217 Theodore captured his successor Peter of Courtenay, most likely executing
heading to Bulgaria to compete in the Fed Cup (2007 Fed Cup) for Britain. She played two singles matches (winning one) and four doubles matches (winning two). Following this she reached two consecutive $25,000 ITF semifinals in Incheon and Gimcheon, one as a qualifier and the other as a lucky loser (Lucky loser (tennis)). She consolidated these results with a run to the quarterfinals of another $25,000 in Changwon. In June she received a wild card (Wild card (sports)) into the main draw of the DFS Classic (2007 DFS Classic) where she showed ''"fighting spirit"'' in her first round loss to Milagros Sequera.
kept contacts with representatives of ethnic Romanian communities directly affected by the Second Vienna Award, including Transylvanian Greek-Catholic (Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic) clergy. Kent, p.224 Another aspect of Antonescu's nationalist policies was evidenced after the Balkans Campaign (Balkans Campaign (World War II)). Antonescu's Romania did not partake in the military action, but laid a claim to the territories in eastern
until 2005, but then the Disney show was canceled. When airing of Disney series resumed on Nova Television and Jetix (Jetix (Central and Eastern Europe)) in 2008, voice-over was used (but Disney animated movie translations still use synchronized voices). Voice-over dubbing is not used in theatrical releases. The Bulgarian Film Industry Law requires all children's films to be dubbed, not subtitled. Nova Television dubbed and aired ''Pokémon'' with synchronized voices now its airing
the country. You can find readily available excellent local varieties like Kamenitza (from Plovdiv), Zagorka (from Stara Zagora), Ariana (from Sofia), Pirinsko (from Blagoevgrad) and Shumensko (from Shumen), as well as Western European beers produced under license and produced in Bulgaria like Tuborg, Heineken, Stella Artois and Amstel. Spirits *'''Rakia rakiya''' (ракия) is the Bulgarian national alcoholic drink. It is served neat, usually at the beginning of a meal with salads. It's is strong
by the name of "Balkan Air Tour." The airline was known by that name for a short period of time; in November 2002, public contests were held in Bulgaria to determine a name and logo for the new airline. Thousands of people showed their creativity and voiced their opinions and after searching through countless submissions, the name and logo were chosen. The design was used for about 4 years, until 2006, when an improved, more professional design
. It is located in Pazardzhik Province, where the Yadenitza flows into the Maritza river, at the foot of three mountain ranges (Rila, Rhodopes and Sredna Gora), on the western end of the Thracian Plain. Owing to the confluence of the three mountain ranges, the municipality of Belovo has a diverse landscape, with many forests and water resources in the area. '''Belitsa'''
%20operation%20horseshoe&f false Dictionary of Genocide: M-Z, Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs, 2008 alleged operation 'Horseshoe' large-scale campaign which escalated to ethnic cleansing of Kosovo Albanians carried out by Serbian Police and Yugoslav Army (Military of Serbia and Montenegro) during the Kosovo War. ref name "guardian
and Phasiane in 1014. Basil, involved in his campaign against the Bulgarians, sent an army to expel the Georgians. This army was decisively defeated, but a Byzantine naval force (Byzantine navy) occupied the Khazar ports in the rear, that is, to the north-west, of George's dominions. Once, the annexation of Bulgaria was completed in 1018, preparations for a larger-scale campaign were set in train, beginning with the re-fortification of Theodosiopolis (Armenia) Theodosiopolis
cities, the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast can satisfy any taste and during the days of the hot Bulgarian summer. Most of the towns and villages along the coastline can be traced back to Ancient Greece - the town of Nessebar, for example, has a central ancient part that is a UNESCO World Heritage site (UNESCO World Heritage List). Varna to the north, is the third largest city in Bulgaria - as an economical and tourist centre it is called the sea capital of the country. region4name Strandzha region4color #B3377D region4items region4description A relatively low mountain, Strandzha is known for the specific architecture that can be observed in Malko Tarnovo, Brashlyan and most other villages, the rich folklore and distinctive rituals, such as nestinarstvo (barefoot dancing on live embers), that preserve numerous pagan elements. Strandzha is an area with a large concentration of ruins of Thracian sanctuaries and sacrificial altars, dolmens and other archaeological objects. The mountain is also the home of the Strandzha National Park. region5name Upper Thracian Plain region5color #37E701 region5items region5description Some of the most developed cities in Bulgaria, such as Plovdiv and Stara Zagora are situated in the region. Northern Thrace is an area of lowlands along the rivers Maritsa and Tundzha, that are very fertile and rich in fossil fuels. The region is also rich in historical heritage: the Panagyurishte Treasure one of the best known surviving artefacts of Thracian culture, the Thracian Tomb of Kazanluk dating back to 4th century B.C. is a UNESCO World Heritage site (UNESCO World Heritage List), and Plovdiv (the second largest city in the country) is arguably the oldest city in Europe. region6name Rhodope Mountains region6color #719128 region6items region6description While not very high mountains, the Rhodopes are a preferred destination by many tourists because of the limited number of roads and the steep hills and the deep forests. The winter ski resort of Pamporovo is in the Rhodopes. "The home of Orpheus" - the Greek mythological poet that went to hell to save his loved one - is a region with a distinct cultural influence. Rhodope music is world famous: many foreign musicians have been fascinated by the sounds of Rhodopes and even the song ''Izlel e Delyu Haydutin'' performed by Valya Balkanska is one of the few performances included in the Voyager Golden Record selection of music, part of the Voyager 2 space probe, that is expected to play across space for at least 60,000 years. region7name Pirin Macedonia region7color #ADCD04 region7items region7description Named after the mountain Pirin the area includes the mountain itself, as well as the valleys of the rivers Struma and Mesta. The national park Pirin and the popular ski resort Bansko are part of the attractions of the region. The town of Blagoevgrad is the largest town in the area. It is known as a student town because two of the largest universities are in it. Pirin Macedonia is also a popular wine region. region8name Bulgarian Shopluk region8color #42F37D region8items region8description The capital Sofia, as the largest city of Bulgaria, dominates the economy of the region. Vitosha mountain just south of Sofia is a popular tourist destination used as a "get-away" from the hectic urban life. The "roof of the capital" as Vitosha is sometimes called, is convenient for weekend picnics and tourist strolls in the summer and skiing and snowboarding in the winter. ''Shopluka'', however, also includes the highest mountain in the Balkans - Rila. Rila is the home of the ski resort Borovets, some beautiful glacier lakes, as well as another UNESCO World Heritage site (UNESCO World Heritage List) the Rila Monastery. region9name Balkan Mountains region9color #018300 region9items region9description The Balkan - the soul of the Bulgarian people. The mountain has a special meaning of a symbol in Bulgarian folklore and culture. It is the home of heroes and victories, the guardian fortress of the people, the cradle of all that is Bulgarian. The small towns in the foot of the mountain were the revolutionary centres of Bulgarians during the times of the Ottoman empire and many of the biggest heroes and cultural idols of Bulgaria were born in those towns. The national park Central Balkan is situated in the mountain and there are may places along the chain that are suitable for winter sports and tourism. Cities thumbnail Plovdiv (File:Plovdiv Bulgaria.jpg) * Sofia — the capital and lagest city in Bulgaria, featuring a nice town centre with a Reneissanse and modern influences, many parks including the National park "Vitosha" (which is just minutes away from the city centre), a good nightlife, over 250 historic landmarks and architectural monuments, and a great deal of cultural places of interest. It is one of the oldest cities in Europe * Burgas — though known for its commercial port (Port of Burgas) and oil refinery, the city has a picturesque waterfront, nearby downtown and rich shopping areas that make it popular with tourists. In recent years the city hosts the popular music festival "Spirit of Burgas" * Gabrovo — A popular tourist destination near the geographic the center of the country, providing quick access to other cities, such as Veliko Tarnovo and Kazanlak, as well as the Balkan Mountains and the ski-resort of Uzana (Nature Park Bulgarka). The architectural-ethnographic resort Etar (Nature Park Bulgarka) is situated near the town * Pleven — a historical city, famous for its Panorama monument and for its beautiful parks and fountains in the city centre * Plovdiv — the nation's second largest city, situated on the both banks of the Maritsa river, it boasts a lovely shopping promenade and many parks. An ancient city with influences from many epochs including a preserved ancient Greek amphitheatre, a Roman stadium, a "Bulgarian revival" style Old Town, and a variety of mosques, catholic cathedrals and orthodox churches all across the city. Plovdiv is also famous in the country for its hectic nightlife. Though the city has a modern lifestyle it is one of the oldest in the world and debatably - the oldest in Europe. Be sure also to take a side trip to Bachkovo Monastery which is about an hour away * Rousse — known as the "Small Vienna", the town centre offers an impressive architectural Baroque ensemble that cannot be found any place else within Bulgaria. The city boasts various places of interest among which the Sexiginta Prista Roman Castle, Rousse's Theatre, The House of Caliopa, and the Pantheon * Varna — the nation's third largest city is a lovely combination of a beach resort with a famous nightlife and an urban centre. Varna's coast garden is filled with entertainments and can also be appreciated by art lovers * Veliko Tarnovo — picturesque university city near the Yantra river that was the capital of medieval Bulgarian Empire and still has one of the best preserved medieval fortresses on its background Other destinations * Central Balkan National Park * Dragoman Marsh * Etar Architectural-Ethnographic Complex (Nature Park Bulgarka) (or just '''Etara''') - the open-air museum of Bulgarian crafts and culture of the 18th century in "Bulgarka" National Nature Park, near the town of Gabrovo * Pirin National Park Get in
'''Bulgaria''' , Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country (List of European countries by area).
Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians and later the Greeks (Ancient Greece) and Romans (Roman Empire). The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 CE, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a single-party socialist state (People's Republic of Bulgaria) as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 (Revolutions of 1989) the ruling Communist Party (Bulgarian Communist Party) allowed multi-party (Multi-party system) elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgaria's population of 7.4 million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces (Provinces of Bulgaria). Most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.
The country's current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary (Unitary state) parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council (United Nations Security Council) three times.