. By the 1980s the genre was in steep decline in popularity, but has survived and revived in significance, partly merging with the rock music and folk music cultures from which it originated. Although in Britain the term folk rock is often used synonymously with electric folk, commentators have returned to this term as a means of distinguishing this as a clear and distinct category within the wider folk rock genre. The '''dulzaina''' ( ) or '''dolçaina''' (
Silverstein Alvin; Silverstein, Virginia publisher Courier Dover Publications year 2003 isbn 0-486-42888-5 page 17 Biography He was born at Rennes, in Brittany, and educated at a Jesuit (Society of Jesus) college there. He came to Paris in 1772, and wrote criticisms for the ''Mercure de France''. He also composed a comic opera, ''Pomponin'' (1777). The ''Satire des satires'' (1778) and the ''Confession de Zulmé'' (1779) followed. The ''Confession
in the zoomorphic column capitals at ''Avesnières''. The early Gothic, what in England would be called Early English (Early English Period) but in Laval is Angevin Gothic, is to be seen in ''la Trinité''. Here we are close to Anjou, the home of the Angevin kings of England beginning with Henry II (Henry II of England). In the Cathedral, on the effigy tomb of the bishop Louis Bougaud (1888), the following inscription may be read: In 1946 Messali founded the ''Mouvement pour le triomphe des libertés démocratiques'' (MTLD). Messali lived under house arrest in Brittany, France, and could not travel to Algeria. His group was perceived as moderate and accommodating, but his revolutionary ideals alienated parts of Algeria's conservative (Conservatism) Muslim society. Messali's brand of Algerian nationalism gained its most important following among Algerian workers in France, while the FLN and other grass-roots groups took hold in Algeria. Carrick-on-Shannon is twinned (Town twinning) with the following places: *
then decided to become a pharmacist, and graduated with a degree in pharmacology in 1876. Origin of the term and its application The '''Angevin Empire''' is a neologism defining the lands of the Plantagenets: Henry II (Henry II of England) and his sons Richard I (Richard I of England) and John (John of England). Another son Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany ruled Brittany and established a separate line there. As far as historians know, there was no contemporary term for the region under Angevin control; however descriptions such as "our kingdom and everything subject to our rule whatever it may be" were used. John Gillingham: "The Angevin Empire" page 2, second edition, Arnold Editions. The term ''Angevin Empire'' was coined by Kate Norgate in her 1887 publication, ''England under the Angevin Kings''. Norgate, Kate, ''England Under the Angevin Kings''. In France, the term ''Espace Plantagenêt'' (Plantagenet Area) is sometimes used to describe the fiefdoms the Plantagenets had acquired. Martin Aurell - L'empire des Plantagenêt page 11: ''En 1984, résumant les communications d'un colloque franco-anglais tenu à Fontevraud (Anjou), lieu de mémoire par excellence des Plantagenêt, Robert Henri-Bautier, coté français, n'est pas en reste, proposant, pour cette "juxtaposition d'entités" sans "aucune structure commune" de substituer l'imprécis "espace" aux trop contraignants "Empire Plantagenêt" ou "Etat anglo-angevin".'' Geography and administration At its largest extent, the Angevin Empire consisted of the Kingdom of England, the Lordship of Ireland, the duchies of Normandy, Gascony and Aquitaine (also called Guyenne) Capetian France 937 - 1328" Editions Longman page 74: "There was a hiatus between the Carolingian duchy and its successor that was assembled by Count of Poitou in the early tenth century..." as well as of the Counties of Anjou, Poitou, Maine (Maine (province of France)), Touraine, Saintonge, Marche (County of Marche), Périgord, Limousin (Limousin (province)), Nantes and Quercy. While the duchies and counties were held with various levels of vassalage to the King of France (List of French monarchs), Capetian France 937 - 1328 page 64: "Then in 1151 Henry Plantagenet paid hommage for the duchy to Louis VII in Paris, homage he repeated as king of England in 1156." the Plantagenets held various levels of control over the Duchies of Brittany and Cornwall, the Welsh princedoms (Wales), the county of Toulouse, and the Kingdom of Scotland, although those regions were not formal parts of the empire. Further claims were laid over Berry (Berry (province)) and Auvergne (Auvergne (province)), but these were not fulfilled.
-1944, the 7th Army was part of Erwin Rommel's Army Group B. Although previously well known as an offshore sailor, Joyon's real leap to international prominence came in February 2004 when the Breton (Brittany) became the fastest world solo yachtsman, setting a time over 20 days faster than the previous record for a circumnavigation of 72 days 22 hours and 54 minutes and 22 seconds. During the record run he sailed more than at an average speed of
on the institution of marriage. Bolstered by its popularity, he added to his fame by publishing a variety of short stories and essays in the magazines ''Revue de Paris'', ''La Caricature'', and ''La Mode''. He thus made connections in the publishing industry that later helped him to obtain reviews of his novels. Robb, pp. 162–167; Gerson, p. 92; Maurois, pp. 155–156; Bellos, pp. 5–6. Supported by all French banks, Moneo was tested in Brittany and Montpellier
, playing in a number of bars and pubs in Brittany. They developed a repertoire for playing songs from the sixties and seventies, with the Beatles, Neil Young and Simon and Garfunkel figuring prominently among their influences. Gavin de Beer has suggested Gavin de Beer, "Iktin", ''The Geographical Journal'' '''126'''.2 (June 1960:160-167), p. 166. that Roger Dion had solved the puzzle Dion, "Le problème des Cassitérides," ''Latomus'' '''11''' (1952:306-14) by bringing to bear a chance remark in Avienus' late poem ''Ora maritima'', which is based on early sources: the tin isles were in an arm of the sea within sight of wide plains and rich mines of tin and lead, and opposite two islands — a further one, Hibernia, and a nearer one, Britannia. "Before the estuary of the Loire became silted up in late Roman times, the Bay of Biscay led into a wide gulf, now represented by the lower reaches of the river Brivet Brivet: Le Brivet est une rivière de Loire-Atlantique, dernier affluent de la Loire, traversant les Marais de Grande Brière (:fr:Brivet). and the marshes of the Brière, between Paimboeuf and St. Nazaire (Saint-Nazaire), in which were a number of islands. The islands and shores of this gulf, now joined together by silt, are crowded with Bronze Age foundries that worked tin and lead; Penestin "The village of Penestin on the headland south of the estuary of the Vilaine in Brittany means the tin cape". (de Beers 1960:162). and the tin headland are just north of them; and there can be no doubt that the famous tin islands were there." De Beer confirms the location from Strabo: the Cassiterides are ten islands in the sea, north of the land of the Artabrians in the northwest corner of Hispania. Strabo says that a Publius Crassus was the first Roman to visit the Tin Islands and write a firsthand report. This Crassus is thought to be either the Publius Licinius Crassus (consul 97 BC) (Publius Licinius Crassus Dives) who was a governor in Hispania (Hispania Ulterior) in the 90s, Christopher Hawkes, “Britain and Julius Caesar,” ''Proceedings of the British Academy'' 63 (1977) 124–192; also J.S. Richardson, ''Hispaniae: Spain and the Development of Roman Imperialism, 218–82 BC'' (Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 159 online. T. Corey Brennan, in ''The Praetorship in the Roman Republic'' (Oxford University Press, 2000), vol. 2, p. 501 online, believes the expedition to the Cassiterides was “a purely scientific trip." or his grandson by the same name (Publius Licinius Crassus (son of triumvir)), who in 57–56 BC commanded Julius Caesar's forces in Armorica (Brittany), Theodor Mommsen, ''History of Rome (History of Rome (Mommsen))'' (1894), vol. 4, p. 63 ''Römische Geschichte'' (1889), vol. 3, p. 269; T. Rice Holmes, "The Cassiterides, Ictis, and the British Trade in Tin," in ''Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907) pp. 483–498, on authorship pp. 494–497 online; see also article on Publius Licinius Crassus (son of triumvir), section on authorship (Publius Licinius Crassus (son of triumvir)#As author?). which places him near the mouth of the Loire. History Much of the history of Paul is connected with its parish church (Church of England parish church). The church itself (Paul Parish Church) is said to have been founded in 490, a very uncertain date and not documented, by Paul Aurelian, a Welsh saint known in Brittany as Paol Aurelian in Breton. There is no historical evidence to support his ever coming to West Penwith. He was founder of the cathedral at Saint-Pol-de-Léon, the city named after him. However this church could have been dedicated to Paul the Apostle, or Paulinus of York, there is no documentary evidence to prove any of these three Saint Pauls was the original dedicatee of the church. It was only named 'St. Pol-de-Leon' in 1907 and is probably connected with Henry Jenner who (with W C Borlase) opposed alleged 'Englishness' and stamp consistent spelling of Cornish place names on OS maps. Office of Strategic Services She joined the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Special Operations Branch in March 1944 and asked to return to occupied France. She hardly needed training in clandestine work behind enemy lines, and OSS promptly granted her request and landed her from a British MTB (Motor Torpedo Boat) in Brittany (her artificial leg having kept her from parachuting in). Codenamed "Diane", she eluded the Gestapo and contacted the French Resistance in central France. She mapped drop zones for supplies and commandos from England, found safe houses, and linked up with a Jedburgh team (Operation Jedburgh) after the Allied Forces (Allies of World War II) landed at Normandy. Hall helped train three battalions of Resistance forces to wage guerrilla warfare against the Germans and kept up a stream of valuable reporting until Allied troops overtook her small band in September.
was not legally part of the realm of England. The traditional view has been that the Norman monarchy granted these outright. A revisionist view is that such rights were more common in the 11th century throughout the Conquest, but were largely suppressed in England, and survived in the Marches. Settlement was encouraged, as if the lands were desert: Knights were granted their own lands, which they held in feudal service to the Norman lords. Settlement was also encouraged in towns that were given market
universal — Edward Gibbon believed that there had been a great deal of British survival — it was the dominant paradigm. Though many scholars would now utilise this argument, the traditional view is still held by many other historians, Lawrence James recently writing that England was 'submerged by an Anglo-Saxon current which swept away the Romano-British.' Lawrence James, ''Warrior Race'', (London: Abacus. 2002), p.30 It is clear that some British people migrated
(modern day Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), in northwest Spain) at about the same time. The historian Peter Hunter-Blair (Peter Hunter Blair) expounded what is now regarded as the traditional view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain. Bell-Fialkoff Bell: ''The role of migration in the history of the Eurasian steppe'', p.303. That is why many scholars still subscribe to the traditional view that combined archaeological, documentary and linguistic evidence suggests that considerable numbers of Anglo-Saxons settled in southern and eastern England. He suggested a mass immigration, fighting and driving the Sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the western extremities of the islands, and into the Breton and Iberian peninsulas. Hunter-Blair, ''Roman Britain and early England'' Particularly Chapter 8: ''The Age of Invasion'' '''Breizh Cola,''' "the cola of Brittany", is bottled by Phare Ouest Literally ''West lighthouse''. This is a pun on the phrase '''Far West''', the French equivalent of Wild West. . It is one of many new types of alternate cola, or "altercola," competing with more established and widespread brands such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. These colas are currently produced in small volumes and are generally readily available in local markets only. Another example was in November 1943, when Ōshima was taken on a four-day tour of the Atlantic Wall fortifications on the coast of France. Upon his return to Berlin, he wrote a detailed 20-page report of his visit, giving an account of the location of every German division (Division (military)), as well as its manpower and weaponry. He described tank ditches in detail, armament of turrets located close to the shore, and available mobile forces. This provided valuable intelligence to the planners of the D-Day assault. Connected to this was that the Allies knew that Operation Fortitude was working because just one week before D-Day, Hitler confided to Ōshima that while the Allies might make diversionary feints in Norway, Brittany and Normandy, they will actually open up "an all-out second front in the area of the Straits of Dover (Strait of Dover)". Thus Ōshima dutifully reported that the bulk of German forces would not be waiting in Normandy, but mistakenly, at the Pas-de-Calais area. She was born at the château de Coëtsal near Plumergat, in the ''département (département in France)'' of the Morbihan, in Brittany, her father, Joseph-Arundel de Riquetti, comte de Mirabeau, 1820–1860, being the great-grandson of Victor de Riquetti, marquis de Mirabeau (Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau) (''Mirabeau Père''), noted 18th century economist, and grandnephew of Honoré Mirabeau the celebrated revolutionary orator. In view of her later opinions, it is interesting to remember that Sibylle was actually descended from Octave Mirabeau's reactionary younger brother, André-Boniface-Louis de Riquetti, vicomte de Mirabeau, (1754–1792) known as ''Mirabeau-Tonneau'' because of his notorious ''embonpoint'', who famously broke his sword in front of France's Revolutionary Assembly (where he represented the nobility of the Limousin (Limousin (province))) while bitterly crying out: "now that The King is giving up his kingdom, a nobleman no longer needs a sword to fight for him!" thumb left Louis II de La Trémoille in an ancient engraving. (Image:Tremoille.JPG) He commanded an army that attempted to secure Brittany for the French crown after internal revolts had weakened Francis II, Duke of Brittany during the so-called "Mad War" (''La Guerre Folle''). His decisive victory at the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier (Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier (1488)) on 27 July 1488 ended effective Breton independence. Traditionally, most people were given names from the Roman Catholic calendar of saints. Common names of this type are ''Jacques'' (James (James (name))), ''Jean'' (John (John (given name))), ''Michel'' (Michael), ''Pierre'' (Peter (Peter (name))), or ''Jean-Baptiste'' (John the Baptist) for males; and ''Marie'' (Mary (Mary (given name))), ''Jeanne'' (Jane (Jane (given name))), ''Marguerite'' (Margaret (Margaret (name))), ''Françoise'' (Frances (Francis (given name))), or ''Élisabeth'' (Elizabeth (Elizabeth (given name))) for females. In certain regions such as Brittany or Corsica, more local names (usually of local saints) are often used (in Brittany, for instance, male ''Corentin'' or female ''Anne''; in Corsica, ''Dominique'' (suitable both for males and females). However, people from immigrant communities often choose names from their own culture. Furthermore, in recent decades it has become common to use first names of foreign origin, such as ''Kevin'', ''Enzo'' or ''Anthony'' for males; for females, ''Jessica'', ''Jennifer'', ''Karine'' or ''Sonia''. Also, females were given names that are feminine to the common French names like Jacqueline (Jacqueline (name)) and Gérald (Gerald)ine. Traditionally, most people were given names from the Roman Catholic calendar of saints. Common names of this type are ''Jacques'' (James (James (name))), ''Jean'' (John (John (given name))), ''Michel'' (Michael), ''Pierre'' (Peter (Peter (name))), or ''Jean-Baptiste'' (John the Baptist) for males; and ''Marie'' (Mary (Mary (given name))), ''Jeanne'' (Jane (Jane (given name))), ''Marguerite'' (Margaret (Margaret (name))), ''Françoise'' (Frances (Francis (given name))), or ''Élisabeth'' (Elizabeth (Elizabeth (given name))) for females. In certain regions such as Brittany or Corsica, more local names (usually of local saints) are often used (in Brittany, for instance, male ''Corentin'' or female ''Anne''; in Corsica, ''Dominique'' (suitable both for males and females). However, people from immigrant communities often choose names from their own culture. Furthermore, in recent decades it has become common to use first names of foreign origin, such as ''Kevin'', ''Enzo'' or ''Anthony'' for males; for females, ''Jessica'', ''Jennifer'', ''Karine'' or ''Sonia''. Also, females were given names that are feminine to the common French names like Jacqueline (Jacqueline (name)) and Gérald (Gerald)ine. Town twinning Grand Saconnex is twinned (town twinning) with the town of Carantec in Brittany in western France. Conseil des Communes et Regions d'Europe
'', p 51. University of Chicago Press, London, 1967. *Catalonia (Spain): Count Arnau (el comte Arnau), a legendary nobleman from Ripollès, who for his rapacious cruelty and lechery is condemned to ride to hounds for eternity while his flesh is devoured by flames. He is the subject of a classic traditional Catalan ballad. Joaquim Maideu, "Llibre de cançons: crestomatia de cançons tradicionals catalanes", p. 50. ISBN 84-7602-319-7. *England: Woden
and in a lighthearted mood, she tells Aurelius that he might have her love providing he can dispose of all the rocks on the coast of Brittany. Aurelius finally manages to secure the services of a magician-scholar of the arcane arts, who, taking pity on the young man, for the princely sum of a thousand pounds agrees "thurgh his magik" to make all the rocks "aweye" "for a wyke or tweye" (possibly by association with an exceptionally high tide). Chaucer G. The Franklin's
'''Brittany''' ( .
The historical province of Brittany is now split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany (Brittany (administrative region)) comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany. The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region.
At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department. In 2008, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes (854,807 inhabitants), Rennes (654,478 inhabitants), and Brest (Brest, France) (311,735 inhabitants).