Bosra

What is Bosra known for?


1147

been, in his early youth, a bandit and gladiator. He was regarded as one of the most prominent amoraim of the second generation, the other being his brother-in-law and halakhic (Halakha) opponent Rabbi Yochanan (Yochanan bar Nafcha). Mu'in ad-Din was always suspicious of Nur ad-Din's power, but it was his policy to remain on friendly terms with his neighbours wherever possible, whether they were Christian or Muslim. In 1147 Nur ad-Din and Mu'in ad-Din negotiated an alliance, in which

Nur ad-Din married Mu'in ad-Din's daughter Ismat ad-Din Khatun. Having established peace with Aleppo, Mu'in ad-Din set out to besiege Sarkhad and Bosra, after their governor, Altuntash, allied with Jerusalem against him. This broke Jerusalem's treaty with Damascus, forcing Mu'in ad-Din to turn to Nur ad-Din for assistance. Nur ad-Din arrived with the army of Aleppo, and the crusaders were forced to withdraw (Battle of Bosra (1147)); both Bosra and Sarkhad then surrendered

to Mu'in ad-Din. In August 1147 Mu'in ad-Din was formally recognized as governor of Damascus by the Caliph of Baghdad Al-Muqtafi (Al-Muqtafi (Abbasid Caliph)) and the Seljuk (Seljuk Turks) Sultan Mas'ud (Mas'ud of Great Seljuk), and he was also recognized formally by the Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, al-Hafiz. He remained commander in chief of the Muslim army until Khalid ibn al-Walid arrived from Iraq to Syria in 634. Abu Ubaidah was ordered by Khalid ibn al-Walid


distinct political

at the time. Centuries later, the Romans (Ancient Roman) referred to the area as '''Auranitis,''' and it marked the traditional eastern border of Roman Syria; this is evidenced by the well-preserved Roman ruins in the cities of Bosra and Shahba. At the time, the Hauran also included the northern cities of the Decapolis. Today, the Hauran is not a distinct political entity, but encompasses the Syrian governorates of Quneitra (Quneitra Governorate), As Suwayda (As Suwaydā' Governorate), and Daraa (Daraa Governorate), and the Jordanian governorates of Irbid (Irbid Governorate), Ajloun (Ajloun Governorate) and Jerash (Jerash Governorate), as well as the western part of Mafraq Governorate. However, the name is used colloquially by both the inhabitants of the region (Hauranis) and outsiders, to refer to the area and its people. Martyrdom Zayd took part in an expedition in 629 CE. A Muslim force of 3,000 men set out to raid the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) city of Bosra. They were intercepted at a place called Muta'h. The Battle of Mu'tah was a rare reverse for the Muslims. Zayd was martyred as he held the standard, as were two other leaders, Ja`far ibn Abī Tālib and `Abd Allah ibn Rawahah. He was the first Muslim to be martyred on foreign soil. Wikipedia:Bosra Commons:Category:Bosra


significant social/

, barley, summer crops, fruit- or other trees, goats and or beehives and water mill. Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 219. Modern era Today, Bosra is a major archaeological site, containing ruins from Roman (Ancient Rome), Byzantine (Byzantine Empire), and Muslim times, its main feature being the well preserved Roman theatre. Every year there is a national music festival hosted in the main theater (Roman theatre of Bosra). Significant social


time centuries

at the time. Centuries later, the Romans (Ancient Roman) referred to the area as '''Auranitis,''' and it marked the traditional eastern border of Roman Syria; this is evidenced by the well-preserved Roman ruins in the cities of Bosra and Shahba. At the time, the Hauran also included the northern cities of the Decapolis. Today, the Hauran is not a distinct political entity, but encompasses the Syrian governorates of Quneitra (Quneitra Governorate), As Suwayda (As Suwaydā' Governorate), and Daraa (Daraa Governorate), and the Jordanian governorates of Irbid (Irbid Governorate), Ajloun (Ajloun Governorate) and Jerash (Jerash Governorate), as well as the western part of Mafraq Governorate. However, the name is used colloquially by both the inhabitants of the region (Hauranis) and outsiders, to refer to the area and its people. Martyrdom Zayd took part in an expedition in 629 CE. A Muslim force of 3,000 men set out to raid the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) city of Bosra. They were intercepted at a place called Muta'h. The Battle of Mu'tah was a rare reverse for the Muslims. Zayd was martyred as he held the standard, as were two other leaders, Ja`far ibn Abī Tālib and `Abd Allah ibn Rawahah. He was the first Muslim to be martyred on foreign soil. Wikipedia:Bosra Commons:Category:Bosra


bringing

Zenobia, bringing her back to Rome. He paraded her in golden chains in the presence of the senator Marcellus Petrus Nutenus, but allowed her to retire to a villa in Tibur (Tivoli, Italy), where she took an active part in society for years. A legionary fortress was established in Palmyra and although no longer an important trade center, it nevertheless remained an important junction of Roman roads in the Syrian desert. Isaac (2000) (#Isaac), p. 165 :''For the town

and took over Bosra and lands as far to the west as Egypt, establishing the short-lived Palmyrene Empire. Next, she took Antioch and large sections of Asia Minor to the north. In 272, the Roman Emperor Aurelian finally restored Roman control and Palmyra was besieged and sacked, never to recover her former glory. Aurelian captured Zenobia, bringing her back to Rome. He paraded her in golden chains in the presence of the senator Marcellus Petrus Nutenus, but allowed her


location+covers

be seen here just to the west of the junction to Bosra on the M5 motorway in Syria, south of Damascus. This location covers the borders with both Israel and Jordan, so it is of strategic importance. In 106 AD a ''vexillatio'' of the legion participated at the final decisive battle against Dacia (seee battle of Sarmisegetusa). The main


main feature

, barley, summer crops, fruit- or other trees, goats and or beehives and water mill. Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 219. Modern era Today, Bosra is a major archaeological site, containing ruins from Roman (Ancient Rome), Byzantine (Byzantine Empire), and Muslim times, its main feature being the well preserved Roman theatre. Every year there is a national music festival hosted in the main theater (Roman theatre of Bosra). Significant social and economic changes have affected Bosra since the end of the French Mandate in 1946. While up until the 1950s the shopkeepers of Bosra were from Damascus, since then most shop owners are residents of the town. In the late Ottoman era and the French Mandate period, the agricultural relationship was between the small landowner and the sharecroppers, since agrarian reforms in the late 1950s and 1960s, the relevant relationship has been between the landowners and the wage laborers. Many of its residents have found work in the Persian Gulf states (Arab States of the Persian Gulf) and Saudi Arabia, sending proceeds to their relatives in Bosra. Social changes together with increased access to education have largely diminished the traditional clan life according to historian Hanna Batatu. During the presidency of Hafez al-Assad (1970-2000), Bosra and the surrounding villages were left largely outside of government interference and, for the most part, are politically dominated by members the prominent al-Miqdad clan who serve as a sort of intermediary between the residents of the town on one hand, and the governor of Daraa (Daraa Governorate) and the Ba'ath Party (Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region) branch secretary on the other. Wikipedia:Bosra Commons:Category:Bosra


fierce fighting

. By January 2013, after 22 months of conflict amid the ongoing Syrian civil war, some refugees fleeing Bosra spoke of ever-escalating violence with many bodies being left in the streets during the violence. Channel Four News, 31 January 2013 ref>


634

an important part in the early life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as described in the entry for the Christian monk Bahira. The forces (Rashidun army) of the Rashidun Caliphate under general Khalid ibn Walid captured the city from the Byzantines in the Battle of Bosra in 634. Throughout Islamic rule, Bosra would serve as the southernmost outpost of Damascus, its prosperity being mostly contingent on the political importance of that city. Bosra held additional

the siege of Bosra (Battle of Bosra), which surrendered some time in mid July 634. thus effectively ending the Ghassanid Dynasty. Sawa (Sawa, Syria), Arak (Arak, Syria), Tadmur, Sukhnah. Qaryatayn and Hawarin after the battles of Qaryatayn (Battle of Qarteen) and Hawarin (Battle of Hawareen). After dealing with all these cities, Khalid moved towards Damascus, passing though a mountain pass which is now known as Sanita-al-Uqab (Uqab pass) after the name of Khalid's army

then laid the siege of Bosra (Battle of Bosra), which surrendered some time in mid July 634. thus effectively ending the Ghassanid Dynasty. Sawa (Sawa, Syria), Arak (Arak, Syria), Tadmur, Sukhnah. Qaryatayn and Hawarin after the battles of Qaryatayn (Battle of Qarteen) and Hawarin (Battle of Hawareen). After dealing with all these cities, Khalid moved towards Damascus, passing though a mountain pass which is now known as Sanita-al-Uqab (Uqab pass) after the name


izmir

, where he was beaten. The Caliph then laid siege to Mosul for three months without success, resisted by Mas'ud and Zengi. It was nonetheless a milestone in the caliphate's military revival. The first two railway lines in the Ottoman Empire entered service in 1856; these were the Cairo-Alexandria line (1856) and the İzmir-Aydın line (1856), the latter being operated by the Oriental Railway Company. They were followed by the Constanța

Köstence -Boğazköy (Cernavodă) railway line (1860); the Smyrne Cassaba & Prolongements (1863) which operated between İzmir, Afyon and Bandırma; the Rusçuk (Ruse, Bulgaria)–Varna railway line (1866); the Bükreş (Bucharest)-Yergöğü (Giurgiu) railway line (1869); the Chemins de fer Orientaux (1869) which operated between Vienna, Banja Luka, Saraybosna (Sarajevo), Niš, Sofia, Filibe (Plovdiv), Edirne and Istanbul (starting from 1889 between

Bosra

WHS Ancient City of Bosra Image 230px Ancient Roman amphitheatre. (File:Bosra pano Syria.jpg) State Party Syria Type Cultural Criteria i, iii, iv ID 22 Region Arab States (List of World Heritage Sites in the Arab States) Year 1980 Session 4th Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 22 '''Bosra''' ( Bosra's inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims, although the town has a small Shia Muslim community. Batatu, 1999, p. 24.

Bosra has an ancient history and during the Roman (Roman Empire) era it was a prosperous provincial capital. It continued to be administratively important during the Islamic era (Bilad al-Sham), but became gradually less prominent during the Ottoman era. Today, it is a major archaeological site and has been declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

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