Birmingham, Alabama

What is Birmingham, Alabama known for?


time major

season record for lowest earned run average after posting a 0.00 in 1977. AHSAA Baseball Records, retrieved on April 03, 2008 He was discovered by Chicago Tribune book critic Bob Cromie while pitching in Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) in 1978. He made his debut later that season at the age of 19. Burns did not become as full time major leaguer until 1980 when he won 15 games

after posting a 0.00 in 1977. AHSAA Baseball Records, retrieved on April 03, 2008 He was discovered by Chicago Tribune book critic Bob Cromie while pitching in Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) in 1978. He made his debut later that season at the age of 19. Burns did not become as full time major leaguer until 1980 when he won 15 games. In 1983 he helped the White Sox


programs+covering

(activist) Keith Hefner and other 1960s youth, this laid a powerful precedent for modern youth activism. John Holt (John Caldwell Holt), Myles Horton and Paulo Freire were each important in this period. The network's offices and network operations center are located in Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama). Until 2011, APT also operated a studio in Montgomery (Montgomery, Alabama) (the state capital (List of capitals in the United States)) for pledge drives and programs

covering the state government; state budget cuts forced the network to close the studio. http: blog.al.com times-views 2011 06 pulling_the_plug_on_alabama_pu.html The AETC has operated a public radio station, WLRH 89.3 FM, in Huntsville (Huntsville, Alabama), since 1977. James helped arrange a State of Alabama-paid voluntary return of Lester Coleman, a former journalist accused by the Federal Government of the United States of committing perjury who


television story

-professor.htm Pepperdine Graphic article . Accessed February 26, 2008. reaching out to help poor young children for "Children's Empowerment Week" in Birmingham, Alabama, Lisa Osborne, ''Young professionals spend week reaching out to kids: Lessons focus on unity, opportunity'', The Birmingham News, September 16, 2007, found at Birmingham News article; Broadcast television

story, ''FOX6 at your school'', 18 Sep. 2007, found at Fox Broadcast. Both accessed February 26, 2008. and America's Second Harvest in Kansas, '', In Ghana, they go on NID's, (National immunization Day) campaigns to immunise children from the six killer diseases, Community Service Group For Young Adults in Tri-Cities Looking For New Members'', February 13, 2008, found at KNDO news story. Accessed February 26, 2008. amongst many other good works. area_code +380 43 blank_info_sec1 Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama), Kielce, Peterborough, Rîbniţa (Rybnytsia) (Rîbniţa) blank_name_sec1 Sister cities (Town twinning) * He entered the Army on September 1, 1942, and was a member of the 2nd Battalion, 29th Quartermaster Regiment. He was a passenger aboard the Dutch (Netherlands) steamer USAT ''s'Jacob'' (SS s'Jacob) on March 8, 1943, which was near Porlock Harbor (Porlock Bay, Papua New Guinea), New Guinea, when the ship was hit by Japanese bombers. 125px right thumb City plan of Birmingham, Alabama drawn by Warren Manning. (Image:Birmingham District copy.jpg) In 1919, Manning’s talents took him to Birmingham, Alabama, where he worked on a new design for the city. He recommended a radical resource-based plan which included “multiple neighborhood-based centers determined by available resources” (Karson, 2001). He also makes note of the importance of parks throughout the city stating that “the cities that are best designed have about one-eight of their area in parks and about one acre to 75 people” (Manning, 1919). This approach was in direct contrast to the then popular City Beautiful movement which emphasized monumental civic centers and Beaux Arts architecture style public buildings (Karson, 2001). The architectural design of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was based in the City Beautiful movement, but now, on his own, Manning decided on a different course following his own landscape theories which were based on the natural available resources. This idea was the basis for his creation of the “wild garden” which he applied to many of his landscape designs.


world games

southeast of Memphis, Tennessee. Geography and climate Meridian is located in the North Central Hills region of Mississippi in Lauderdale County (Lauderdale County, Mississippi). According to the United States


black social

that the sectionalism of the Solid South and black membership of the Republican party be broken up. Christian Science Monitor (October 27, 1921), ''The President's Views On Race'' Harding, however, openly stated that he was not for black social equality in terms of racial mixing or miscegenation. Harding also spoke on the Great Migration (Great Migration (African American)), believing that blacks migrating to the north and west to find employment had actually tempered race relations between blacks and whites. Legacy Despite its unimpressive showing among the TV audience, the XFL lasted for twelve weeks, more than the eleven weeks played by the three previous professional outdoor leagues combined: the Regional Football League of 1999 played nine weeks, the Spring Football League of 2000 survived just two, while the Professional Spring Football League of 1992 folded before playing a single game. It restored an outdoor professional franchise to Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama), Las Vegas and Memphis (Memphis, Tennessee)—each of whom had lacked an outdoor pro team since their CFL franchises were shuttered in 1995, but for a single season for the Tennessee Oilers (Tennessee Titans) in Memphis before moving to their permanent home in Nashville and becoming the Titans—and to Orlando, which had had no professional outdoor football since the WLAF (World League of American Football) (later NFL Europa) folded North American operations in 1992. The XFL brought a football franchise to Los Angeles (Los Angeles, California)—a market which has lacked an NFL team for years (History of National Football League in Los Angeles)—and demonstrated that a baseball-specific stadium such as San Francisco's Pacific Bell Park (AT&T Park) made a suitable venue for football as well. However, none of these novelties translated into overall commercial success. * April 1 – The longrunning soap opera ''General Hospital'' debuted on ABC (American Broadcasting Company). * April 3 – SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) volunteers kick off the Birmingham campaign (Birmingham, Alabama) against racial segregation in the United States with a sit-in. * April 7 – Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed to be a socialist republic, and Josip Broz Tito is named President for Life. * May 2 ** Thousands of African Americans, many of them children, are arrested while protesting segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. Public Safety Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor later unleashes fire hoses and police dogs on the demonstrators. ** Berthold Seliger launches near Cuxhaven a 3 stage rocket with a maximum flight altitude of more than 62 miles (the only sounding rocket developed in Germany). * May 21 – The US State Department releases a report naming 7 state sponsors of terrorism: Iran, Iraq, Cuba, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. * May 22 – 16th Street Baptist Church bombing: A jury in Birmingham, Alabama convicts former Ku Klux Klan member Bobby Frank Cherry of the 1963 murders of 4 girls. * May 25 * March 15 – Hu Jintao becomes President of the People's Republic of China, replacing Jiang Zemin. * March 18 - FBI agents raid the corporate headquarters of HealthSouth Corporation in Birmingham, Alabama, on suspicion of massive corporate fraud led by the company's top executives. * March 19 – Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq (2003 invasion of Iraq) by the U.S. and allied forces. Local versions Certain states have a similar annual address given by the governor. For most of them, it is called the State of the State address. In Iowa, it is called the Condition of the State Address; in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the speech is called the State of the Commonwealth (Commonwealth (U.S. state)) address. The mayor of Washington, D.C. gives a State of the District address. American Samoa has a State of the Territory address given by the governor. Puerto Rico has a State Address given by the governor. Some cities or counties also have an annual State of the City Address given by the mayor, county commissioner or board chair, including Sonoma County, California; Orlando, Florida; Cincinnati, Ohio; Parma, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Seattle, Washington (Washington (U.S. state)); Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California; Buffalo, New York; Rochester, New York; San Antonio, Texas; McAllen, Texas; and San Diego, California. Some university presidents give a State of the University address at the beginning of every academic term. Private companies usually have a "State of the Corporation" or "State of the Company" address given by the respective CEO. The model has also been adopted by the European Union. EUobserver.com Medical career After starting his undergraduate education at the University of Wisconsin–Madison Heiden earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Stanford University in 1984 and earned his M.D. (Doctor of Medicine), also from Stanford in 1991. He completed orthopedic residency training at UC Davis (University of California, Davis) in 1996 and after a year at a sports medicine clinic in Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama), Alabama, returned to California to practice as an orthopedic surgeon (Orthopaedics) in Sacramento (Sacramento, California). At that time, he also served as team physician for the NBA's Sacramento Kings and the Sacramento Monarchs of the WNBA. In 2002, 2006 and 2010, http: findarticles.com p articles mi_qn4155 is_19991124 ai_n13845438 Rebate wars he was team physician for the U.S. Olympic Speedskating Team. He opened a sports medicine-based practice at The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital (TOSH) in Murray, Utah and has recently expanded Heiden Orthopaedics with an additional office in Park City, Utah. thumb 325px right Blast furnaces such as the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company (File:Ensley.jpg)'s Ensley Works made Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) an important center for iron production in the early 20th century. Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) was founded on June 1, 1871 by real estate promoters who sold lots near the planned crossing of the Alabama & Chattanooga (Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad) and South & North railroads. The site of the railroad crossing was notable for the nearby deposits of iron ore, coal, and limestone-the three principal raw materials used in making steel. Its founders adopted the name of England's principal industrial city to advertise the new city as a center of iron and steel production. Despite outbreaks of cholera, the population of 'Pittsburgh of the South' grew from 38,000 to 132,000 from 1900 to 1910, attracting rural white and black migrants from all over the region. Birmingham's Population, 1880-2000 Birmingham experienced such rapid growth that it was nicknamed "The Magic City." By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th largest city in the U.S and held more than 30% of the population of the state. Heavy industry and mining were the basis of the economy. In late 1961, Smith left his job at CBS when a dispute erupted over a documentary (Documentary film) called ''Who Speaks for Birmingham?''. This in-depth investigation concerned the battle between civil rights (civil and political rights) forces and the police of Birmingham, Alabama. Smith, an advocate of desegregation, concluded his commentary at the end of the program by recalling the admonition commonly attributed to Edmund Burke -- "All that is necessary for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing." Smith was told to remove the Burke quote from the end of the broadcast. Network president and founder William S. Paley declined to support Smith over the matter, and Smith promptly left the network after twenty years of service. Smith declared that his hatred of discrimination stemmed from living in the racially segregated American South and from watching the Nazis in Europe during the world war. States' Rights Democratic Party nomination The Southern Democrats who had bolted the Democratic Convention over Truman's civil rights platform promptly met at Municipal Auditorium (Boutwell Memorial Auditorium) in Birmingham, Alabama and formed yet another political party, which they named the “States' Rights” Democratic Party (Dixiecrat). More commonly known as the “Dixiecrats,” the party's main goal was continuing the policy of racial segregation in the South and the Jim Crow laws that sustained it. South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond, who had led the walkout, became the party's presidential nominee, and Mississippi Governor Fielding L. Wright received the vice-presidential nomination. The Dixiecrats had no chance of winning the election themselves, since they could not get on the ballot in enough states. Their strategy was to take enough Southern states from Truman to force (Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution#Electoral College under Amendment XII) the election into the United States House of Representatives, where they could then extract concessions from either Truman or Dewey on racial issues in exchange for their support. Even if Dewey won the election outright, the Dixiecrats hoped that their defection would show that the Democratic Party needed Southern support in order to win national elections, and that this fact would weaken the pro-civil rights movement among Northern and Western Democrats. However, the Dixiecrats were weakened when most Southern Democratic leaders (such as Governor Herman Talmadge of Georgia (Georgia (U.S. state)) and "Boss" E. H. Crump of Tennessee) refused to support the party. Despite being an incumbent President, Truman was not placed on the ballot in Alabama. Hugh Alvin Bone, ''American Politics and the Party System'', p262 (McGraw-Hill 1955). In the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina, the party was able to be labeled as the main Democratic Party ticket on the local ballots on election night. http: www.georgiaencyclopedia.org nge Article.jsp?id h-1366 Outside of these four states, however, it was only listed as a third-party ticket. * '''North American Company''', an electric utility holding company, broken up by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1946. * '''Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company''' in Birmingham, Alabama, bought by U.S. Steel in 1907; U.S. Steel was removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in 1991. * '''U.S. Leather Company (United States Leather Company)''', dissolved in 1952. Early life Davis was born in Birmingham, Alabama. Her father, Frank Davis, was a graduate of St. Augustine's College (St. Augustine's College (Raleigh)), a traditionally black college (Historically black colleges and universities) in Raleigh, North Carolina, and was briefly a high school history teacher. Her father later owned and operated a service station (filling station) in the black (African American) section of Birmingham. Her mother, Sallye Davis, a graduate of Miles College in Birmingham, was an elementary school teacher. DATE OF BIRTH January 26, 1944 PLACE OF BIRTH Birmingham, Alabama, USA DATE OF DEATH The nearly-completed Interstate 22 connects Memphis with Birmingham, Alabama, via northern Mississippi (including Tupelo (Tupelo, Mississippi)) and northwestern Alabama. This expressway follows the same route as U.S. Route 78. Other important federal highways though Memphis include the east-west U.S. Route 70, U.S. Route 64, and U.S. Route 72; and the north-south U.S. Route 51 and U.S. Route 61. The former is the historic highway north to Chicago via Cairo, Illinois, while the latter roughly parallels the Mississippi River for most of its course and crosses the Mississippi Delta region to the south, with the Delta also legendary for Blues music. During the first and subsequent Freedom Rides, activists traveled through the Deep South to integrate seating patterns and desegregate bus terminals, including restrooms and water fountains. That proved to be a dangerous mission. In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was firebombed, forcing its passengers to flee for their lives. In Birmingham, Alabama, an FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) informant reported that Public Safety Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor gave Ku Klux Klan members fifteen minutes to attack an incoming group of freedom riders before having police "protect" them. The riders were severely beaten "until it looked like a bulldog had got a hold of them." James Peck (James Peck (pacifist)), a white activist, was beaten so hard he required fifty stitches to his head. He entered the Army on September 1, 1942, and was a member of the 2nd Battalion, 29th Quartermaster Regiment. He was a passenger aboard the Dutch (Netherlands) steamer USAT ''s'Jacob'' (SS s'Jacob) on March 8, 1943, which was near Porlock Harbor (Porlock Bay, Papua New Guinea), New Guinea, when the ship was hit by Japanese bombers. 125px right thumb City plan of Birmingham, Alabama drawn by Warren Manning. (Image:Birmingham District copy.jpg) In 1919, Manning’s talents took him to Birmingham, Alabama, where he worked on a new design for the city. He recommended a radical resource-based plan which included “multiple neighborhood-based centers determined by available resources” (Karson, 2001). He also makes note of the importance of parks throughout the city stating that “the cities that are best designed have about one-eight of their area in parks and about one acre to 75 people” (Manning, 1919). This approach was in direct contrast to the then popular City Beautiful movement which emphasized monumental civic centers and Beaux Arts architecture style public buildings (Karson, 2001). The architectural design of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was based in the City Beautiful movement, but now, on his own, Manning decided on a different course following his own landscape theories which were based on the natural available resources. This idea was the basis for his creation of the “wild garden” which he applied to many of his landscape designs.


singles+main

. Niemeyer next saw action two weeks later at the Eddleman USTA Challenger in Birmingham, Alabama. Played on clay, he lost in the first round of both the singles and doubles (partnering Jack Waite). The following week, also on clay at the ARMS USTA Challenger, in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, Niemeyer again lost in the first round in singles and the semi-finals in doubles, playing along side Cecil Mamiit. Losing in the first round of qualifying for the singles main draw at the French Open (2002 French Open - Men's Singles), Niemeyer played Sporting Challenger - Turin, in Turin, reaching the second round. The following week, he was forced to retire from his second round qualifying match at the Surbiton Trophy. Recovering, Niemeyer reached the qualifying round of the Gerry Weber Open, as the No. 8 seed, losing in three sets to No. 2 seed Radek Štěpánek. He lost handily in the first round of qualifying for singles at Wimbledon, however, as well as in the second round in doubles qualification, partnering Belgian Elseneer. In the same week, he retired from his first round match of the Open Internacional de Tennis Andbanc in Andorra, and lost there in the second round of doubles, partnering again Brandon Coupe. '''Tommy Bowden''' (born July 10, 1954 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American football coach (Coach (sport)) who served as the head coach at Clemson University from 1999 (1999 NCAA Division I-A football season) until October 13, 2008 (2008 Clemson Tigers football team). He is the son of Bobby Bowden, former head coach of Florida State University, against whom he has coached in games nicknamed the "Bowden Bowl." '''Freeman A. Hrabowski, III''', (born August 13, 1950) in Birmingham, Alabama, is a prominent American (United States) educator. He has served as president of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County since May 1992. NWBL career After the 2002 WNBA season, both sisters played for the Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) Power of the National Women's Basketball League (NWBL). '''Richard Arrington Jr.''' (born October 19, 1934 in Livingston, Alabama) was the first African American mayor of the city of Birmingham, Alabama (U.S.), serving 20 years, from 1979 to 1999. He replaced David Vann and, upon retiring after five terms in office, installed then-City Council president William A. Bell as interim mayor. Bell went on to lose the next election to Bernard Kincaid. In 2002 SweetWater was voted Small Brewery of the Year at the Great American Beer Festival and Kevin McNerney was voted Brewmaster of the Year, they remain as the only brewery east of the Mississippi that has ever won this award at this festival which began in 1982. SweetWater brews have won numerous nationally recognized awards at both the World Beer Cup and Great American Beer Festival. Distribution is limited because the beer is unpastuerized and meant to be consumed fresh; the primary market for SweetWater is Atlanta and the surrounding area. However, SweetWater is distributed to other areas of the Southeastern United States, including Nashville, Tennessee; Asheville, Charlotte & Greensboro, North Carolina; Greenville (Greenville, South Carolina), Columbia (Columbia, South Carolina) & Charleston (Charleston, South Carolina), South Carolina; Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama), Alabama; and the Florida panhandle including Tallahassee extending westward into Pensacola and as far east as Jacksonville (Jacksonville, Florida). In all markets SweetWater is available on tap as well as in a bottle. Location Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama), Alabama, USA (United States) District 40. Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) Anniston (Anniston, Alabama) Tuscaloosa, Alabama '''WBMA WJSU WCFT (WBMA-LD)''' On April 19, 2006 the satellite was delivered to DirecTV's control after successful on-orbit testing. SPACEWAY-2 immediately started broadcasting HD locals to DirecTV customers in eight more markets: Minneapolis, Minnesota; Sacramento (Sacramento, California) and San Diego, California; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Nashville, Tennessee; Kansas City, Missouri.; Columbus, Ohio; and Birmingham, Alabama. Satellites named DirecTV-10 (launched 2007) and DirecTV-11 (launched 2008), constructed by Boeing, also for use in high definition television, are bent-pipe K a -band satellites instead of regenerative satellites, and are being used to continue the expansion of DirecTV's HD services. Elba Island is an existing LNG import terminal located on Elba Island, in Chatham County, Georgia, five miles downstream from Savannah, Georgia. It was built by Sonat, Inc. (Sonat Inc.), based in Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama), Alabama for its Southern Natural Gas division. The initial authorization for the Elba Island facility was issued in 1972. LNG shipments ceased during the first half of 1980. On March 16, 2000, the project received Commission authorization to re-commission and renovate the LNG facilities. # WBCF-LP— Florence, Alabama, America One, (3) # WBUN-CA— Birmingham, Alabama, Daystar Television Network, (27) # WBWD— Greenwood-Greenville, WB (WB Television Network), (cable) Early life and education He was born in Salamanca, Spain and was raised in Birmingham, Alabama, until he was 15, when he moved with his family to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His father was a radiologist and his mother was a business administrator of his father's radiology practice in Pittsburgh. '''Colonial Properties Trust''' ( He entered the Army on September 1, 1942, and was a member of the 2nd Battalion, 29th Quartermaster Regiment. He was a passenger aboard the Dutch (Netherlands) steamer USAT ''s'Jacob'' (SS s'Jacob) on March 8, 1943, which was near Porlock Harbor (Porlock Bay, Papua New Guinea), New Guinea, when the ship was hit by Japanese bombers. 125px right thumb City plan of Birmingham, Alabama drawn by Warren Manning. (Image:Birmingham District copy.jpg) In 1919, Manning’s talents took him to Birmingham, Alabama, where he worked on a new design for the city. He recommended a radical resource-based plan which included “multiple neighborhood-based centers determined by available resources” (Karson, 2001). He also makes note of the importance of parks throughout the city stating that “the cities that are best designed have about one-eight of their area in parks and about one acre to 75 people” (Manning, 1919). This approach was in direct contrast to the then popular City Beautiful movement which emphasized monumental civic centers and Beaux Arts architecture style public buildings (Karson, 2001). The architectural design of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was based in the City Beautiful movement, but now, on his own, Manning decided on a different course following his own landscape theories which were based on the natural available resources. This idea was the basis for his creation of the “wild garden” which he applied to many of his landscape designs.


programs title'

that combines online and offline nursing experience. There is also a program for students through the Cooperative Center for Study Abroad consortium that provides study abroad programs and internships in England, France, Ireland, Spain, Italy and Mexico. ref name "undergrad

" On June 25, 1950 Rudolph was transferred to Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, and his group was re-designated as the Ordnance Guided Missile Center (Army Ballistic Missile Agency). He was naturalized


rivalry quot

''' — "The Deep South's Oldest Rivalry (Deep South's Oldest Rivalry)" John was born near Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) in Jefferson County, Alabama, the son of John and Elizabeth Camp. After graduating from the University of Tennessee (University of Tennessee at Knoxville) in 1848 he moved to Gilmer (Gilmer, Texas) in Upshur County, Texas. He started a plantation and was admitted to the bar. In 1851 he married Mary Ann Ward, the daughter of a local doctor. The couple would have five children, including John Lafayette, Jr. Civil war '''B.A.M.A.''', an acronym meaning '''Boyz After Money Always''', is an American (United States) hip-hop (Hip hop music) group from Alabama. The group consists of two members- Rain and Taurus Caine. The members met in 1997 when the two (then both solo artists) were recording at Knight Crimes studio in Montgomery, Alabama. At the time, the only mission on their minds was recording anything so that people knew they existed. From that point, the two kindled a friendship that would eventually see Taurus Caine moving to the west coast and back to launch a "street worthy" solo career, Rain moving to Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama), and launching a successful "ghost writing" career, and both artists ending up back in Montgomery, Alabama with the same manager. It was that manager, Brian Miller, who saw the uniqueness in the two and convinced the "Boyz" to form what has become one of the largest music accomplishments to the state of Alabama. '''Alabama Adventure''' is an Alabama amusement park, located off Interstate 20 59 (Interstate 59) in Bessemer (Bessemer, Alabama), just west of Birmingham (Birmingham, Alabama) and east of Tuscaloosa (Tuscaloosa, Alabama). It is owned by General Attractions LLC. He entered the Army on September 1, 1942, and was a member of the 2nd Battalion, 29th Quartermaster Regiment. He was a passenger aboard the Dutch (Netherlands) steamer USAT ''s'Jacob'' (SS s'Jacob) on March 8, 1943, which was near Porlock Harbor (Porlock Bay, Papua New Guinea), New Guinea, when the ship was hit by Japanese bombers. 125px right thumb City plan of Birmingham, Alabama drawn by Warren Manning. (Image:Birmingham District copy.jpg) In 1919, Manning’s talents took him to Birmingham, Alabama, where he worked on a new design for the city. He recommended a radical resource-based plan which included “multiple neighborhood-based centers determined by available resources” (Karson, 2001). He also makes note of the importance of parks throughout the city stating that “the cities that are best designed have about one-eight of their area in parks and about one acre to 75 people” (Manning, 1919). This approach was in direct contrast to the then popular City Beautiful movement which emphasized monumental civic centers and Beaux Arts architecture style public buildings (Karson, 2001). The architectural design of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was based in the City Beautiful movement, but now, on his own, Manning decided on a different course following his own landscape theories which were based on the natural available resources. This idea was the basis for his creation of the “wild garden” which he applied to many of his landscape designs.


longrunning

Pacific Bell Park made a suitable venue for football as well. However, none of these novelties translated into overall commercial success. * April 1 – The longrunning soap opera ''General Hospital'' debuted on ABC (American Broadcasting Company). * April 3 – SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) volunteers kick off the Birmingham campaign (Birmingham, Alabama) against racial segregation in the United States with a sit


cover news

'', ''Shelby'', ''South'', and ''West'' that cover news stories from those areas. The newspaper has been awarded two Pulitzer Prizes, in 1991 and 2007. The ''Birmingham Post-Herald'', the city's second daily, published its last issue in 2006. Other local publications include ''The North Jefferson News, The Leeds News, ''The Trussville Tribune'' (Trussville, Clay and Pinson), The Western Star'' (Bessemer) and ''The Western Tribune'' (Bessemer). ''Weld for Birmingham'', ''Birmingham Weekly

Birmingham, Alabama

'''Birmingham''' ( ) is the largest city in Alabama. The city is the county seat of Jefferson County (Jefferson County, Alabama). The city's population was 212,237 according to the 2010 United States Census. U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Alabama's 2010 Census Population Totals, 2010.census.gov The Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Statistical Area (Birmingham–Hoover Metropolitan Area) had a population of about 1,128,047 according to the 2010 Census, which is approximately one quarter of Alabama's population.

Birmingham was founded in 1871, during the post-Civil War (American Civil War) Reconstruction period (Reconstruction Era of the United States), through the merger of three pre-existing farm towns, notably, former Elyton (Elyton, Alabama). It grew from there, annexing (annexation) many more of its smaller neighbors, into an industrial and railroad transportation (rail transportation) center with a focus on mining, the iron and steel industry (steel), and railroading. Birmingham was named for Birmingham, England, United Kingdom; one of the UK's major industrial cities. Many, if not most, of the original settlers who founded Birmingham were of English ancestry (English American). In one writer's view, the city was planned as a place where cheap, non-unionized, and African-American labor from rural Alabama could be employed in the city's steel mills and blast furnaces, giving it a competitive advantage over industrial cities in the Midwest and Northeast (Northeastern United States). The Most Segregated City in America: City Planning and Civil Rights in Birmingham, 1920–1980, p. 14.

From its founding through the end of the 1960s, Birmingham was a primary industrial center of the South (Southern United States). The pace of Birmingham's growth during the period from 1881 through 1920 earned its nicknames ''The Magic City'' and ''The Pittsburgh of the South''. Much like Pittsburgh, Birmingham's major industries were iron and steel production, plus a major component of the railroading industry, where rails and railroad cars were both manufactured in Birmingham. In the field of railroading, the two primary hubs of railroading in the Deep South were nearby Atlanta and Birmingham, beginning in the 1860s and continuing through to the present day. The economy diversified during the later half of the twentieth century. Though the manufacturing industry maintains a strong presence in Birmingham, other businesses and industries such as banking, telecommunications, transportation, electrical power transmission, medical care, college education, and insurance have risen in stature. Mining in the Birmingham area is no longer a major industry with the exception of coal mining. Birmingham ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States and is also one of the largest banking centers in the United States. In addition, the Birmingham area serves as headquarters to one Fortune 500 company: Regions Financial, along with five other Fortune 1000 companies.

In higher education, Birmingham has been the location of the University of Alabama School of Medicine (formerly the Medical College of Alabama) and the University of Alabama School of Dentistry since 1947. Since that time it has also obtained a campus of the University of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham (founded circa 1969), one of three main campuses of the University of Alabama System. It is also home to three private institutions: Samford University, Birmingham-Southern College, and Miles College. Between these colleges and universities, the Birmingham area has major colleges of medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, law, engineering, and nursing. The city has three of the state's five law schools: Cumberland School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, and Miles Law School. Birmingham is also the headquarters of the Southeastern Conference, one of the major U.S. collegiate athletic conferences.

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