What is Bethlehem known for?


: . Good local cuisine in an outdoor setting or tent in winter. Good views across the valley. *

directions Ring road phone 02-274 2895 tollfree fax hours price content The best grills in town, served by two brothers with impressive moustaches. Fresh ingredients and the meat is chopped and prepared in front of you using traditional methods. The restaurant issues certificates stating that you have eaten there. *

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tablets Amarna correspondence c.1350-1330 BCE as "Bit-Lahmi". The Hebrew Bible identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)). The New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus. The city is inhabited by one of the oldest Christian communities in the world , although the size of the community has shrunk due to emigration. Bethlehem

thumb right 120px According to the New Testament (File:StJohnsAshfield StainedGlass GoodShepherd Face.jpg), Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Writing in the 4th century, the Pilgrim of Bordeaux reported that the sepulchers of David, Ezekiel, Asaph (Bible

and Unfamiliar Story." 2001 Some scholars hold the view that this site was one that had originally been dedicated to Adonis-Tammuz and Christians had taken it over. Marcello Craveri, ''The Life of Jesus'', Grove Press (1967) pp. 35-36 In 326-328, the empress Helena (Helena (Empress)), consort (queen consort) of the emperor Constantius Chlorus, and mother of the emperor Constantine the Great, made a pilgrimage to Syra-Palaestina, in the course of which she

distinctive character

to have been increased. The Paschal solemnity was followed by a season of fifty days' rejoicing until Pentecost day, which, in the 4th century, appears to have a distinctive character as the commemoration of the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles rather than as the close of the Easter season. In Holy Week, Holy Thursday commemorated the institution of the Eucharist, and according to St. Augustine, besides the morning Mass, a Mass was also celebrated in the evening in order to carry out all the circumstances of the institution at the Last Supper. Good Friday was observed by attending the long liturgical offices, while Holy Saturday was celebrated in about the same manner as in the time of Tertullian. Ascension Day seems to have been introduced in the 4th century (though possibly earlier in churches elsewhere), but in the time of St. Augustine it was already universally observed. As for the immovable feasts, Christmas and Epiphany (Epiphany (Christian)), which were unknown or seemed unimportant to Tertullian, were celebrated already with the greatest solemnity in the early 5th century. The first of January was observed not as the feast of the Circumcision, but as a fast day which had been instituted for the purpose of turning the people away from the celebration of the pagan festivities which still took place at that time of the year by the still numerous pagans of the Roman Empire. (Only after 389 AD would the pagan 1 January festivals cease.) Feasts of other than local saints were introduced, for instance, immediately after Christmas, the feast of St. Stephen the Proto-Martyr (Saint Stephen), of the Holy Innocents of Bethlehem and of Sts. John (John the Evangelist) and James (Apostle James), and later in the year, the feasts of St. John the Baptist, of Sts. Peter and Paul, of the holy Maccabees, of St. Lawrence, St. Vincent (Vincent of Saragossa), etc. The festivals of the local martyrs were celebrated with even greater solemnity than in early times, and were often accompanied by luxurious secular feasting after the church services (drinking, singing and eating) which was frequently condemned in some sermons of the time, on account of abuses. When such a large number of feasts was annually observed, it was to be expected that a list or calendar would be drawn up, and, in truth, a calendar was drawn up for the use of the Church of Carthage in the beginning of the 6th century, from which very important information concerning the institution and history of the great feast days may be obtained. 14-0-1 (abstention: United States) Situation in Jerusalem, Nablus, Ramallah, Bethlehem and the Gaza Strip - The writings of Hesychius of Jerusalem have been in part lost, in part handed down and edited as the work of other authors, and some are still buried in libraries in manuscript. Whoever would collect and arrange the fragments of Hesychius which have come down to us must go back to the manuscripts; for in Migne's edition of the Fathers ''Patrologia Graeca'', XCIII, 787-1560 the works of various writers named Hesychius are thrown together without regard for order under the heading "Hesychius, Presbyter of Jerusalem". About half of the matter under "Hesychius" must be discarded, namely, the commentary on Leviticus (787-1180) which is extant only in Latin and is unauthentic, being based on the Vulgate text rather than the Septuagint, and therefore the work of a later Latin (Isychius). The collection of ascetic maxims (1479-1544) is the work of Hesychius of Sinai, and not of his namesake of Jerusalem. Neither are all the homilies (1449-80) as certainly the work of Hesychius of Jerusalem as the sixth, the authenticity of which is supported by an ancient Escorial (El Escorial) manuscript. phi, III, 20, saec. 9. This collection does not include the homily on Bethlehem from the Turin manuscript. C IV4, saec. 12-13 Subjoined to the "Legend of the Martyrdom of Saint Longinus (Longinus (hagiography))" P.G., XCIII, 1545-60. is the testimony of "Hesychius Presbyter of Jerusalem" himself, that he had found the manuscript in the library of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. *Checkpoint 300 (Bethlehem–Jerusalem border) *Barta'a Crossing 160px (Image:WiseMenAdorationMurillo.png) '''Christmas''' (literally, the ''Mass (Mass (liturgy)) of Christ (Jesus)'') is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. It originally was a Pagan holiday of sun worship, which the Christians adapted. According to the Christian gospels, Jesus was born to Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus) in Bethlehem, where she and her husband Joseph (Saint Joseph) had traveled to register in the Roman (Ancient Rome) census. Christ's birth, or nativity, was said by his followers to fulfill the prophecies of Judaism that a messiah would come, from the house of David, to redeem the world from sin. Most of the familiar traditional practices and symbols of Christmas, such as the Christmas tree, the Christmas ham, the Yule Log, holly, mistletoe, and the giving of presents, were adapted or appropriated by Christian missionaries from the earlier pagan (paganism) midwinter feast of Yule. Location The Judaean desert lies east of Jerusalem and descends to the Dead Sea. Rainfall in the Judaea region varies from WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem

special international

for Palestine 1947 UN Partition Plan recommended "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a ''corpus separatum (corpus separatum (Jerusalem))'' under the administration of the UN." WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem

cultural interpretations

. A telling reminder of the influence that Manuel held in the Crusader states in particular can still be seen in the church of the Holy Nativity in Bethlehem. In the 1160s the nave was redecorated with mosaics showing the councils of the church. B. Zeitler, Cross-cultural interpretations Manuel was one of the patrons of the work. On the south wall, an inscription in Greek reads: "the present work

scenes people

-5803-2 page 47 Jeremy Corley ''New Perspectives on the Nativity'' Continuum International Publishing Group, 2009 pg. 22. Some scholars view the discussion of historicity as secondary, given that gospels were primarily written as theological documents rather than chronological timelines. ''Interpreting Gospel Narratives: Scenes, People

life translating

is called the '''Grotto of the Nativity''', and is accessible from inside the church. (The tomb of famed theologian and Bethlehem resident St. Jerome, who spent his life translating the Bible, is also in the cave with the Grotto.) Entrance to the entire complex is free, but in the high season be prepared for massive crowds and hour-long waits for entry into the Grotto. There are usually accredited tour-guides waiting at the entrance of the church who offer to give tours to groups individuals

long documentary

debates revo.html Archived by the Internet Archive on 13 February 2007. On 21 May 2007, he presented an hour long documentary, ''Battle for the Holy Land: Love Thy Neighbour'', about the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. He visited Bethlehem, Hebron and the Israeli settlement of Tekoa. Liddle sought to examine whether Israel was a true liberal democracy in light of its treatment of the Palestinians. He also appeared in Channel 4's alternative election night episode of ''Come Dine With Me'' along with Edwina Curry, Derek Hatton and Brian Paddick. He surprised his fellow guests by serving jerk chicken sourced from a halal butcher. Furthermore, the minting of coins by Hyrcanus demonstrates Hyrcanus’ willingness to delegate power. Sixty-three coins found near Bethlehem bear the inscription, “Yohanan the High Priest.” The reserve side of the coins contains the phrase, “The Assembly of the Jews.” This seems to suggest that during his reign, Hyrcanus was not an absolute ruler. Instead, Hyrcanus had to submit at times to an assembly of Jews that had a certain amount of minority power. Cornfeld, 52 The coins lack any depictions of animals or humans. This suggests that Hyrcanus strictly followed the Jewish prohibition against graven images. The coins also seem to suggest that Hyrcanus considered himself to be primarily the High Priest (Kohen Gadol) of Judea, and his rule of Judea was shared with the Assembly. Sievers, 153–154 * An Ahohite, father of Eleazar (Eleazar (son of Dodo)), who was one of David's three mighty men who were over the thirty. (2 Samuel (Books of Samuel) 23:9; 1 Chronicles (Books of Chronicles) 11:12) * A man from Bethlehem, and father of Elhanan (Elhanan son of Dodo), who was one of David's thirty heroes (2 Samuel 23:24). The '''Holy Land''' is a term used in Judeo-Christian tradition to refer to the holy sites of the Levant — especially Shiloh (Shiloh (Biblical)), Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth — but is also often used to refer to the Levant (and historical Canaan) as a whole. Note that this term in Islam refers not only to the Levant, but to the Arabian region of Hijaz where the holy cities of Mecca and Medina are located. Prior to Fatah's Sixth Conference in August 2009, Zubeidi called for fellow Fatah to adopt a program of resistance in case peace negotiations with Israel fail and lead to a Third Intifada. Zakariya Zubeidi: Fatah must adopt "program of resistance". ''Ma'an News Agency''. 2009-08-04. Although he was accredited as a Fatah delegate, one of 2,000, to the conference in Bethlehem, Zubeidi was momentarily refused entry to the meeting hall, resulting in condemnations by al-Aqsa Brigade members in Nablus and Jenin, as well as those outside of the Palestinian territories, who described the move as "stabbing the resistance in the back." Fatah officials allowed him to attend on August 5, 2009. The PA was also asked by brigade members to ensure Zubeidi's safety from Bethlehem back to Jenin. Former fighter Zubeidi barred from Fatah conference. ''Ma'an News Agency''. 2009-08-05. A number of right-wing Israeli Knesset members submitted a petition to the Israeli military court on August 6 calling for the arrest of Zubeidi because his "hands have Israeli blood on them ," despite being granted amnesty. Right-wing Israelis want Fatah men arrested ''Ma'an News Agency''. 2009-08-06. Giving a speech at the conference the same day, Zubeidi suggested the Fatah-ruled West Bank reunite with the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip through force, if necessary. He criticized the "old leadership," condemning them for failing the Palestinian people, saying "During 18 years of negotiations under Fatah , no hope has been created." Zubeidi suggested a younger generation of Palestinians should lead Fatah. Zubeidi: Unity should be regained by power and force if necessary. ''Ma'an News Agency''. 2009-08-06. official_name Palácio Nacional de Belém etymology ''belém'' Portuguese (Portuguese language) for ''Bethlehem''; named after the civil parish on which it is situated, Santa Maria de Belém nickname '''Lossiemouth F.C.''' are a senior football (football (soccer)) club from Bethlehem, Moray, Scotland. They play in the Highland Football League. Examples of distortions of sources: * Bethlehem: Claiming to be using "direct quotes": ''Most famously, the Church of the Nativity was used as a refugee by Palestinian gunmen. Over 100 gunmen remained in the Church till negotitions resulted in their removal from the Church and its compound at which time the Israel Defense Forces were asked to come into the site and remove 40 explosive devices set by the gunmen. In fact CNN didn't say they were all gunmen, nor that the "explosive devices" were "set". (They weren't and they weren't.) This could be interpretted as sloppiness except that L6W's "errors" are always in the same direction. This cost A LOT of time to correct. * Palestinian refugee : Claiming to be quoting a book of Morris: ''Of these 750,000 refugees, 12% or 90,000 refugees resettled within Israel by 1953.'' In fact, Morris wrote "30,000-90,000". See the tantrum he threw on the talk page when I caught him. The indulgence could also be obtained in Israel by a visit to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, or the Church of the Annunciation (Basilica of the Annunciation) in Nazareth. * WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem

resistance quot

negotiations with Israel fail and lead to a Third Intifada. Zakariya Zubeidi: Fatah must adopt "program of resistance". ''Ma'an News Agency''. 2009-08-04. Although he was accredited as a Fatah delegate, one of 2,000, to the conference in Bethlehem, Zubeidi was momentarily refused entry to the meeting hall, resulting in condemnations by al-Aqsa Brigade members in Nablus and Jenin, as well as those

great traditional

content * WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem


'''Bethlehem''' ( ) is a Palestinian (State of Palestine) city located in the central West Bank, about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem. Its population is approximately 25,000 people. Amara, 1999, p. 18. Brynen, 2000, p. 202. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. The economy is primarily tourist-driven (Tourism in the Palestinian territories). url http: 2006 04 16 travel 16westbank.html title In the West Bank, Politics and Tourism Remain Bound Together Inextricably - New York Times accessdate 2008-01-22 work The New York Times first1 David last1 Kaufman first2 Marisa S. last2 Katz date 2006-04-16 archiveurl https: web 20130615222743 http: 2006 04 16 travel 16westbank.html archivedate 2013-06-15

It is thought the original name was Beit Lachama, from the Canaanite god Lachama. The earliest mention of the city is in the Amarna correspondence (Amarna tablets) c.1350-1330 BCE as "Bit-Lahmi". The Hebrew Bible identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)). The New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus. The city is inhabited by one of the oldest Christian communities in the world , although the size of the community has shrunk due to emigration. Bethlehem was destroyed by the Emperor Hadrian during the second-century Bar Kokhba revolt; its rebuilding was promoted by the Empress Helena (Helena (Empress)), mother of Constantine the Great, who commissioned the building of its great Church of the Nativity in 327 CE. The Church (Church of the Nativity) was badly damaged by the Samaritans, who sacked it during the Samaritan Revolt in 529, but was rebuilt a century later by the emperor Justinian I, in very much its present form.

Bethlehem was seized by the Arab Caliphate (Rashidun) of 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb (Umar) during the Arab conquest in 637, seized again by Egypt and then the Seljuks, and, in 1099, by Crusaders, who replaced its Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church) clergy with a Latin (Catholic Church) one. In the mid-13th century, invading Mamluks (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) demolished the city's walls, which were subsequently rebuilt in the early 16th century, after Bethlehem became part of the Ottoman Empire. url http: English City index.php archiveurl https: web 20080113150138 http: English City index.php archivedate 2008-01-13 title History and Mithology of Bethlehem publisher Bethlehem Municipality accessdate 2008-01-22

Control of Bethlehem passed from the Ottoman Empire to the British Empire at the end of World War I. Pursuant to the proposed United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine of November 1947, Bethlehem was to be included in an international zone (Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)), controlled by Britain. The Arab League states rejected the Partition Plan, and launched the 1948 Arab-Israeli War to prevent the creation of a Jewish state. During the war Jordan forcibly seized Bethlehem and occupied (Jordanian occupation of the West Bank) it - Jordan claimed to annex the west bank territories in 1950, though this was only ever formally recognized by Britain. Bethlehem was captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, and since 1995 - per the Oslo Accords (West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord) - Bethlehem has been governed by the Palestinian National Authority.

Bethlehem has a Muslim majority, but is also home to one of the largest Palestinian Christian (Palestinian Christians) communities. Originally, Bethlehem was a lodging point for Jewish pilgrims to Jerusalem during the three holiest days of the Jewish year. Bethlehem's chief economic sector (economy) is tourism which peaks during the Christmas season when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity, as they have done for almost two millennia. Bethlehem has over thirty hotels and three hundred handicraft workshops. url http: 2 hi middle_east 7146980.stm first Martin last Patience work BBC News title Better times return to Bethlehem publisher BBC date 2007-12-22 accessdate 2008-01-22 archiveurl https: web 20140106191329 http: 2 hi middle_east 7146980.stm archivedate 2014-01-06 Rachel's Tomb, an important Jewish holy site, is located at the northern entrance of Bethlehem.

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