negotiations with Israel fail and lead to a Third Intifada. Zakariya Zubeidi: Fatah must adopt "program of resistance". ''Ma'an News Agency''. 2009-08-04. Although he was accredited as a Fatah delegate, one of 2,000, to the conference in Bethlehem, Zubeidi was momentarily refused entry to the meeting hall, resulting in condemnations by al-Aqsa Brigade members in Nablus and Jenin, as well as those
, in return for a ten-year truce between the Ayyubids and the Crusaders. The treaty expired in 1239, and Bethlehem was recaptured by the Muslims in 1244. Paul Reed, 2000, p. 206. In 1250, with the coming to power of the Mamluks under Rukn al-Din Baibars (Baibars), tolerance of Christianity declined; the clergies left the city, and in 1263 the town walls were demolished. The Latin clergy returned to Bethlehem the following century, establishing themselves in the monastery adjoining the Basilica of the Nativity. The Greek Orthodox were given control of the basilica and shared control of the Milk Grotto with the Latins and the Armenians (Armenian Apostolic Church). Ottoman and Egyptian rule thumb upright The Mosque of Omar (Bethlehem) Mosque of Omar (Umar) (File:Bethlehem-Manger-Square.jpg), built in 1860 to commemorate the Caliph Umar's visit to Bethlehem thumb right View of Bethlehem, 1898 (File:Bethlehem 1898.jpg) thumb upright Bethlehem, 1880 (File:Bethlehem street 1880.jpg) From 1517, during the years of Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) control, custody of the Basilica was bitterly disputed between the Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches (Orthodox Church). By the end of the 16th century, Bethlehem had become one of the largest villages in the District of Jerusalem, and was subdivided into seven quarters. The Basbus family served as the heads of Bethlehem among other leaders during this period. Singer, 1994, p. 33. The Ottoman tax record and census from 1596 indicates that Bethlehem had a population of 1,435, making it the 13th largest village in Palestine at the time. Its total revenue amounted to 30,000 akce. Petersen, 2005, p. 141. Bethlehem paid taxes on wheat, barley and grapes. The Muslims and Christians were organized into separate communities, each having its own leader; five leaders represented the village in the mid-16th century, three of whom were Muslims. Ottoman tax records suggest that the Christian population was slightly more prosperous or grew more grain than grapes (the former being a more valuable commodity). Singer, 1994, p. 84. From 1831 to 1841, Palestine was under the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty of Egypt. During this period, the town suffered an earthquake as well as the destruction of the Muslim quarter in 1834 by Egyptian troops, apparently as a reprisal for the murder of a favored loyalist of Ibrahim Pasha (Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt). Thomson, 1860, p. 647. In 1841, Bethlehem came under Ottoman rule once again and remained so until the end of World War I. Under the Ottomans, Bethlehem's inhabitants faced unemployment, compulsory military service (Conscription), and heavy taxes, resulting in mass emigration, particularly to South America. An American missionary in the 1850s reported a population of under 4,000, nearly all of whom belonged to the Greek Church. He also noted that a lack of water crippled the town's growth. W. M. Thomson, p. 647. Modern era Bethlehem was administered by the British Mandate (British Mandate for Palestine) from 1920 to 1948. Bethlehem. WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem
(then in the British Mandate of Palestine) and migrated to Australia in 1948. Hockey is of Armenian and Palestinian (Palestinian people) background and the family name was originally Hokeidonian.national past-campaigns-give-heart-to-hockey 2007 06 29 1182624165403.html Past campaigns give heart to Hockey, ''Sydney Morning Herald'', 30 June 2007
with even greater solemnity than in early times, and were often accompanied by luxurious secular feasting after the church services (drinking, singing and eating) which was frequently condemned in some sermons of the time, on account of abuses. When such a large number of feasts was annually observed, it was to be expected that a list or calendar would be drawn up, and, in truth, a calendar was drawn up for the use of the Church of Carthage in the beginning of the 6th century, from which
mosque and Dome of the Rock. The Transjordan castles stayed in Ayyubid hands, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications. The treaty, completed on February 18, 1229, safeguarded a truce of ten years. With the building of Christian basilicas in the late 4th century, wall and ceiling mosaics were adopted for Christian uses. The earliest examples of Christian basilicas have
is administered by the Israel Nature & National Parks Protection Authority bus station''' is also a great starting point to '''get to other cities in the Palestinian territories'''. Located at the bottom floor of the bus station are numerous "Serveeces" (Palestinian Sheruts) that drive to cities such as Hebron , Ramallah and Jericho. '''Battir''' — a settlement some 5km west of Bethlehem is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as '''Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem''' WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem
-38 Luke 1:26–38 the Annunciation). According to Luke, an order of Caesar Augustus forced Mary and Joseph to leave their homes in Nazareth and come to the home of Joseph's ancestors, the house of David, for a census (Census of Quirinius). After Jesus' birth the couple had to use a manger for a crib because there was no room for them in the town's inn or family guest room. Depending on which translation from Greek is used;
, with ranks of arch-headed windows one above the other, without aisles (there was no mercantile exchange in this imperial basilica) and, at the far end beyond a huge arch, the apse in which Constantine held state. Exchange the throne for an altar, as was done at Trier, and you had a church. Basilicas of this type were built not only in western Europe but also in Greece, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine, in other words at any early center of Christianity (Early centers of Christianity). Good early examples of the architectural basilica include the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century AD), the church of St Elias at Thessalonica (5th century AD), and the two great basilicas at Ravenna. Palestine Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of the town of Beit Jala. This little town, which is located only two kilometers to the west of Bethlehem, boasts being the place where St. Nicholas spent four years of his life during his pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Every year on the 19th of December according to the Gregorian Calendar—that is the 6th of December according to the Julian Calendar—a solemn Divine Liturgy is held in the Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas, and is usually followed by parades, exhibitions, and many activities. Palestinian Christians of all sects, denominations and churches come to Beit Jala and participate in prayers and celebrations. Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism thumb Greek Orthodox (Image:Orthodox Deacon.jpg) deacon in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, wearing an orarion over his sticharion. On his head he wears the clerical kamilavka. Among the slain crusaders were: Bishop Peter of Bethlehem, Stephen of Perche, brother to Count Geoffry, Renaud of Montmirail, brother of the Count of Nevers, Matthew of Wallincourt, Robert of Ronsoi, John of Friaise, Walter of Neuilli, Ferri of Yerres, John's brother, Eustace of Heumont and John's other brother, Baldwin of Neuville. * WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem
of Jerusalem and pray at the Western Wall (the holiest site in modern Judaism) to which they had been denied access by the Jordanians in contravention of the 1949 Armistice agreement. The four-meter-wide public alley which formed the Wall was expanded into a massive plaza and worshippers were allowed to sit, or use other furniture, for the first time in centuries. In Hebron, Jews gained access to the Cave of the Patriarchs (the second most holy site in Judaism) for the first time since
to the history and process of olive oil production. Baituna al-Talhami Museum, established in 1972, contains displays of Bethlehem culture. The International Museum of Nativity was built by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (UNESCO) to exhibit "high artistic quality in an evocative atmosphere". Local government thumb right A Hamas (File:Bethlehem-hamasrally.JPG) rally in Bethlehem Bethlehem is the ''muhfaza'' (seat) or district capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. Bethlehem held its first municipal elections in 1876, after the ''mukhtars'' ("heads") of the quarters of Bethlehem's Old City (excluding the Syriac Quarter) made the decision to elect a local council of seven members to represent each clan in the town. A Basic Law (Basic law) was established so that if the victor for mayor was a Catholic, his deputy should be of the Greek Orthodox community. Throughout, Bethlehem's rule by the British and Jordan, the Syriac Quarter was allowed to participate in the election, as were the Ta'amrah Bedouins and Palestinian refugees, hence ratifying the number of municipal members in the council to 11. In 1976, an amendment was passed to allow women to vote and become council members and later the voting age was increased from 21 to 25. Municipal Council Elections during the British and Jordanian Periods Bethlehem Municipal Council. WikiPedia:Bethlehem Commons:Category:Bethlehem
'''Bethlehem''' ( ) is a Palestinian (State of Palestine) city located in the central West Bank, about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem. Its population is approximately 25,000 people. Amara, 1999, p. 18. Brynen, 2000, p. 202. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. The economy is primarily tourist-driven (Tourism in the Palestinian territories). url http: www.nytimes.com 2006 04 16 travel 16westbank.html title In the West Bank, Politics and Tourism Remain Bound Together Inextricably - New York Times accessdate 2008-01-22 work The New York Times first1 David last1 Kaufman first2 Marisa S. last2 Katz date 2006-04-16 archiveurl https: web.archive.org web 20130615222743 http: www.nytimes.com 2006 04 16 travel 16westbank.html archivedate 2013-06-15
It is thought the original name was Beit Lachama, from the Canaanite god Lachama. The earliest mention of the city is in the Amarna correspondence (Amarna tablets) c.1350-1330 BCE as "Bit-Lahmi". The Hebrew Bible identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)). The New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus. The city is inhabited by one of the oldest Christian communities in the world , although the size of the community has shrunk due to emigration. Bethlehem was destroyed by the Emperor Hadrian during the second-century Bar Kokhba revolt; its rebuilding was promoted by the Empress Helena (Helena (Empress)), mother of Constantine the Great, who commissioned the building of its great Church of the Nativity in 327 CE. The Church (Church of the Nativity) was badly damaged by the Samaritans, who sacked it during the Samaritan Revolt in 529, but was rebuilt a century later by the emperor Justinian I, in very much its present form.
Bethlehem was seized by the Arab Caliphate (Rashidun) of 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb (Umar) during the Arab conquest in 637, seized again by Egypt and then the Seljuks, and, in 1099, by Crusaders, who replaced its Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church) clergy with a Latin (Catholic Church) one. In the mid-13th century, invading Mamluks (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) demolished the city's walls, which were subsequently rebuilt in the early 16th century, after Bethlehem became part of the Ottoman Empire. url http: www.bethlehem-city.org English City index.php archiveurl https: web.archive.org web 20080113150138 http: www.bethlehem-city.org English City index.php archivedate 2008-01-13 title History and Mithology of Bethlehem publisher Bethlehem Municipality accessdate 2008-01-22
Control of Bethlehem passed from the Ottoman Empire to the British Empire at the end of World War I. Pursuant to the proposed United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine of November 1947, Bethlehem was to be included in an international zone (Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)), controlled by Britain. The Arab League states rejected the Partition Plan, and launched the 1948 Arab-Israeli War to prevent the creation of a Jewish state. During the war Jordan forcibly seized Bethlehem and occupied (Jordanian occupation of the West Bank) it - Jordan claimed to annex the west bank territories in 1950, though this was only ever formally recognized by Britain. Bethlehem was captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, and since 1995 - per the Oslo Accords (West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord) - Bethlehem has been governed by the Palestinian National Authority.
Bethlehem has a Muslim majority, but is also home to one of the largest Palestinian Christian (Palestinian Christians) communities. Originally, Bethlehem was a lodging point for Jewish pilgrims to Jerusalem during the three holiest days of the Jewish year. Bethlehem's chief economic sector (economy) is tourism which peaks during the Christmas season when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity, as they have done for almost two millennia. Bethlehem has over thirty hotels and three hundred handicraft workshops. url http: news.bbc.co.uk 2 hi middle_east 7146980.stm first Martin last Patience work BBC News title Better times return to Bethlehem publisher BBC date 2007-12-22 accessdate 2008-01-22 archiveurl https: web.archive.org web 20140106191329 http: news.bbc.co.uk 2 hi middle_east 7146980.stm archivedate 2014-01-06 Rachel's Tomb, an important Jewish holy site, is located at the northern entrance of Bethlehem.