Bernicia

What is Bernicia known for?


560

–559) *Glappa (Glappa of Bernicia) son of Ida (559–560) *Adda (Adda of Bernicia) son of Ida (560–568) *Æthelric (Æthelric of Bernicia) son of Ida (568–572) *Theodric (Theodric of Bernicia) son of Ida (572–579) *Frithuwald (Frithuwald of Bernicia) son of Ida (579–585) *Hussa (Hussa of Bernicia), possibly son of Ida (585–593) *Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria), son of Æthelric (593–616) Under Deiran rule 616–633) *Eanfrith of Bernicia son of Æthelfrith (633–634) Under

of the Britons ''Historia Brittonum'' , ch. 56. The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' elaborates that he ruled for twelve years and built the Bernician capital of Bamburgh Castle. Later, however, the ''Chronicle'' confuses his territory with the later Northumbria, saying that Ælla (Ælla of Deira), historically a king of Deira rather than Bernicia, succeeded him as king after his death. ''The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' (s:Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - Ingram Translation), entry for 560

forces he invaded in 1069 to claim the crown to which the old Witan had once elevated him. It was at this time, on 28 January, that the rebels converged on Durham and murdered William's newly-named earl Robert de Comines (Robert Comine), a Norman (Normans) who ignored the advice of William's ally, the bishop of Durham, Ethelwin. **'''Northumbria''' ***'''Bernicia''' - Adda (Adda of Bernicia), King of Bernicia (King of Northumbria) (560–568) ***''' Deira


early

British Isles country England era Early Medieval status status_text empire government_type Monarchy !-- Rise and fall, events, years

Scottish counties of Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth (River Forth) to the Tees (River Tees). In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira (Deira (kingdom)), to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably. British ''Bryneich'' thumb 300px ''Y Hen Gogledd (File:Yr.Hen.Ogledd.550.650.Koch.jpg)'' or "The Old North" Etymologies Bernicia is mentioned in the 9th-century

to borrow a foreign name for the area, so the former hypothesis is usually accepted, although no etymological analysis has produced a consensus. The etymology which is most widely cited is that tentatively proposed by Kenneth H. Jackson, which gives the meaning "Land of the Mountain Passes" or "Land of the Gaps". Jackson, ''Language and History in Early Britain'', pp. 701–5; Rollason, ''Northumbria 500–1100'', p. 81. The earlier derivation from the tribal name


590

of Wales were now cut off from their kin in Cumbria and Strathclyde. Towards the end of the 6th century, Elmet came under increasing pressure from the expanding Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxon England) kingdoms of Deira and Mercia. Forces from Elmet joined the ill-fated alliance in 590 against the Angles of Bernicia who had been making massive inroads further to the north. During this war it is thought Elmet's king Gwallog was killed. The northern alliance collapsed after Urien of Rheged

;Osric" '''Northumbria''', a kingdom of Angles in northern England, was initially divided into two kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira (Deira (kingdom)). The two were first united by Aethelfrith (Aethelfrith of Northumbria) around the year 604, and except for occasional periods of division over the subsequent century, they remained so. '''Eanfrith''' (590–634 Bede's dates are usually taken as he gives them, but some

until 547, the year of the first written reference to the castle. In that year the citadel was captured by the Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) ruler Ida of Bernicia (Beornice (Bernicia)) and became Ida's seat. It was briefly retaken by the Britons from his son Hussa (Hussa of Bernicia) during the war of 590 before being relieved later the same year. *** Lowland Scots (Scots Language) **** Early Scots† From early Northern Middle English (Aitken, A. J. and McArthur, T. Eds


people book

at Hexham and or Lindisfarne, died 685, succeeded by John of Beverley (Bede, Ecclesiastical History IV.12 (Wikisource:Ecclesiastical History of the English People Book 4#12)) *Trumbert, 682, as 'bishop of Hexham', at the same time as Trumwine's installation, with Eata continuing as bishop at Lindisfarne In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase (Battle of Hatfield Chase) on October 12, 633 ref name

; and was buried in the Benedictine Abbey of Hexham. - Interpretation of 7th century banner Reconstructed flag of Northumbria or Bernicia The gold and red banner attributed to King Oswald (Oswald of Northumbria). Bede's Ecclesiatical History of the English People, Book III, Ch. 11: "And to furnish a lasting memorial of the royal saint, they hung the King's banner of purple and gold over his


616

refuge to Edwin (Edwin of Northumbria), son of Ælle, king of Deira (Ælla of Deira)) around the year 616. Edwin then became king. The early part of Edwin's reign was possibly spent finishing off the remaining resistance coming from the Brythonic exiles of the old British kingdom, operating out of Gododdin. After he had defeated the remaining Brythonic population of the area, he was then drawn towards similar subjugation of Elmet (a Cumbric speaking ref name "CelticCulture

–559) *Glappa (Glappa of Bernicia) son of Ida (559–560) *Adda (Adda of Bernicia) son of Ida (560–568) *Æthelric (Æthelric of Bernicia) son of Ida (568–572) *Theodric (Theodric of Bernicia) son of Ida (572–579) *Frithuwald (Frithuwald of Bernicia) son of Ida (579–585) *Hussa (Hussa of Bernicia), possibly son of Ida (585–593) *Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria), son of Æthelric (593–616) Under Deiran rule 616–633) *Eanfrith of Bernicia son of Æthelfrith (633–634) Under

and Deira were first united by Aethelfrith (Aethelfrith of Northumbria), a king of Bernicia who conquered Deira around the year 604. He was defeated and killed around the year 616 in battle at the River Idle by Raedwald of East Anglia, who installed Edwin (Edwin of Northumbria), the son of Aella (Aella of Deira), a former king of Deira, as king. This initial distribution of power was short-lived. The chronically treacherous Eadric was executed within a year of Cnut's accession


history book

and Deira (Deira (kingdom)). His authority ran from the lands of the Picts and the Dál Riata in modern Scotland to Wales and the Midlands (English Midlands) in the south. Bede, ''Ecclesiastical History'', Book I, Chapter 34 & Book II, Chapter 3. Æthelfrith's power rested on his military success, and this success came to an end in 616, when the exiled Edwin of Deira, with the support of King Rædwald, defeated and killed him in battle by the River Idle

. Bede, ''Ecclesiastical History'', Book II, Chapter 12. The first half of Oswiu's reign was spent in the shadow of Penda, who dominated much of Britain from 642 until 655, seemingly making and breaking kings as it suited him. Cenwalh of Wessex was driven from his country when he set aside Penda's sister. Anna of East Anglia, Cenwalh's host, was also driven into exile, and later defeated and killed by Penda at Bulcamp, near Blythburgh in 653 or 654

of Kent Eorcenberht , to ask for her hand in marriage. Bede, ''Ecclesiastical History'', Book III, Chapter 15. Oswiu already had been married, to a British princess, named Rieinmellt, but recently had become King on the death of his brother, Oswald (Oswald of Northumbria), at the battle of Maserfield. King Penda of Mercia, the victor of Maserfield, dominated central Britain (Great Britain) and Oswiu was in need of support. Marriage with Eanflæd would provide


natural feature

and, having been taken prisoner, was one of only four (or two) Brythonic survivors. He remained a captive until his ransom was paid by Ceneu ap Llywarch Hen. Early history Castle Hill, on which Stirling Castle is built, forms part of the Stirling Sill, a formation of quartz-dolerite around 350 million years old, which was subsequently modified by glaciation to form a "crag and tail". Fawcett, p.14 It is likely that this natural feature


amp book

and Deira (Deira (kingdom)). His authority ran from the lands of the Picts and the Dál Riata in modern Scotland to Wales and the Midlands (English Midlands) in the south. Bede, ''Ecclesiastical History'', Book I, Chapter 34 & Book II, Chapter 3. Æthelfrith's power rested on his military success, and this success came to an end in 616, when the exiled Edwin of Deira, with the support of King Rædwald, defeated and killed him in battle by the River Idle


tradition local

Watson, 1926 Jackson, 1969 According to tradition, local kings of this period lived at both Traprain Law and ''Din Eidyn'' (Edinburgh, still known as ''Dùn Éideann'' in Scottish Gaelic (Scottish Gaelic language)), and probably also at ''Din Baer'' (Dunbar). Later history In the 6th century, Bryneich was invaded by the Angles and became known as Bernicia. The Angles continued to press north. In around 600 the Gododdin raised a force of about 300 men to assault the Angle stronghold of Catraeth, perhaps Catterick, North Yorkshire. The battle, which ended disastrously for the Britons, was memorialized in the poem ''Y Gododdin''. The region of present-day Northumberland once formed the core of the Anglian (Angles) kingdom of Bernicia, which was later united with Deira south of the River Tees to form the kingdom of Northumbria. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin (Edwin of Northumbria) stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth (River Forth) in the north, though it was reduced to having its traditional northern border of the River Tweed after the area from the Tweed to the Forth was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland in 1018, including Lothian, the region which contains Edinburgh. Northumberland is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because it was on Lindisfarne, a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called ''Holy Island'', that Christianity flourished when monks from Iona were sent to convert the English. Lindisfarne was the home of the Lindisfarne Gospels and Saint Cuthbert (Cuthbert of Lindisfarne), who is buried in Durham Cathedral. History Bamburgh Castle, then called ''Din Guardi'', may have been the capitol of the Brythonic kingdom of Bryneich (Bernicia) between about AD 420 and 547. In 547 the castle was taken by the invading Angles led by Ida son of Eoppa (Ida of Bernicia) North East England History Pages and was renamed '''Bebbanburgh''' by one of his successors, Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria), after Æthelfrith's wife Bebba, according to the ''Historia Brittonum''. From then onwards the castle became the capitol of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia until it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira (Deira (kingdom)), in 634. After the two realms united as Northumbria the capitol was moved to York. History Bamburgh Castle, then called ''Din Guardi'', may have been the capitol of the Brythonic kingdom of Bryneich (Bernicia) between about AD 420 and 547. In 547 the castle was taken by the invading Angles led by Ida son of Eoppa (Ida of Bernicia) North East England History Pages and was renamed '''Bebbanburgh''' by one of his successors, Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria), after Æthelfrith's wife Bebba, according to the ''Historia Brittonum''. From then onwards the castle became the capitol of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia until it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira (Deira (kingdom)), in 634. After the two realms united as Northumbria the capitol was moved to York. After the end of Late Antiquity, during the 6th to 8th century there were also several kings of the Franks called Theodoric (or Theuderic). Finally, there was an early Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) king of Bernicia called Theodric (Theodric of Bernicia) (also spelled ''Deoric'', Old English '' The south-east had been absorbed by the English (England) Kingdom of Bernicia Northumbria (Bernicia) in the seventh century. Galloway in the south west was a Lordship with some regality. In a Galwegian (Galwegian Gaelic) charter dated to the reign of Fergus (Fergus of Galloway), the Galwegian ruler styled himself ''rex Galwitensium'', King of Galloway. Oram (2000) p. 62 In the north east the ruler of Moray (Mormaer of Moray) was called not only "king" in both Scandinavian and Irish sources, but before Máel Snechtai (Máel Snechtai of Moray), "King of Alba". For Findláech (Findláech of Moray), ri Alban, ''Annals of Ulster'', ''s.a.'' 1020; Anderson (1922) vol. i, p. 551. For Máel Coluim (Máel Coluim of Moray), ''Annals of Tigernach'', ''s.a.'' 1029; Anderson (1922) vol. i, p. 571. The ''Annals of Tigernach'' though styles Findláech merely ''Mormaer''. thumb right A digital reconstruction of Anglo-Saxon Yeavering created by Past Perfect, a project run jointly by Durham and Northumberland County Councils. (File:Yeavering Digital Image.jpg) In the Early Mediaeval period, Yeavering was situated in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Bernicia. Hope-Taylor 1977 (#Hop77). p. 16. Welsh tradition regards Rhydderch as one of the northern British kings who fought against the early Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) realm of Bernicia. The ''Historia Brittonum'' depicts him as an enemy of several Bernician kings of the late sixth century, but the theatre of the wars between them is not identified. It is said he joined with Urien of Rheged and Morcant Bulc in their ill-fated alliance: In 629 (629 inIreland), the Dal nAraide appear to have defeated the Dál Riata at Fid Eóin, killing Connad Cerr, although the victor is named as Maél Caích, perhaps an otherwise unknown brother of Congal. AU 629.1; AT 631.1; Mac Niocaill, pg.95, Byrne, pg.109 As well as their king, the Dál Riata suffered the loss of two grandsons of Áedán mac Gabráin and the Bernician exile Osric (perhaps a son of Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Bernicia)) was also killed. It is possible that upon becoming King of Ulaid, Congal resigned the affairs of Dal nAraide to Maél Caích mac Scandail who met opposition from other Criuthne led by Dícuil mac Echach who may have been a member of the Latharna of Larne (a Dal nAraide tribe). Mac Niocaill, pg.95; Byrne, pg.109


tradition political

with the Kingdom of Deira (Deira (kingdom)) to form Northumbria (Kingdom of Northumbria). For a time, Lothian came under the control of the Kingdom of Bernicia, to the south. In due course Bernicia was united with Deira to form the Kingdom of Northumbria. Oswiu called a church council held at Whitby Abbey in 664 in an attempt to resolve this controversy (Easter controversy). Although Oswiu himself had been brought up in the "Celtic" tradition, political pressures

Bernicia

'''Bernicia''' (Old English: ''Bernice'', ''Beornice''; Latin: ''Bernicia'') was an Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) kingdom established by Anglian (Angles) settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern (Scottish Borders) Scotland and North East England.

The Anglian territory of Bernicia was approximately equivalent to the modern English counties of Northumberland and Durham (County Durham), and the former Scottish counties of Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth (River Forth) to the Tees (River Tees). In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira (Deira (kingdom)), to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably.

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