Benguela

What is Benguela known for?


football team

football, Mozambique were placed in Group C with Egypt (Egypt national football team), Nigeria (Nigeria national football team) and Benin (Benin national football team). In their first game, they played Benin Benguela drawing 2–2 after being 2–0 down, with goals coming from Miro (Almiro Lobo) and Fumo (Carlos Fumo Gonçalves). They then went on to lose 2–0 to eventual tournament winners Egypt and 3–0 to Nigeria, thus eliminating them from the tournament. After the tournament, all time top scorer and captain Tico-Tico retired from international football. thumbnail '''Artur Pestana''' called '''Pepetela''' (File:Pep.jpg) '''Artur Carlos Maurício Pestana dos Santos''' (born in Benguela, Portuguese Angola, in 1941) is a major Angolan writer of fiction. He writes under the name '''Pepetela'''.


trading posts

soldiers. Benguela, a Portuguese fort from 1587 which became a town in 1617, was another important early settlement they founded and ruled. The Portuguese would establish several settlements, forts and trading posts along the coastal strip of current-day Angola, which relied on slave trade (Slavery in Angola), commerce in raw materials, and exchange of goods for survival. The African slave trade provided a large number of black slaves to Europeans and their African agents. For example, in what is now Angola, the Imbangala economy was heavily focused on the slave trade.


early period

. The early

period


main social

south and arrived at Pretoria in northern South Africa on February 12, 1879. MPLA Since its formation in the 1950s, the MPLA's main social base has been among the Ambundu people (Northern Mbundu people) and the multiracial intelligentsia of cities such as Luanda, Benguela and Huambo. The results of the 2008 Elections in Angola show that its constituency is by now considerably larger During its anti-colonial struggle


religious influence

Conflict in Angola, 1974-76: An essay in political sociology'', Geneva: Institut Universitaire de Hautes Études Internationales, 1979 Portuguese colonialism At the end of the 15th century, the Portuguese entered into contact with the Kongo Empire where they maintained a continuous presence and had a considerable cultural and religious influence. Almost a century later, in 1575, they established a settlement and fort called Saint Paul of Luanda on the coast South of the Kongo Empire, in an area inhabited by Ambundu (Northern Mbundu people) people. Another fort, Benguela, was established on the coast further South, in a region inhabited by ancestors of the Ovimbundu people. Incisive change came about when he Portuguese established a colonial bridgehead in Benguela, in the 16th century. Several of the small "kingdoms" saw their advantage in organising an intense caravan trade between Benguela and peoples of the East, in particular the Chokwe and Ganguela, from whom they obtained wax, rubber, and ivory. Each trading caravan had a professional leader and diviner. Trade agreements that had linked the independent chiefdoms led to the development of regional specializations, including metalwork and cornmeal production. Slavery and the slave trade were also an integral part of Ovimbundu societies. Caravan trading declined with the suppression of the slave trade and, more importantly, the construction of the Benguela Railway in 1904, and came to an end shortly after 1910. During the Civil War, the two major cities located in Umbundu territory, Huambo and Kuito, were to a large extent destroyed, by the MPLA and UNITA, respectively, as was a considerable number of villages and infrastructures (roads, railways, bridges etc.). Many people died, and many others fled to cities either in their owen area (Benguela, Lobito) or in distant areas (mainly Luanda and its surroundings, but also Lubango). During long periods, parts of Umbundu territory were under UNITA control. Age of Discovery When the Portuguese began trading on the west coast of Africa, in the 15th century, they concentrated their energies on Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) and Angola (Angola (Portugal)). Hoping at first for gold, they soon found that slaves were the most valuable commodity available in the region for export. The Islamic Empire (Caliphate) was already well established in the African slave trade, for centuries linking it to the Arab slave trade. However, the Portuguese who had conquered the Islamic port of Ceuta in 1415 and several other towns in current day Morocco in a Crusade against Islamic neighbours, managed to successfully establish themselves in the area. But the Portuguese never established much more than a foothold in either place. In Guinea, rival Europeans grabbed much of the trade (mainly slaves) while local African rulers confined the Portuguese to the coast. These rulers then sent enslaved Africans to the Portuguese ports and forts in Africa from where they were exported. Thousands of kilometers down the coast, in Angola, the Portuguese found it even harder to consolidate their early advantage against encroachments by Dutch, British and French rivals. Nevertheless the fortified Portuguese towns of Luanda (established in 1587 with 400 Portuguese settlers) and Benguela (a fort from 1587, a town from 1617) remained almost continuously in Portuguese hands. As in Guinea, the slave trade became the basis of the local economy in Angola - with raids carried ever farther inland to procure captives that were sold by African warriors after one of many interethnic skirmishes was resumed. More than a million men, women and children were shipped from here across the Atlantic. In this region, unlike Guinea, the trade remained largely in Portuguese hands. Nearly all the slaves were destined for Brazil (Colonial Brazil). In Mozambique (Mozambique (Portugal)), reached in the 15th century by Portuguese sailors in order to discover a maritime spice trade route, the Portuguese settled along the coast and made their way into the hinterland as ''sertanejos (Wikt:sertanejos)'' (backwoodsmen). These sertanejos lived alongside Swahili (Swahili people) traders and even took up service among Shona (Shona people) kings as interpreters and political advisors. One such ''sertanejo'' managed to travel through almost all the Shona kingdoms, including the Mutapa Empire's (Mwenemutapa) metropolitan district, between 1512 and 1516. Oliver, page 207 By the 1530s, small groups of Portuguese trader (merchant)s and prospector (Prospecting)s penetrated the interior regions seeking gold, where they set up garrisons and trading posts at Sena (Sena, Mozambique) and Tete on the Zambezi River and tried to gain exclusive control over the gold trade. The Portuguese finally entered into direct relations with the Mwenemutapa in the 1560s. Oliver, page 203 However, it was also in the coastal strip that the Portuguese traders and explorers settled permanently with more success and would establish strongholds safe from their main rivals in East Africa - the Omani Arabs, including those of Zanzibar.


poetic

January 1962, Cambambe, Angola). Created a large poetic output in the Portuguese language. Attended Coimbra and Lisbon Universities. Her husband, the writer Orlando Albuquerque, set about publishing her collected works after her death. thumb left Laboratory of Anchieta in Caconda, around 1870 (Image:Laboratory-anchieta.gif) In 1865, he travelled back on his own once again to Angola. This time, he was already married and his wife accompanied him. He stayed on his own in the region


small quot

Empire, in an area inhabited by Ambundu (Northern Mbundu people) people. Another fort, Benguela, was established on the coast further South, in a region inhabited by ancestors of the Ovimbundu people. Incisive change came about when he Portuguese established a colonial bridgehead in Benguela, in the 16th century. Several of the small "kingdoms" saw their advantage in organising an intense caravan trade between Benguela and peoples of the East, in particular


largest national

. The port normally handled a major part of the Angolan catch and had one of the most important fish landings of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola together with Luanda, Benguela and Lobito. About 200 km from the city of Namibe the Portuguese authorities founded the Iona National Park, Angola's oldest and largest national park, which was proclaimed as a reserve in 1937 and was upgraded by the authorities of Portuguese Angola to a national park covering 15,150&


large+poetic

January 1962, Cambambe, Angola). Created a large poetic output in the Portuguese language. Attended Coimbra and Lisbon Universities. Her husband, the writer Orlando Albuquerque, set about publishing her collected works after her death. thumb left Laboratory of Anchieta in Caconda, around 1870 (Image:Laboratory-anchieta.gif) In 1865, he travelled back on his own once again to Angola. This time, he was already married and his wife accompanied him. He stayed on his own in the region of Benguela, establishing a laboratory inside the ruins of a church, and exploring and collecting animals, until, in 1867, the Portuguese government hired him, overtly as a naturalist. But what is most probable is that Anchieta was recruited as a secret agent and informer


national football

football, Mozambique were placed in Group C with Egypt (Egypt national football team), Nigeria (Nigeria national football team) and Benin (Benin national football team). In their first game, they played Benin Benguela drawing 2–2 after being 2–0 down, with goals coming from Miro (Almiro Lobo) and Fumo (Carlos Fumo Gonçalves). They then went on to lose 2–0 to eventual tournament winners Egypt and 3–0 to Nigeria, thus eliminating them from the tournament. After the tournament, all

football player who played as a forward (Forward (association football)) for the Angolan national team (Angola national football team). DATE OF BIRTH 30 May 1977 PLACE OF BIRTH Benguela, Angola DATE OF DEATH South African Reinforcements On 6 and 7 November 1975 Zulu captured the harbour cities of Benguela (terminal of the Benguela railroad) and Lobito. The towns and cities captured by the SADF were given to UNITA. In central Angola, at the same

Benguela

'''Benguela''' ( , São Felipe de Benguela, formerly spelled ''Benguella'') is a city in western Angola, south of Luanda, and capital of Benguela Province. It lies on a bay of the same name, in 12° 33’ S., 13° 25’ E. Benguela is one of Angola's most populous cities.

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