The Golden Book of Russia. 2001, part 2, 2001. ITERA and the Community The Company’s production projects allowed to create a few thousands of new jobs in Russia, Belarus and Georgia (Georgia country). ITERA is engaged in various charity activities facilitating social programs, education, culture and sports development. Former Soviet Union Belarus and Armenia, along with the five members of the Central Asian NWFZ, are allies of Russia in CSTO, the three Baltic states have joined NATO, and the GUAM states (Georgia (Georgia (country)), Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Moldova) are not party to either security treaty. Heat 3 #20px (Image:Flag of Belarus.svg) Belarus (Yulia Nesterenko, Natalya Sologub, Alena Nevmerzhitskaya, Oksana Dragun) 42.80s '''Q''' (NR) #20px (Image:Flag of Poland.svg) Poland (Iwona Dorobisz, Daria Onyśko, Dorota Dydo, Iwona Brzezińska) 43.37s '''Q''' (SB) Commons:Category:Belarus Wikipedia:Belarus Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus
(which abolished historical national symbols of Belarus: white-red-white flag and "Pahonia" coat of arms). '''"Water féerie"''' (Belarusian language: ''Водная феерыя'', Vodnaya feyeryya) was a flashmob performance, initiated by several Belarusian youth opposition movements on May 14, 2005 on the 10th anniversary of the referendum (which abolished historical national symbols of Belarus: white-red-white flag and "Pahonia" coat of arms). In Central (Central Europe) and Eastern Europe the fall of Communism led to evangelization projects that have incited some resentment. The reaction has been perhaps the most intense in Belarus. Programs in Belarus imply that Pentecostalism is a destructive cult or cults that can be compared to Aum Shinrikyo. There are disputed claims that Baptists are also maligned in Belarusian textbooks. or '''Zaslaul''' ( Commons:Category:Belarus Wikipedia:Belarus Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus
jstor 20628625 The free development of literature occurred only in Polish-held territory until Soviet occupation in 1939. Several poets and authors went into exile after the Nazi occupation of Belarus and would not return until the 1960s. The last major revival of Belarusian literature occurred in the 1960s with novels published by Vasil Bykaŭ and Uladzimir Karatkievich. File:Wincenty Dunin-Marcinkiewicz
the October Revolution, he joined the Cheka, and because of his facility with languages—he spoke French, Polish, German, and Russian—he became a member of the Foreign Department. In 1926 he was stationed in Mongolia, perhaps reporting to Yakov Blumkin, where he conducted active intelligence work against China and Japan. thumb left Olena Iurkovska (Image:Paralympic XC ski sitting.JPG) of Ukraine competing on cross-country sit-skis at the 2010 Winter Paralympics
Orzeszkowa bust in Warsaw.jpg thumb 200px left Bust of Eliza Orzeszkowa, Warsaw Early athletic career Pachulia was a very successful basketball player at a very early age in Georgia. He was approximately 6 feet 8 inches (2.04 meters) at the age of 13. He was scouted and recruited by the Turkish professional team Ülkerspor when he was a teenager. He became a member of the national basketball team of Georgia (Georgia national basketball team) at a young age and led his team as a center to beat other Eastern European rivals, such as Belarus and Bulgaria. '''Ivan Tsikhan''', also spelled sometimes as '''Ivan Tikhon''' ( Commons:Category:Belarus Wikipedia:Belarus Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus
allegiance to them. A number of nations today are facing long term population decline, stretching from North Asia (Japan through to Eastern Europe through Russia including Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Armenia, Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, and now Italy. Countries rapidly approaching long term
population declines (but currently still growing, albeit slowly) include Greece, Spain, Cuba, Uruguay, Denmark, Finland, Austria and Lesotho. On 4 February 2006, the 35 member Board of Governors of the IAEA voted 27–3 (with five abstentions: Algeria, Belarus, Indonesia, Libya and South Africa) to report Iran to the UN Security Council. The measure was sponsored by the United Kingdom, France and Germany, and it was backed by the United States. Two permanent council members, Russia and China, agreed to referral only on condition that the council take no action before March. The three members who voted against referral were Venezuela, Syria and Cuba. Commons:Category:Belarus Wikipedia:Belarus Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus
to the massive Polish popular opposition against the Swedes. Under blows from all sides the Commonwealth only survived thanks to its steely unity in the face of destruction. * West-Central and East-Central Europe – this conception, presented in 1950, Oskar Halecki, The Limits and Divisions of European History, Sheed & Ward: London and New York 1950, chapter VII distinguished two regions in Central Europe: German West-Centre, with imperial tradition of the ''Reich'', and the East-Centre covered by variety of nations ''from Finland to Greece'', placed between great empires of Scandinavia, Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union * Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – Ukrainian (Ukraine), Belarusian and Lithuanian historians, in cooperation (since 1990) with Polish (Poland) historians, insist on the importance of the notion * Central Europe as a region connected to the Western civilisation (western world) for a very long time, including countries like the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Holy Roman Empire, later German Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Hungary and Bohemia. Central Europe understood in this way borders on Russia and the South-Eastern Europe, but the exact frontier of the region is difficult to determine. * Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire – a concept which is popular in the region of Danube River * A concept underlining the links connecting Ukraine and Belarus with Russia and treating the Russian Empire together with the whole Slavic (Slavic peoples) Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) population as one entity – this position is taken by the Russian historiography * A concept putting an accent on the links with the West, especially from the 19th century and the grand period of liberation and formation of Nation-states – this idea is represented by in the South-Eastern (South-Eastern Europe) states, which prefer the enlarged concept of the “East Centre” expressing their links with the Western culture He also thinks that Central Europe is a dynamical historical concept, not a static spatial one. For example, Lithuania, a fair share of Belarus and western Ukraine are in Eastern Europe today, but 250 years ago they were in Poland. Johnson's study on Central Europe received acclaim and positive reviews Commons:Category:Belarus Wikipedia:Belarus Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus
, or alternatively as ''White Ruthenian'' or ''White Russian''. Following independence, it was also called ''Belarusian''. Belarusan English Dictionary Ethnologue. Languages of the World. Belarusan The reform resulted in the grammar officially used, with further amendments, in Byelorussian SSR and modern Belarus. Sometimes this grammar is called ''official'' grammar of Belarusian language, to distinguish it from the ''pre-reform'' grammar, known as ''classic'' grammar or Taraškievica (Tarashkevitsa). It is also known as ''narkamauka'', after the word ''narkamat'', a Belarusian abbreviation for People's Commissariat (ministry). The latter term bears a derogatory connotation. The swastika shape (also called a ''fylfot'') appears on various Germanic Migration Period and Viking Age artifacts, such as the 3rd century Værløse Fibula from Zealand, Denmark, the Gothic (Goths) spearhead from Brest-Litovsk, today in Belarus, the 9th century Snoldelev Stone from Ramsø, Denmark, and numerous Migration Period bracteates drawn left-facing or right-facing. Margrethe, Queen (Margrethe II of Denmark), Poul Kjrum, Rikke Agnete Olsen (1990). ''Oldtidens Ansigt: Faces of the Past'', page 148. ISBN 978-87-7468-274-5 Modern concerns In its 2011 annual report, the ''United States Commission on International Religious Freedom'' designated fourteen nations as "countries of particular concern". The commission chairman commented that these are nations whose conduct marks them as the world’s worst religious freedom violators and human rights abusers. The fourteen nations designated were Burma, China, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Other nations on the commission's watchlist include Afghanistan, Belarus, Cuba, India, Indonesia, Laos, Russia, Somalia, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Venezuela.
is popular in the region of Danube River * A concept underlining the links connecting Ukraine and Belarus with Russia and treating the Russian Empire together with the whole Slavic (Slavic peoples) Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) population as one entity – this position is taken by the Russian historiography * A concept putting an accent on the links with the West, especially from the 19th century and the grand period of liberation and formation of Nation-states
fortress The appeals of Belarus are little known to the average traveller, but the off the beaten track character of this unfamiliar country is exactly what makes it special to the ones that make it here. Much of the historic heritage was lost to World War II violence or to post-war communist planning, but there's more to see than one might expect at first glance. Take '''Minsk''', the country's surprisingly modern yet fiercely Eastern European capital, bustling with nightclubs and modern restaurants but simultaneously a monument of Communist architecture and city development, as it had to be reconstructed completely in the war. It's home to the fine '''Belarus State Museum''', the '''Indepence Square''' (where democratic protests make world news every so many years), the former '''KGB Headquarters''' but also the humbling '''Zaslavsky Jewish Monument'''. Far more western is the border city of '''Brest (Brest (Belarus))''', where you'll find the 19th century '''Brest Fortress''', the site of a long and severe Operation Barbarossa battle and a monument of the Sovjet resistance against the Germans. There are four World Heritage Sites to see, although one, the '''Struve Geodetic Arc''' which provided the basis for the first meridian measurement, offers little more than an inscription to see. Of more interest for visitors however, are the late medieval '''Mir Castle Complex (Mir)''' and the '''Nesvizh Castle''' of the same time. They are the best of the country's castles, but a few more can be found if you're interested. For a glance of 19th century life, head to the '''Dudutki Open Air Museum'''. Situated near the sleepy, dusty village of Dudutki, this place brings traditional crafts, such as carpentry, pottery, handicraft-making and baking to life in old-style wood-and-hay houses. The fourth World Heritage Site is a natural one. The primeval '''Białowieża Forest''' covers part of both Belarus and Poland, with the Belarus side known as Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park. Few foreign visitors make it here, but the park is home to European bison, goose and other wildlife, and there's a small museum. Other good picks for a natural experience are the '''Pripyat Reserve''' and the '''Braslau Lakes'''. Do Buy thumb A stack of banknotes from various countries— Belarusian rubles are the ones to the left (File:Belarusian Money.jpg) Belarusian rubles are symbolised by the three letters '''BYR''' placed before the price with no intervening space. Inside Belarus, you can get Belarusian rubles (but NOT always US dollars or euros) from automatic bank machines (ATMs) for standard types of credit debit cards, and you can change US dollars and euros into Belarusian rubles and vice versa at many exchange kiosks in big railway stations and the centres of big cities. Converting Belarusian rubles back into hard currency shortly before departure or once you are outside of Belarus will probably be extremely difficult (except in Lithuania, Latvia, and Moldova, strangely enough). However, if you exchange all your rubles before leaving, any last-minute purchases (or fines for overstaying, customs, whatever) would have to be paid in US dollars or euros. Be very careful: exchange kiosks will not exchange any bill that is damaged or marked on but with a commission of 1-2 per cent. About half of the bills you currently have in your wallet will be rejected for exchange in Belarus. Be sure to take only relatively new and undamaged foreign money with you. Most larger supermarkets, stores and hotels have credit card terminals, but smaller shops often do not. Visa and MasterCard are accepted, while American Express is not. Prices are typically much lower than in Western Europe, especially for supermarket food and service industry. However, hotels and restaurants are not cheaper than Western Europe (and often a lot more expensive than neighbouring Poland). Commons:Category:Belarus Wikipedia:Belarus Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus
Until the 20th century, the lands of modern-day Belarus belonged to several countries, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution (1917)), Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian People's Republic, succeeded by the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, which became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union (Republics of the Soviet Union) and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish-Soviet war. Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939 when some lands of the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into it after the Soviet invasion of Poland and were finalized after World War II. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945, Belarus became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR.
The parliament of the republic declared the sovereignty of Belarus on
Over 70% of Belarus's population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Belarusian (Belarusian language) and Russian (Russian language). The Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity (Belarusian Orthodox Church). The second most popular, Roman Catholicism (Roman Catholicism in Belarus), has a much smaller following, although both Orthodox and Catholic versions of Christmas and Easter are celebrated as national holidays (Public holidays in Belarus).