Baalbek

What is Baalbek known for?


interpretation show

"Lohmann1" Lohmann (2010) p. 29 "Current survey and interpretation, show that a pre-Roman floor level about 5m lower than the late Great Roman Courtyard floor existed underneath" These walls are built of about 24 monoliths at their lowest level each weighing approximately 300 tons. The western, tallest retaining wall has a second course of monoliths containing the famous ''trilithon'': a row of three stones, each over 19 metres long, 4.3 metres high and 3.6 metres broad, cut from limestone. They weigh approximately 800 tons each. Wikipedia:Baalbek Commons:Baalbek


construction technique

Master_look_at_the_size_of_those_stones_Look_at_the_size_of_those_buildings_ accessdate 13 March 2013 The temple was built over an earlier unfinished structure. According to Daniel Lohmann, "The unfinished pre-Roman sanctuary construction was incorporated into a master plan of monumentalisation. Apparently challenged by the already huge pre-Roman construction, the early imperial Jupiter sanctuary shows both an architectural megalomaniac design and construction technique in the first half of the first century AD.". Lohmann (2010), p. 29. " Gallery File:Baalbek-GenPix.jpg The Eastern Façade File:BaalbekTempleJupiter1.jpg Temple of Jupiter File:Baalbek - Lebanon.JPG Temple of Jupiter From Below File:BaalbekTempleJupiter3.jpg Temple of Jupiter from the Great Court File:BaalbekGreatCourt.jpg Great court File:BaalbekBacchusTemple.jpg Temple of Bacchus File:BaalbekBacchusTempleEntrance.jpg Entrance into the Bacchus Temple File:BaalbekPropylaea.jpg Propylaea at the entrance of the site File:BaalbekMosquePillars.jpg Pillars of the former mosque File:Grundplan af Baalbeks ruiner, Nordisk familjebok.png Plan of the temple complex File:Baalbek 1890 PD.jpg View of Baalbeck 1890 – 1900 File:Baalbek-stoneofpregnantwoman.jpg ''Stone of the Pregnant Woman'' File:Baalbek- largest stone.jpg The largest stone at Baalbeck (Stone of the Pregnant Woman#Second monolith) File:Baalbek shaft.jpg Exterior of Baalbeck temple. Shaft of unknown function leads to the interior of what is now the museum. File:Baalbek roof sculpture.jpg Roof sculpture of an unknown God File:Baalbek roof sculpture (Ceres).jpg Roof sculpture of Ceres (Ceres (Roman mythology)) File:Baalbek roof sculpture (Marcus Antonius).jpg Roof sculpture supposedly of Mark Antony File:Baalbek roof sculpture (Cleopatra).jpg Roof sculpture supposedly of Cleopatra Climate Baalbeck experiences a semi-arid Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and relatively cold, sometimes snowy, winters. Wikipedia:Baalbek Commons:Baalbek


vast stone

goddess; husbands and fathers let their wives and daughters publicly prostitute themselves to please Astarte'. Constantine (Constantine I of the Roman Empire), making an effort to curb the Venus cult, built a basilica in Heliopolis. Theodosius I erected another, with a western apse, occupying the main court of the Jupiter temple, as was Christian practice everywhere. The vast stone blocks of its walls were taken from the temple. Today nothing of the Theodosian basilica remains. Early Islamic period thumb left Details in Temple of Jupiter (File:Baalbek-temple.jpg) In 637 AD, the Muslim army (Rashidun army) under Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah captured Baalbeck after defeating the Byzantine army at Battle of Yarmouk. It was still an opulent city and yielded rich plunder. It became a bone of contention between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of Damascus, then of Egypt. The place was fortified and took on the name ''al-Qala‘'' ("fortress"; see Alcala (Alcalá (disambiguation))) but in 748 was sacked again with great slaughter. The Byzantine Emperor John Tzimisces sacked the city in 975. In 1090 it passed to the Seljuk (Seljuk Turks)s and in 1134 to Zengi; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in 1175. The Crusaders raided its valley more than once but never took the city. Three times shaken by earthquakes in the 12th century, it was dismantled by 1260 when it served as the Mongol (Mongols) base for the last unsuccessful attack upon the Mamlukes of Egypt. But it revived, and most of its fine mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belonged to the reign of Sultan Qalawun (1282), during which Abulfeda describes it as a very strong place. In 1400 Timur pillaged it. Ottoman period In 1517, it passed, with the rest of Syria, to the Ottoman Empire. But Ottoman jurisdiction was merely nominal in the Lebanon, since the Ottomans awarded the Harfush’s family (:ar:آل حرفوش) of Baalbek the local iltizam concessions plus a nominal military rank (the district governorship of Homs) in recognition of their social prominence among the Shiite village population of the Bekaa Valley. THE SHIITE EMIRATES OF OTIOMAN SYRIA (MID-17m -MID-18m CENTURY), STEFAN HELMUT WINTER, THE UNlVERSIlY OF CHICAGO, CHICAGO, ILUNOIS AUGUST 2002, Page 238. Baalbeck, badly shaken in the Near East earthquake of 1759, was really in the hands of the Metawali who retained it against other Lebanese tribes. The colossal and picturesque ruins attracted particularly intrepid Westerners since the 18th century. English visitor Robert Wood (Robert Wood (engraver)) was not simply a tourist: his carefully measured drawings were engraved for ''The Ruins of Baalbeck'' (1757), which provided some excellent new detail in the Corinthian order that British and European Neoclassical (Neoclassicism) architects added to their vocabulary. Robert Adam, for example, based a bed Wikipedia:Baalbek Commons:Baalbek


traditional sweet

Pastries Oriental pastries are offered by Patisserie Jawhari, there you can find traditional sweet food from Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. The most famous sweet called " Namoura bel Ashta" which stands for Namoura with cream. This cream is extracted from fresh boiling milk. More pastries are found including the famous Knefe and Beqlawa. Drink Evey summer there are outdoor shesha bars, they also serve food, drinks, desserts. Sleep Go next Wikipedia:Baalbek Commons:Baalbek


modern architectural

of stones which are still in the order of 350 t. In the quarry nearby, two Roman building blocks (Stone of the Pregnant Woman), which were intended for the same podium, even surpass 1,000 t, lying there unused since their extraction in ancient times. The finest architects of the day submitted plans to transform the older family house into a modern architectural extravaganza. Among


painting quot

"Eyewitness written accounts of Vermeer's painting." 2007.''Essential vermeer''. June 7 2007. Vermeer had no paintings to show and Monconys and his companion, a clergyman from The Hague were steered to the baker Hendrick van Buyten. Monconys also visited Johannes Sibertus Kuffler in the same year. Her 2004 historical novel ''The Alchemy of Fire'' takes place in Constantinople under Constantine IV. Anna, former


supporting stone

giant stones which form part of the podium of the Roman (Roman Empire) Jupiter (Jupiter (mythology)) temple of Baalbek, Lebanon, go by the name "trilithon". Weighing ca. 800 tons (Tonne) each, they are among the largest ancient monoliths (List of ancient monoliths) and even of the whole of history (List of largest monoliths in the world). The supporting stone layer beneath features a number


architecture term

worship in the 3rd century and 4th century. The icon of Helipolitan Zeus (in A.B. Cook, ''Zeus'', i:570–576) bore busts of the seven planetary powers on the front of the pillarlike term (term (architecture)) in which he was encased. A bronze statuette of this Heliopolitan Zeus was discovered at Tortosa, Spain; another was found at Byblos in Phoenicia. A comparable iconic image is the Lady of Ephesus (Temple of Artemis). Robert Graves, ''The Greek Myths'' I.4 ref>


sweet called

Pastries Oriental pastries are offered by Patisserie Jawhari, there you can find traditional sweet food from Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. The most famous sweet called " Namoura bel Ashta" which stands for Namoura with cream. This cream is extracted from fresh boiling milk. More pastries are found including the famous Knefe and Beqlawa. Drink Evey summer there are outdoor shesha bars, they also serve food, drinks, desserts. Sleep Go next Wikipedia:Baalbek Commons:Baalbek


impressive temple

-Bacchus.jpg thumb Temple of Bacchus in Baalbek *The ancient Roman ruins of Baalbek, an ancient city named for the Canaanite god Baal. The Romans renamed Baalbek "Heliopolis (Heliopolis of Phoenicia)" and built an impressive temple complex, including temples (Roman temple) to Bacchus (Dionysus), Jupiter (Jupiter (mythology)), Venus (Venus (mythology)), and the Sun (Solar deity). Today, the ruins are the site of the Baalbeck International Festival

Baalbek

blank_name blank_info blank1_name blank1_info website thumb right Temple of Bacchus (File:Baalbek-Bacchus.jpg) right thumb Details inside Temple of Bacchus (File:Baalbek-Bacchus-Details.jpg) '''Baalbeck''', also known as '''Baalbek''' ( ) during the period of Roman (Roman Empire) rule, it was one of the largest sanctuaries in the empire and contains some of the best preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon. The gods that were worshipped at the temple – Jupiter (Jupiter (mythology)), Venus (Venus (mythology)), and Bacchus (Dionysus) – were grafted onto the indigenous deities of Hadad, Atargatis, and a young male god of fertility. Local influences are seen in the planning and layout of the temples, which vary from the classic Roman design.

Baalbeck is home to the annual Baalbeck International Festival. The town is about mostly Shia Muslims (Shi'a Islam in Lebanon).

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Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017