Azawad

What is Azawad known for?


news

as a part of Mopti region, encompassing about 60 percent of Mali's total land area. Azawad borders Burkina Faso to the south, Mauritania to the west and northwest, Algeria to the north and northeast, and Niger to the east and southeast, with undisputed Mali to its

southwest. It straddles a portion of the Sahara and the Sahelian zone (Sahel). Gao is its largest city and served as the temporary capital, while Timbuktu is the second-largest city, and intended to be the capital by the independence forces. ref>

; On 6 April 2012, in a statement posted to its website, the MNLA declared "irrevocably" the independence of Azawad from Mali. In Gao on the same day, Bilal Ag Acherif, the secretary-general of the movement, signed the Azawadi Declaration of Independence, which also declared the MNLA


main+presence

army. The whole Northern region was captured within a month prior to the Islamists offensive against the South. Tuareg nomadic groups such as the MNLA, Azawadi separatist's group, helped retake several main towns in the North but kept a neutral stance against fighting the rebels or giving support to the Malian army. The groups main presence centered around their headquarters in Kidal and it's proper. Islamists began slowly regrouping last remaining elements in the Adrar des Ifoghas


fierce

that negotiations with terrorists had been ruled out, but negotiations with other armed factions were still open.

the Islamists as "intent on imposing an Islam of lash and gun on Malian Muslims." The Islamists in Timbuktu have destroyed about a half-dozen historic above-ground tombs of revered holy men, proclaiming the tombs contrary to Shariah. One refugee in the camp spoke of encountering Afghans (Afghan people), Pakistanis and Nigerians among the invading forces.


Taghaza

to flourish. With Gao as the capital of the empire, Timbuktu enjoyed a relatively autonomous position. Merchants from Ghadames, Awjilah (Awjilah, Libya), and numerous other cities of North Africa gathered there to trade gold and slaves in exchange for the Saharan salt of Taghaza (History of salt#The socio-political history of salt), and North African cloth and horses.


`6

Mahamadou Djeri Maïga year_deputy1 2012 title_deputy Vice President sovereignty_type Independence File:Azawad in context.JPG thumb Map of Azawad, as claimed by the National Movement for the Liberation

southwest. It straddles a portion of the Sahara and the Sahelian zone (Sahel). Gao is its largest city and served as the temporary capital, while Timbuktu is the second-largest city, and intended to be the capital by the independence forces. ref>

; On 6 April 2012, in a statement posted to its website, the MNLA declared "irrevocably" the independence of Azawad from Mali. In Gao on the same day, Bilal Ag Acherif, the secretary-general of the movement, signed the Azawadi Declaration of Independence, which also declared the MNLA


world work

chapter Elusive Autonomy in Sub-Saharan Africa title Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts editor1-first Marc editor1-last Weller editor2-first Katherine editor2-last Nobbs location Philadelphia publisher University of Pennsylvania Press year 2010 pages 97–120 isbn 978-0-8122-4230-0 ref harv *


news world

as a part of Mopti region, encompassing about 60 percent of Mali's total land area. Azawad borders Burkina Faso to the south, Mauritania to the west and northwest, Algeria to the north and northeast, and Niger to the east and southeast, with undisputed Mali to its

9 June 2012 On 26 May, the MNLA and its former co-belligerent Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state under sharia law. Some later reports indicated the MNLA had decided to withdraw from the pact, distancing itself

2012 accessdate 28 July 2012 Following the collapse of the short-lived accord, the MNLA and Ansar Dine continued to clash, culminating in the Battle of Gao on 27 June, in which the Islamist groups Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Ansar Dine took control of the city, driving out the MNLA


206

Cities of The Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia year 2007 publisher ABC-CLIO location Santa Barbara, CA isbn 1-57607-919-8 author Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley The Tuareg (Tuareg people) temporarily took control in 1737. During the remainder of the 18th century, various Tuareg tribes, Bambara (Bambara people) and Kounta briefly occupied or besieged the city. During this period, the influence of the ''Pashas'', who

by then had mixed with the Songhay through intermarriage, never completely disappeared. The Massina Empire took control of Timbuktu in 1826, holding it until 1865, when they were driven away by El Hadj Umar Tall's Toucouleur Empire. Sources conflict on who was in control when the French colonizers arrived: a 1924 article in the ''Journal of the Royal African Society'' mentions the Tuareg,

in the Timbuktu Districts journal Journal of the Royal African Society volume 23 issue 90 pages 125–130 publisher Oxford University Press location Oxford year 1924 jstor 715389 ref harv the historian Elias N. Saad in 1983 suggests the Soninke Wangara, Under French rule


title social

: www.codesria.org IMG pdf The_Meanings_of_Timbuktu_-_Chapter_3_-_Before_Timbuktu__cities_of_the_elder_world.pdf accessdate 9 April 2012 * * Website of the MNLA


groups

Declaration of Independence independence was declared unilaterally by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) in 2012 after a Tuareg rebellion (Tuareg rebellion (2012)) drove the Malian Army (military of Mali) from the territory. Initially their effort was supported by various Islamist groups. Azawad, as claimed by the MNLA, comprises the Malian regions (Regions of Mali) of Timbuktu (Tombouctou Region), Kidal (Kidal Region), Gao (Gao Region), as well

articles 2012 04 06 205763.html publisher Al Arabiya title Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali date 6 April 2012 accessdate 6 April 2012 and the MNLA's claim to have ''de facto'' control of the Azawad region was disputed by both the Malian government and Islamist insurgent groups in the Sahara. At this time, a rift was developing with the Islamists.

2012 accessdate 28 July 2012 Following the collapse of the short-lived accord, the MNLA and Ansar Dine continued to clash, culminating in the Battle of Gao on 27 June, in which the Islamist groups Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Ansar Dine took control of the city, driving out the MNLA

Azawad

thumb Map of Azawad, as claimed by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad MNLA (File:Azawad in context.JPG). Dark grey dots indicate regions with a Tuareg (Tuareg people) majority. The west is mainly inhabited by Moors and the south by sub-Saharan (Sub-Saharan Africa) peoples.

'''Azawad''' (Tuareg (Tuareg languages): '') is a territory in northern Mali as well as a former short-lived (List of shortest-lived sovereign states) unrecognised (Diplomatic recognition) state. Its independence was declared unilaterally (Azawad Declaration of Independence) by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) in 2012 after a Tuareg rebellion (Tuareg rebellion (2012)) drove the Malian Army (military of Mali) from the territory. Initially their effort was supported by various Islamist groups.

Azawad, as claimed by the MNLA, comprises the Malian regions (Regions of Mali) of Timbuktu (Tombouctou Region), Kidal (Kidal Region), Gao (Gao Region), as well as a part of Mopti region,

On 6 April 2012, in a statement posted to its website, the MNLA declared "irrevocably" the independence of Azawad from Mali. In Gao on the same day, Bilal Ag Acherif, the secretary-general of the movement, signed the Azawadi Declaration of Independence, which also declared the MNLA as the interim administrators of Azawad until a "national authority" is formed.

On 26 May, the MNLA and its former co-belligerent Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state under sharia law.

On 14 February 2013, the MNLA renounced its claim of independence for Azawad and asked the Malian government to start negotiations on its future status. ANSA

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